Trucks are also classified more broadly by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which groups classes 1–2 as light duty, 3–6 as medium duty, and 7–8 as heavy duty; a commercial driver's license (CDL) is generally required to operate heavy duty trucks.
The medium-duty version of the Ford F-Series is a range of commercial trucks manufactured by Ford since 1948. Derived from the smaller F-Series pickup trucks, the medium-duty range is currently in its eighth generation. Initially slotted between the F-Series pickup trucks and the "Big Job" conventionals, later generations were slotted below the L-Series "Louisville" trucks; the last two generations are the largest vehicles produced by Ford since its exit from the heavy-truck segment. Throughout
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Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-19th century. The roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France an...
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first internal combustion truck. Later that year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become busses by Netphener. A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, the Daimler Motor Lastwagen. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, also built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with 5 or 8 horsepower (4 or 6 kW) engines. Tr...
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923.The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced diesel engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough that Autocar launched the "DC" model (diesel conventional) in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in...
Often produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used typically for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, and parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets, generally as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motorsmarkets a version of their Xebra electric tricycl...
Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini-trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles, usually with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs (in this case by Daihatsu) and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that often have very narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these small trucks serve a wide range of uses. In Japan, they are regulated under the Kei car laws, which allo...
Light trucks are car-sized (in the US, no more than 13,900 lb (6.3 t)) and are used by individuals and businesses alike. In the EU they may not weigh more than 3.5 t (7,700 lb) and are allowed to be driven with a driving licence for cars. Pickup trucks, called utes in Australia and New Zealand, are common in North America and some regions of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, but not so in Europe, where this size of commercial vehicle is most often made as vans.
Almost all trucks share a common construction: they are made of a chassis, a cab, an area for placing cargo or equipment, axles, suspension and roadwheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Pneumatic, hydraulic, water, and electrical systems may also be present. Many also tow one or more trailersor semi-trailers.
In many countries, driving a truck requires a special driving license. The requirements and limitations vary with each different jurisdiction.
Trucks contribute to air, noise, and water pollution similarly to automobiles. Trucks may[vague] emit lower air pollution emissions than cars per equivalent vehicle mass, although the absolute level per vehicle distance traveled is higher, and diesel exhaust is especially dangerous for health. EPA measures pollution from trucks. With respect to noise pollution, trucks emit considerably higher sound levels at all speeds compared to typical cars; this contrast is particularly strong with heavy-duty trucks. There are several aspects of truck operations that contribute to the overall sound that is emitted. Continuous sounds are those from tires rolling on the roadway and the constant hum of their diesel engines at highway speeds. Less frequent noises, but perhaps more noticeable, are things like the repeated sharp-pitched whistle of a turbocharger on acceleration, or the abrupt blare of an exhaust brake retarder when traversing a downgrade. There has been noise regulation put in place t...
A truck cab is a hazard control that protects the truck operator from hazardous airborne pollutants. As an enclosure, it is an example of an engineering control. Enclosed operator cabs have been used on agriculture, mining, and construction vehicles for several decades. Most modern-day enclosed cabs have heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for primarily maintaining a comfortable temperature and providing breathable air for their occupants. Various levels of filtration can be incorporated into the HVAC system to remove airborne pollutants such as dusts, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and other aerosols. Two key elements of an effective environmental enclosure are a good filtration system and an enclosure with good integrity (sealed isolation from the outside environment). It is recommended that a filtration system filter out at least 95% or greater of airborne respirable aerosols from the intake airflow, with an additional recirculation filtering component for...
Commercial trucks in the US pay higher road use taxes on a state level than other road vehicles and are subject to extensive regulation.A few reasons commercial trucks pay higher road use taxes: they are bigger and heavier than most other vehicles, and cause more wear and tear per hour on roadways; and trucks and their drivers are on the road for more hours per day. Rules on use taxes differ among jurisdictions.
Damage to pavement
The life of a pavement is measured by the number of passes of a vehicle axle. It may be evaluated using the Load Equivalency Factor,which states that the damage by the pass of a vehicle axle is proportional to the 4th power of the weight, so a ten-ton axle consumes 10,000 times the life of the pavement as a one-ton axle. For that reason, loaded trucks cost the same as thousands of cars in pavement costs, and are subject to higher taxes and highway tolls.
Primary liability insurance coverage protects the truck from damage or injuries to other people as a result of a truck accident. This truck insurance coverage is mandated by U.S. state and federal agencies, and proof of coverage is required to be sent to them. Interstate trucks in the U.S. are required to have a minimum of $75,000 in liability insurance. This includes motor carriers operating vehicles with a gross weight rating in excess of 10,000 lb (4.5 t) (which transport non-hazardous mat...
