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  1. Sep 09, 2021 · Vladislav II of Wallachia accompanied John Hunyadi, who launched a campaign against the Ottoman Empire in September 1448. [30] [31] Taking advantage of his opponent's absence, Vlad broke into Wallachia at the head of an Ottoman army in early October.

    • October – November 1448
    • Vladislav II
    • 15 April 1456 – July 1462
    • Vladislav II
    • Early Reign
    • Conquest of Constantinople
    • Conquest of Serbia
    • Conquest of Morea
    • Conquest of Trebizond
    • Submission of Wallachia
    • Conquest of Bosnia
    • Ottoman-Venetian War
    • Anatolian Conquests
    • War with Moldavia

    Mehmed II was born on 30 March 1432, in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state. His father was Sultan Murad II (1404–1451) and his mother Hüma Hatun, a slave of uncertain origin. When Mehmed II was eleven years old he was sent to Amasya with his two lalas (advisors) to govern and thus gain experience, per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time. Sultan Murad II also sent a number of teachers for him to study under. This Islamic education had a great impact in molding Mehmed's mindset and reinforcing his Muslim beliefs. He was influenced in his practice of Islamic epistemology by practitioners of science, particularly by his mentor, Molla Gürani, and he followed their approach. The influence of Akshamsaddin in Mehmed's life became predominant from a young age, especially in the imperative of fulfilling his Islamic duty to overthrow the Byzantine empire by conquering Constantinople.[citation needed] After Murad II made peace with Hungary on June 12, 1444, he abdicated...

    When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he devoted himself to strengthening the Ottoman navy and made preparations for an attack on Constantinople. In the narrow Bosphorus Straits, the fortress Anadoluhisarı had been built by his great-grandfather Bayezid I on the Asian side; Mehmed erected an even stronger fortress called Rumelihisarı on the European side, and thus gained complete control of the strait. Having completed his fortresses, Mehmed proceeded to levy a toll on ships passing within reach of their cannon. A Venetian vessel ignoring signals to stop was sunk with a single shot and all the surviving sailors beheaded,except for the captain, who was impaled and mounted as a human scarecrow as a warning to further sailors on the strait. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the companion and standard bearer of Muhammad, had died during the first Siege of Constantinople (674–678). As Mehmed II's army approached Constantinople, Mehmed's sheikh Akshamsaddin discovered the tomb of Abu Ayyub...

    Mehmed II's first campaigns after Constantinople were in the direction of Serbia, which had been an Ottoman vassal state since the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. The Ottoman ruler had a connection with the Serbian Despotate – one of Murad II's wives was Mara Branković – and he used that fact to claim some Serbian islands. That Đurađ Branković had recently made an alliance with the Hungarians, and had paid the tribute irregularly, may have been important considerations. When Serbia refused these demands, the Ottoman army set out from Edirne towards Serbia in 1454. Smederevo was besieged, as was Novo Brdo, the most important Serbian metal mining and smelting center. Ottomans and Hungarians fought during the years till 1456. The Ottoman army advanced as far as Belgrade, where it attempted but failed to conquer the city from John Hunyadi at the Siege of Belgrade, on 14 July 1456. A period of relative peace ensued in the region until the Fall of Belgrade in 1521, during the reign of Mehmed's...

    The Despotate of the Morea bordered the southern Ottoman Balkans. The Ottomans had already invaded the region under Murad II, destroying the Byzantine defenses – the Hexamilion wall – at the Isthmus of Corinth in 1446. Before the final siege of Constantinople Mehmed ordered Ottoman troops to attack the Morea. The despots, Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos, brothers of the last emperor, failed to send any aid. Their own incompetence resulted in an Albanian-Greek revolt against them, during which they invited in Ottoman troops to help put down the revolt. At this time, a number of influential Moreote Greeks and Albanians made private peace with Mehmed. After more years of incompetent rule by the despots, their failure to pay their annual tribute to the Sultan, and finally their own revolt against Ottoman rule, Mehmed entered the Morea in May 1460. The capital Mistrafell exactly seven years after Constantinople, on 29 May 1460. Demetrios ended up a prisoner of the Ottomans a...

    Emperors of Trebizond formed alliances through royal marriages with various Muslim rulers. Emperor John IV of Trebizond married his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of support from the Turkish beys of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. The Ottomans were motivated to capture Trebizond or to get an annual tribute. In the time of Murad II they first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasyaattacked Trebizond, and although he was defeated, he took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute. After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of J...

