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  1. List of countries by system of government - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_countries_by

    1 day ago · In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister. Premier-presidential systems. The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence.

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  3. Federation - Wikipedia › wiki › Federation

    23 hours ago · It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state. France, for example, has been unitary for multiple centuries. Austria and its Länder was a unitary state with administrative divisions that became federated through the implementation of the Austrian Constitution following the 1918 collapse of Austria-Hungary.

  4. Constitutional monarchy - Wikipedia › wiki › Constitutional_monarchy

    23 hours ago · Nowadays a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy is considered to differ from one that is a republic only in detail rather than in substance. In both cases, the titular head of state—monarch or president—serves the traditional role of embodying and representing the nation, while the government is carried on by a cabinet ...

  5. Bulgaria - Wikipedia › wiki › Bulgaria

    1 day ago · Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, Bulgaria has been a unitary parliamentary republic composed of 28 provinces, with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. Bulgaria is a developing country, with an upper-middle-income economy, ranking very high in the Human Development Index.

  6. Norway - Wikipedia › wiki › Norway

    23 hours ago · As a unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution. The kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of many petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1, 149 years.

  7. England - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › England

    1 day ago · – on the European continent (green & dark grey) – in the United Kingdom (green) Status Country Capital and largest city London National language English Regional languages Cornish Ethnic groups (2011) 79.8% White British 4.6% White Other 2.6% Indian 2.3% Mixed 2.1% Pakistani 1.8% African 1.6% Asian Other 1.1% Caribbean 1.0% Irish 0.8% Bangladeshi 0.7% Chinese 0.6% Other 0.4% Arab Religion ...

  8. Burundi - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Burundi

    1 day ago · Burundi (officially called the Republic of Burundi) is a small country in Africa. The capital of Burundi is Gitega. The official languages of Burundi are Kirundi French and English. There are about eight and a half million people in Burundi. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world.

  9. Constitution of Cuba (1940) - Wikisource, the free online library › wiki › Constitution_of_Cuba_(1940)
    • Title I. Concerning The Nation, Its Territory, and Form of Government
    • Title II. Concerning Nationality
    • Title III. Concerning Alienage
    • Title IV. Fundamental Rights
    • Title v. Concerning The Family and Culture
    • Title VI. Concerning Labor and Property
    • Title VII. Concerning Suffrage and Public Offices
    • Title VIII. Concerning The Organs of The State
    • Title IX. Concerning The Legislative Power
    • Title X. Concerning Executive Power

    ART. 1. Cuba is an independent and sovereign State organized as a unitary and democratic Republic for the enjoyment of political freedom, social justice, individual and collective welfare, and human solidarity. ART. 2. Sovereignty resides in the people, and all public powers arise there from. ART. 3. The territory of the Republic consists of the island of Cuba, the Isle of Pines, and other adjacent islands and keys, which were under the sovereignty of Spain until the ratification of the Treaty of Paris on December 10th, 1898. The Republic shall not conclude or ratify pacts or treaties that in any form limit or menace national sovereignty or the integrity of the territory. ART. 4. The territory of the Republic is divided into Provinces, and the latter into municipalities. The existing Provinces are named: Pinar del Río, Havana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camagüey, and Oriente. ART. 5. The flag of the Republic is that of Narciso López that was raised in the Morro fortress of Havana on May...

    ART. 8. Citizenship carries with it duties and rights, the adequate exercise of which shall be regulated by law. ART. 9. Every Cuban is obliged: 1st. To bear arms for his Fatherland in the cases and in the form established by law. 2nd. To contribute to the public expenses in the form and to the amount provided by law. 3rd. To comply with the Constitution and the laws of the Republic and to observe good civic conduct, inculcating the principles thereof in his own children and in all those who may be under his protection, promoting in them a pure national conscience. ART. 10. A citizen has the right: 1st. To reside in his country without being made the object of any discrimination or duress, regardless of race, class, political opinions, or religious beliefs. 2nd. To vote, according to the provisions of the law, in the elections and referendums that may be held in the Republic. 3rd. To receive social assistance and public benefits with, in the former case, prior affirmation of need. 4...

    ART. 19. Aliens residing in the territory of the Republic shall be considered as equal to Cubans: 1st. With regard to the protection of their persons and their goods. 2nd. With regard to the enjoyment of rights recognized in this Constitution, with the exception of those granted exclusively to nationals. The Government, nevertheless, has the power to oblige an alien to leave the national territory in the cases and in the form stipulated by law. In the case of an alien who has a Cuban family established in Cuba, a judicial decree of expulsion is required, in conformity with the stipulations of the laws on this matter. The law shall regulate the organization of associations of aliens, without permitting discrimination against the rights of Cubans who may have membership in them. 3rd. With regard to the obligation of respecting the socio-economic system of the Republic. 4th. With regard to the obligation of observing the Constitution and the law. 5th. With regard to the obligation of c...

    FIRST SECTION. Concerning Individual Rights

    ART. 20. All Cubans are equal before the law. The Republic does not recognize exemptions or privileges. Any discrimination by reason of sex, race, color, or class, and any other kind of discrimination destructive of human dignity, is declared illegal and punishable. The law shall establish the penalties that violators of this provision shall incur. ART. 21. Penal laws shall have retroactive effect when favorable to the offender. This advantage is denied in cases of perpetration of fraud by pu...