In 2002 and 2004, there were over 5,000 fatalities related to trucking accidents in the United States. The trucking industry has since made significant efforts in increasing safety regulations. In 2008, the industry had successfully lowered the fatality rate to just over 4,000 deaths, but trucking accidents are still an issue that causes thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Approximately 6,000 trucking accident fatalities occur annually in the United States. Fatalities are not the only...
HGV safety in the EU
In-vehicle speed limitation is required applying a 90 km/h limit to commercial vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. Front, side, and rear underrun protection is required on commercial vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. Trucks must be fitted with blind-spot mirrors that give drivers a wider field of vision than conventional mirrors.Truck at CurlieHutchinson, Rollin W., Jr. (January 1912). "Motor Trucks – The New Freighters: Quicker and More Reliable Service, Cleaner and Less Congested Cities, Concrete Examples of Saving". The World's Work:...
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In the United States, commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). The classes range from 1–8. Trucks are also classified more broadly by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which groups classes 1–2 as light duty, 3–6 as medium duty, and 7–8 as heavy duty; a commercial driver's license (CDL) is generally required to operate heavy duty trucks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a separate system of emissions classifications for trucks. The United States Census Bureaualso assigned classifications in its now-discontinued Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) (formerly Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS)).
Vehicle classifications vary among provinces in Canada, due to "differences in size and weight regulations, economic activity, physical environment, and other issues".:3 While several provinces use their own classification schemes for traffic monitoring, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan have adopted the 13-class system from the United States' Federal Highway Administration—sometimes with modifications, or in Ontario's case, for limited purposes.:3–4[needs update] British Columbia and Ontario also distinguish between short- and long-combination trucks.:3–4[needs update] In accident reporting, eight jurisdictions subdivide trucks by GVWR into light and heavy classes at approximately 4500 kg (9921 lb).:6
Vehicle categories on a European driving licence include (among others) B for general motor vehicles, C for large goods vehicles, Dfor large passenger vehicles (buses), and are limited by the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating and number of passenger seats. The general categories are further divided as follows: 1. appending the number 1to the licence class C or D denotes the "light" versions of said class (e.g., Minibus, or medium truck). 2. appending the letter Eallows for trailers of larger Gross Trailer Weight Rating (GTWR) than permitted by the standard licence category. For the "trailer" categories, a separate driving test is generally required (e.g., "C", and "CE" require separate tests). The classifications used on the International Driving Permitare similar to the European model. The licence categories that deal with trucks are B and C:Class 1 Light duty Toyota TacomaClass 2 2001 Ford Excursion 4×4 (GVWR: 8,600 pounds (3.9 t)Class 3 Ford F-350Class 4 2008 Ford F-4504×4 pick-up truck (GVWR: 14,500 pounds (6.6 t))Reducing CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles (European Union)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. A class 6 truck is a medium-duty truck as classified by the Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration .
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Previous use of name
In 1958, Ford introduced the Super Duty family of V8 engines. Built specifically for trucks, the 401, 477, and 534 cubic-inch gasoline V8s were the largest-block V8 engines ever built by Ford Motor Company (other than the 1100 cu in GAA, developed for the US Army as a tank powerplant; this however was a 'cut-down' V-12, with a 60° V-angle, and was not originally designed as a V-8), and were the largest mass-produced gasoline V8 engines in the world. To showcase the engine launch, the "Big Job...
Following the redesign of the 1997 Ford F-150, the Ford F-Series began a transition in its layout. In response to the changing demographics of pickup truck purchases during the 1980s and 1990s, Ford shifted the design of the F-150 separate from the larger F-250 and F-350 (which remained in production). While still a full-size pickup under the skin, to expand its appeal among consumers, the F-150 adopted carlike aerodynamics and convenience features. To market a truck that appealed towards com...
Beginning production in early 1998 for the 1999 model (the 1998 model year was skipped), the Ford F-Series Super Duty consisted of the F-250 pickup truck, F-350 pickup truck and chassis cab, and introduced the F-450 and F-550 chassis cab trucks (see below). The Super Duty trucks would be produced with three cab configurations: two-door standard cab, 2+2 door SuperCab, and four-door crew cab. The SuperCab configuration of the Super Duty marked the introduction of two standard rear-hinged doors on the extended cab, a feature also adopted by the F-150 and Ranger/Mazda B-Series for 1999. The standard cab pickup was produced with an 8-foot bed; SuperCab and crew cabs were produced with a 6 3/4-foot bed, with an 8-foot bed optional. Chassis cab models came with more and different bed length and wheelbase options, but with the same cabs. Two-wheel drive was standard, with four-wheel drive as an option; on F-350 pickup trucks, a dual rear-wheel axle was optional with either drive configurat...