    The Ottomans since the early 15th century tried to bring Wallachia (Ottoman Turkish: والاچیا‎) under their control by putting their own candidate on the throne, but each attempt ended in failure. The Ottomans regarded Wallachia as a buffer zone between them and the Kingdom of Hungary and for a yearly tribute did not meddle in their internal affairs. The two primary Balkan powers, Hungary and the Ottomans, maintained an enduring struggle to make Wallachia their own vassal. To prevent Wallachia from falling into the Hungarian fold, the Ottomans freed young Vlad III (Dracula), who had spent four years as a prisoner of Murad, together with his brother Radu, so that Vlad could claim the throne of Wallachia. His rule was short-lived, however, as Hunyadi invaded Wallachia and restored his ally Vladislav II, of the Dăneșticlan, to the throne. Vlad III Dracula fled to Moldavia, where he lived under the protection of his uncle, Bogdan II. In October 1451, Bogdan was assassinated and Vlad fled...

    The despot of Serbia, Lazar Branković, died in 1458, and a civil war broke out among his heirs that resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Serbia in 1459. Stephen Tomašević, son of the king of Bosnia, tried to bring Serbia under his control, but Ottoman expeditions forced him to give up his plan and Stephen fled to Bosnia, seeking refuge at the court of his father.After some battles, Bosnia became tributary kingdom to the Ottomans. On 10 July 1461, Stephen Thomas died, and Stephen Tomašević succeeded him as King of Bosnia. In 1461, Stephen Tomašević made an alliance with the Hungarians and asked Pope Pius II for help in the face of an impending Ottoman invasion. In 1463, after a dispute over the tribute paid annually by the Bosnian Kingdom to the Ottomans, he sent for help from the Venetians. However, none ever reached Bosnia. In 1463, Sultan Mehmed II led an army into the country. The royal city of Bobovac soon fell, leaving Stephen Tomašević to retreat to Jajce and later to Ključ. Me...

    According to the Byzantine historian Michael Critobulus, hostilities broke out after an Albanian slave of the Ottoman commander of Athens fled to the Venetian fortress of Coron (Koroni) with 100,000 silver aspers from his master's treasure. The fugitive then converted to Christianity, so Ottoman demands for his rendition were refused by the Venetian authorities. Using this as a pretext in November 1462, the Ottoman commander in central Greece, Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey, attacked and nearly succeeded in taking the strategically important Venetian fortress of Lepanto (Nafpaktos). On 3 April 1463, however, the governor of the Morea, Isa Beg, took the Venetian-held town of Argosby treason. The new alliance launched a two-pronged offensive against the Ottomans: a Venetian army, under the Captain General of the Sea Alvise Loredan, landed in the Morea, while Matthias Corvinus invaded Bosnia. At the same time, Pius II began assembling an army at Ancona, hoping to lead it in person. Negotiations...

    During the post-Seljuks era in the second half of the middle ages, numerous Turkmen principalities collectively known as Anatolian beyliks emerged in Anatolia. Karamanids initially centred around the modern provinces of Karaman and Konya, the most important power in Anatolia. But towards the end of the 14th century, Ottomans began to dominate on most of Anatolia, reducing the Karaman influence and prestige. İbrahim II of Karaman was the ruler of Karaman, and during his last years, his sons began struggling for the throne. His heir apparent was İshak of Karaman, the governor of Silifke. But Pir Ahmet, a younger son, declared himself as the bey of Karaman in Konya. İbrahim escaped to a small city in western territories where he died in 1464. The competing claims to the throne resulted in an interregnum in the beylik. Nevertheless, with the help of Uzun Hasan, the sultan of the Akkoyunlu (White Sheep) Turkmens, İshak was able to ascend to the throne. His reign was short, however, as Pi...

    In 1456, Peter III Aaron agreed to pay the Ottomans an annual tribute of 2,000 gold ducats to ensure his southern borders, thus becoming the first Moldavian ruler to accept the Turkish demands. His successor Stephen the Great rejected Ottoman suzerainty and a series of fierce wars ensued. Stephen tried to bring Wallachia under his sphere of influence and so supported his own choice for the Wallachian throne. This resulted in an enduring struggle between different Wallachian rulers backed by Hungarians, Ottomans, and Stephen. An Ottoman army under Hadim Pasha (governor of Rumelia) was sent in 1475 to punish Stephen for his meddling in Wallachia; however, the Ottomans suffered a great defeat at the Battle of Vaslui. Stephen inflicted a decisive defeat on the Ottomans, described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross against Islam,"[by whom?] with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side. Mara Brankovic (Mara Hatun), the forme...

    • August 1444 – September 1446
    • Murad II
    • 3 February 1451 – 3 May 1481
    • Murad II
  2. Sep 14, 2021 · Vlad’s father and brother are killed by Vladislav II with the support of the Ottoman Empire, and Vladislav takes control of Wallachia. Considered no threat as a deposed younger son, and having hidden his fouler education from the jailkeepers he has largely charmed, Vlad is allowed to leave as long as he vows never to take up arms against the ...