    SECOND SECTION. Concerning Constitutional Guarantees

    ART. 41. The guarantee of the rights recognized in Articles 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 (first and second paragraphs), 32, 33, 36, and 37 (first paragraph) of this Constitution may be suspended in all or in part of the national territory, for a period not greater than forty-five calendar days, whenever the security of the State may require it, or in case of war or invasion of the national territory, grave disturbance of order, or other happenings profoundly disturbing the public tranquility. Suspensio...


    ART. 43. The family, motherhood, and marriage are under the protection of the State. Only marriages authorized by officials having legal capacity to effect them are valid. Civil marriage is gratuitous and shall be recognized by the law. Marriage is the legal basis of the family, and rests upon absolute equality of rights of both husband and wife. The economic relationship between husband and wife shall be regulated in accordance with this principle. The married woman enjoys the full advantage...


    ART. 47. Culture in all of its manifestations constitutes a primary interest of the State. Scientific investigation, artistic expression, and the publication of their results, as well as education, are, in this regard, free, without prejudice to the inspection and regulation by the State, established by law. ART. 48. Primary instruction is obligatory for minors of school age, and its dispensation shall be the obligation of the State, without lessening the co-operative responsibility falling t...


    ART. 60. Labor is an inalienable right of the individual. The State shall employ all the resources in its power to provide an occupation for everyone who lacks such, and shall assure the economic conditions necessary for a proper existence to every worker, manual or intellectual. ART. 61. Every worker, manual or intellectual, in public or private enterprise of the State, Province, or municipality shall have a guaranteed minimum salary or wage, which shall be determined in keeping with the con...

    SECOND SECTION. Property

    ART. 87. The Cuban State recognizes the existence and legitimacy of private property in the fullest concept of its social function, and with no further limitations than those that may be established by law for reasons of public necessity or social interest. ART. 88. The subsoil belongs to the State, which may make concessions for its exploitation, in conformity with what the law may establish. Mining property granted and not exploited within the period that the law may fix shall be declared n...

    FIRST SECTION. Suffrage

    ART. 97. Universal, equal, and secret suffrage is established as a right, duty, and function of all Cuban citizens. This function shall be obligatory, and all persons who, except because of obstacles admitted by law, fail to vote in an election or referendum, shall be subject to the penalties that the law may impose, and shall be deprived of the capacity to hold a judgeship or any public office during the two years following the date of the infraction. ART. 98. The people express their opinio...

    SECOND SECTION. Public Offices

    ART. 105. Officials, public workers, and employees are those who, on prior demonstration of capacity, and compliance with the other requirements and formalities established by law, may be designated by competent authority for the discharge of public duties or services, and who receive or do not receive a salary or wage charged to the budgets of the State, Province, or municipality, or autonomous bodies. ART. 106. The public, civil officials, employees, and workers of all the branches of the S...

    ART. 118. The State exercises its functions by means of the legislative, executive, and judicial powers and the organs recognized in the Constitution which, in conformity with the same, may be established by law. The Provinces and the municipalities, besides exercising their own functions, assist in the realization of the purposes of the State.

    FIRST SECTION. Concerning the Colegislative Bodies

    ART. 119. The legislative power is exercised by two bodies called respectively the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate, and which together receive the name of the Congress.

    SECOND SECTION. Concerning the Senate, Its Composition, and Its Powers and Duties

    ART. 120. The Senate is composed of nine Senators per Province, elected in each case for a term of four years by universal, equal, direct, secret suffrage, in a single day, and in the form that the law may prescribe. ART. 121. To be a Senator it is necessary: 1st. To be Cuban by birth. 2nd. To have reached thirty years of age. 3rd. To be in full enjoyment of civil and political rights. 4th. Not to have belonged to the armed forces of the Republic in active service during the two years immedia...

    THIRD SECTION. Concerning the Chancier of Representatives, Its Composition, and Powers and Duties

    ART. 123. The Chamber of Representatives shall be composed of one Representative for every 35,000 inhabitants or fraction greater than 17,500. Representatives shall be elected by Provinces for a term of four years by universal, equal, direct, and secret suffrage, in a single day, and in the form that the law may prescribe. The law shall determine the numerical basis of proportionality in each Province, in accordance with the latest official national census of population. The Chamber of Repres...

    FIRST SECTION. Concerning the Exercise of the Executive Power

    ART. 138. The President of the Republic is the chief of the State and represents the Nation. The executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic with the Council of Ministers, in accordance with what is established by this Constitution. The President of the Republic acts with directive power and as moderator of nations solidarity.

    SECOND SECTION. The President of the Republic, His Powers and Duties

    ART. 139. To be President of the Republic it is necessary: 1st. To be Cuban by birth, but if this status results from the provision in Clause (d) [i.e., 4th Clause] of Article 12 of this Constitution, it shall be necessary to have served with the armed forces of Cuba in the Wars of Independence for at least ten years. 2nd. To have reached thirty-five years of age. 3rd. To be in full enjoyment of civil and political rights. 4th. Not to have belonged to the armed forces of the Republic in activ...

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