The second-generation Super Duty was supposed to debut for model year 2007, but quality issues pushed it back to the 2008 model year. It features an all-new 6.4 L, 390.5 cu in Power Stroke Diesel V8 with piezo fuel injectors and sequential turbos to replace the problematic 6.0 L Power Stroke single-turbo Diesel V8. The new engine produces 350 hp (260 kW) and 650 ft⋅lbf (880 N⋅m) of torque.The vehicle had its first official showing at the Texas State Fair in 2006. Ford started taking orders in January 2007. The first 2008 F-450 pickup sold to the public, was delivered to Randy Whipple of Muskegon, Michigan in February 2007. Located near the same dash area as the last generation (but slightly to the right and more directly below the radio), this generation of Super Duty has the same Ford TowCommand TBC (Trailer Brake Controller) and 4 AUX Upfitter switches as the last generation set-up. There is an optional concealed slide-out step and swing-up hand grab bar in the rear tailgate for e...
The Super Duty line received a large exterior upgrade that includes a new, bigger front fascia. Its engines were also upgraded to better compete with the new Silverado HD and Ram HD. Ford stated in the 2011 Chicago Auto Show that the 2011 trucks have the thickest gauge steel frame of any Heavy Duty truck, this was due to frame being the same design that debuted in 1999. The 2011 Ford F-Series Super Duty was awarded Truckin's "Topline Pulling Power" award for 2011. It also won Popular Mechanics best workhorse of 2011, and the best "Gear of the Year" in the trucks category. The F-450 is able to tow 24,400 pounds (11,100 kg) and has a maximum payload of 4,920 pounds (2,230 kg). The F-350 has a maximum 21,600 pounds (9,800 kg) of towing capacity and 3,770–4,600 pounds (1,710–2,090 kg) of payload depending on configuration. Each engine is mated to a 6R140 heavy-duty TorqShift six-speed automatic transmission.The Ford F-250, the F-350 and the F-450 all come with trim levels including the...
On September 24, 2015, Ford unveiled the 2017 Ford Super Duty line at the 2015 State Fair of Texas. This marks the first all-new Super Duty line since their 1998 debut, the frame is made from 95% high strength steel and the body (like the F-150) is made from 6000 series aluminum alloy, advertised as a high-strength military grade aluminum alloy. For the first time since 1999, both the Super Duty and F-150 lines are constructed using the same cabto better compete with GM, Ram and Nissan's HD trucks. In a major departure, the stand-alone front grille and stepped front fenders seen since 1998 were eliminated from the exterior. The 2-bar grille introduced in 2011 was widened, integrating the headlights into its design. In a switch to an aluminum-intensive body similar to the F-150, Ford created a potential 700 lbs (318 kg) of weight savings; in spite of the addition of heavier-duty frame and driveline components, the 2017 Super Duty weighs in at up to 350 lbs (159 kg) less than comparab...
In 2000, Ford returned to the Class 6-7 truck market as it expanded the Super Duty line into the medium-duty segment. They developed a joint venture with Navistar Internationalknown as Blue Diamond Trucks, the F-650 and F-750 Super Duty were assembled in Mexico. While the chassis and other components would be common to both manufacturers, Ford and International would each source their own bodywork and powertrain; the cab for the Ford trucks would be common with other Super Duty models. For th...
From 2000 to 2005, the F-250 Super Duty served as a basis for the Ford Excursion sport-utility vehicle. Along with Chevrolet Suburban (and its Cadillac/GMC/Holden counterparts) and the International Harvester Travelall, the Ford Excursion was one of the longest non-limousine sport-utility vehicles ever sold. The Excursion was available in three trim packages, XLT, Limited, and top-of-the-line Eddie Bauer. It was offered in two or four wheel drive, and with three engine options: the 5.4L V8, t...
Minivans, cargo vans, SUVs, and pickup trucks, for example. Medium Trucks. Truck classification for medium trucks involves Classes 4, 5, and 6. That’s where commercial trucks start to show up. Classes 4 and 5 include some full-size trucks used non-commercially. Still, most of the medium-class vehicles are made and used for commercial purposes.