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    Victor-Marie Hugo ( French: [viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo] ( listen); 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French Romantic writer and politician. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote in a variety of genres and forms. He is considered to be one of the greatest French writers of all time.

    • 1829–1883
    • Adèle Foucher, ​ ​(m. 1822; died 1868)​
  2. Apr 2, 2014 · Victor Hugo was a French poet and novelist who, after training as a lawyer, embarked on the literary career. He became one of the most important French Romantic poets, novelists and dramatists of...

    • Early Life
    • Early Poetry and Plays
    • First Novel and Further Writing
    • Writing While in Exile
    • Literary Styles and Themes
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • Sources

    Born in Besançon in Franche-Comté, a region in eastern France, Hugo was the third son born to Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trébuchet Hugo. He had two older brothers: Abel Joseph Hugo (born 1798) and Eugène Hugo (born 1800). Hugo’s father was a general in the French army and a fervent supporter of Napoleon. As a result of his military ca...

    Hugo began writing as a very young man, with his first publication coming in 1822, the same year as his marriage. His first collection of poetry, titled Odes et poésies diverses was published when he was only 20 years old. The poems were so admired for their elegant language and passion that they came to the attention of the king, Louis XVIII, and ...

    In 1831, Notre-Dame de Paris, known in English as The Hunchback of Notre Dame, was published; it was Hugo’s first full-length novel. It became a huge hit and was quickly translated into other languages for readers across Europe. The novel’s biggest legacy, though, was much more than literary. Its popularity led to a surge of interest in the real No...

    Hugo eventually settled in Guernsey, a small island under British jurisdiction in the English Channel off the French coast of Normandy. Although he did continue to write political content, including several anti-Napoleon pamphlets that were banned in France yet still managed to make an impact, Hugo went back to his roots with poetry. He produced th...

    Hugo covered a wide variety of literary themes throughout his career, ranging from politically charged content to much more personal writings. In the latter category, he wrote several of his most acclaimed poems about his daughter’s untimely death and his own grief. He expressed his concerns for the welfare of others and of historical institutions,...

    Hugo returned to France in 1870, but his life was never quite the same. He suffered a series of personal tragedies: the death of his wife and two sons, the loss of his daughter to an asylum, the death of his mistress, and he suffered a stroke himself. In 1881, he was honored for his contributions to French society; a street in Paris was even rename...

    Victor Hugo is widely considered an icon of French literature and culture, to the point where many French cities have streets or squares named after him. He is, certainly, among the most recognizable French writers, and his works continue to be widely read, studied, and adapted in the modern day. In particular, his novels The Hunchback of Notre Dam...

    Davidson, A.F. Victor Hugo: His Life and Work. University Press of the Pacific, 1912.
    Frey, John Andrew. A Victor Hugo Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press, 1999.
    Robb, Graham. Victor Hugo: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company, 1998.
    • Assistant Editor
  3. Victor Marie Vicomte Hugo was born in Besançon, France, on February 26, 1802, to Joseph Leopold Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trebuchet. He and his two older brothers, Abel and Eugène, lived with their mother in Paris, France, while their father, a general and the governor of the Italian province of Avellino, lived in Italy.

  4. Victor Hugo was among the most important cultural figures of his time. He was also acknowledged for his political work in shaping democracy and the Third Republic. He died on May 22, 1885, in Paris. His burial ceremony was that of a statesman, and his funeral procession was attended by an estimated one million people.

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