- 1. the quality or state of being true: "he had to accept the truth of her accusation" Similar Opposite
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Truth definition is - the body of real things, events, and facts : actuality. How to use truth in a sentence.
Define truth. truth synonyms, truth pronunciation, truth translation, English dictionary definition of truth. ) n. pl. truths ) 1. a. Conformity to fact or actuality ...
Truth means the actual state of a matter, an adherence to reality, or an indisputable fact. Truth has several other senses as a noun. The truth refers to the version of reality that we exist in. Putting it more simply, if you are “telling the truth,” you are describing the world as it actually is and not making things up or telling lies.
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Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality. In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherwise correspond to it, such as beliefs, propositions, and declarative sentences. Truth is usually held to be the opposite of falsehood.
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Truth, in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, the property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what is the case. Truth is the aim of belief; falsity is a fault. People need the truth about the world in order to thrive.
- The Neo-Classical Theories of Truth
- Tarski’s Theory of Truth
- Correspondence Revisited
- Realism and Anti-Realism
- Truth and Language
Much of the contemporary literature on truth takes as its startingpoint some ideas which were prominent in the early part of the 20thcentury. There were a number of views of truth under discussion atthat time, the most significant for the contemporary literature beingthe correspondence, coherence, and pragmatist theories of truth. These theories all attempt to directly answer the naturequestion: what is the nature of truth? They take this question atface value: there are truths, and the question to be answered concernstheir nature. In answering this question, each theory makes the notionof truth part of a more thoroughgoing metaphysics or epistemology.Explaining the nature of truth becomes an application of somemetaphysical system, and truth inherits significant metaphysicalpresuppositions along the way. The goal of this section is to characterize the ideas of thecorrespondence, coherence and pragmatist theories which animate thecontemporary debate. In some cases, the received forms...
Modern forms of the classical theories survive. Many of these moderntheories, notably correspondence theories, draw on ideas developed byTarski. In this regard, it is important to bear in mind that his seminal workon truth (1935) is very much of a piece with other works inmathematical logic, such as his (1931), and as much as anything thiswork lays the ground-work for the modern subject of model theory– a branch of mathematical logic, not the metaphysics of truth.In this respect, Tarski’s work provides a set of highly usefultools that may be employed in a wide range of philosophical projects.(See Patterson (2012) for more on Tarski’s work in itshistorical context.) Tarski’s work has a number of components, which we will considerin turn.
The correspondence theory of truth expresses the very natural ideathat truth is a content-to-world or word-to-world relation: what wesay or think is true or false in virtue of the way the world turns outto be. We suggested that, against a background like the metaphysics offacts, it does so in a straightforward way. But the idea ofcorrespondence is certainly not specific to this framework. Indeed, itis controversial whether a correspondence theory should rely on anyparticular metaphysics at all. The basic idea of correspondence, asTarski (1944) and others have suggested, is captured in the sloganfrom Aristotle’s MetaphysicsΓ 7.27, “tosay of what is that it is, or of what is not that it is not, istrue” (Ross, 1928). ‘What is’, it is natural enoughto say, is a fact, but this natural turn of phrase may well notrequire a full-blown metaphysics of facts. (For a discussion ofAristotle’s views in a historical context, see Szaif(2018).) Yet without the metaphysics of facts, the notion of cor...
The neo-classical theories we surveyed in section 1 made the theory oftruth an application of their background metaphysics (and in somecases epistemology). In section 2 and especially in section 3, wereturned to the issue of what sorts of ontological commitments mightgo with the theory of truth. There we saw a range of options, fromrelatively ontologically non-committal theories, to theories requiringhighly specific ontologies. There is another way in which truth relates to metaphysics. Many ideasabout realism and anti-realism are closely related to ideas abouttruth. Indeed, many approaches to questions about realism andanti-realism simply make them questions about truth.
We began in section 1 with the neo-classical theories, which explainedthe nature of truth within wider metaphysical systems. We thenconsidered some alternatives in sections 2 and 3, some of which hadmore modest ontological implications. But we still saw in section 4that substantial theories of truth tend to imply metaphysical theses,or even embodymetaphysical positions. One long-standing trend in the discussion of truth is to insist thattruth really does not carry metaphysical significance at all. It doesnot, as it has no significance on its own. A number of different ideashave been advanced along these lines, under the general heading ofdeflationism.
One of the important themes in the literature on truth is itsconnection to meaning, or more generally, to language. This has provedan important application of ideas about truth, and an important issuein the study of truth itself. This section will consider a number ofissues relating truth and language.
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