  3. Sep 16, 2021 · Vlad’s father and brother are killed by Vladislav II with the support of the Ottoman Empire, and Vladislav takes control of Wallachia. Considered no threat as a deposed younger son, and having hidden his fouler education from the jailkeepers he has largely charmed, Vlad is allowed to leave as long as he vows never to take up arms against the ...

  4. Sep 03, 2021 · Vlad vant tilbake sin fars sete, men hans tid som hersker av Wallachia var kortvarig. Han ble deponert etter bare to måneder, da Vladislav II kom tilbake og tok tilbake Wallachias trone med hjelp av Hunyadi, ifølge Curta. Det er lite kjent om Vlad IIIs oppholdssted mellom 1448 og 1456.

    • de Echte Dracula
    • Orde Van de Draak
    • Jaren Van Gevangenschap
    • Vlad de Prins
    • Vlad de Spietser
    • Vlad's Dood

    Door de meeste verslagen, werd Vlad III geboren in 1431 in wat nu Transsylvanië is, de centrale regio van het hedendaagse Roemenië. Echter, de link tussen Vlad de Spietser en Transsylvanië is vaag, volgens Florin Curta, een professor in de middeleeuwse geschiedenis en archeologie aan de Universiteit van Florida. "[Stoker's] Dracula is gekoppeld aan Transylvania, maar de echte, historische Dracula - Vlad III - heeft nooit iets in Transsylvanië gehad," vertelde Curta aan WordsSideKick.com. Bran Castle, een moderne toeristische attractie in Transsylvanië, dat vaak wordt aangeduid als het kasteel van Dracula, was nooit de residentie van de prins Walachij, voegde hij eraan toe. "Omdat het kasteel in de bergen in dit mistige gebied ligt en het er griezelig uitziet, is het wat men zou verwachten van het kasteel van Dracula," zei Curta. "Maar hij [Vlad III] heeft er nooit gewoond, hij heeft daar zelfs nooit voet gezet." Vlad III's vader, Vlad II, had een woning in Sighişoara, Transsylvanië,...

    In 1431 nam koning Sigismund van Hongarije, die later de heilige Romeinse keizer zou worden, de oudste Vlad in in een ridderorde, de Orde van de Draak. Deze aanduiding leverde Vlad II een nieuwe achternaam op: Dracul. De naam kwam van het oude Roemeense woord voor draak, "drac." Zijn zoon, Vlad III, zou later bekend staan ​​als de "zoon van Dracul" of, in het oude Roemeens, Drăculea, vandaar Dracula. In het moderne Roemeens verwijst het woord "drac" naar een ander gevreesd wezen - de duivel, zei Curta. Volgens "Dracula: Sense and Nonsense" van Elizabeth Miller las Stoker in 1890 een boek over Wallachia. Hoewel het Vlad III niet vermeldde, werd Stoker getroffen door het woord 'Dracula'. Hij schreef in zijn aantekeningen: "in Walachijse taal betekent DUIVEL." Het is daarom waarschijnlijk dat Stoker koos om zijn personage Dracula te noemen vanwege de duivelse associaties van het woord. De theorie dat Vlad III en Dracula dezelfde persoon waren, werd ontwikkeld en gepopulariseerd door hi...

    Toen Vlad II in 1442 werd opgeroepen voor een diplomatieke ontmoeting met de Ottomaanse Sultan Murad II, bracht hij zijn jonge zonen Vlad III en Radu mee. Maar de bijeenkomst was eigenlijk een valstrik: alle drie werden gearresteerd en gegijzeld. De oudste Vlad werd vrijgelaten onder de voorwaarde dat hij zijn zonen achterlaat. "De sultan hield Vlad en zijn broer vast als gijzelaars om ervoor te zorgen dat hun vader, Vlad II, zich gedroeg in de voortdurende oorlog tussen Turkije en Hongarije," zei Miller, een onderzoekshistoricus en professor emeritus aan de Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada. Onder de Ottomanen, werden Vlad en zijn jongere broer begeleid in wetenschap, filosofie en de kunsten. Vlad werd ook een ervaren ruiter en krijger, volgens Radu Florescu en Raymond McNally, voormalige professoren van de geschiedenis aan het Boston College, die verschillende boeken over Vlad III - evenals zijn vermeende connectie met Stoker's Dracula - in de jaren 70 en 80 van de vor...

    Terwijl Vlad en Radu in Ottomaanse handen waren, vocht de vader van Vlad om zijn plaats te behouden als voivode van Walachije, een gevecht dat hij uiteindelijk zou verliezen. In 1447 werd Vlad II verdreven als heerser van Walachije door plaatselijke edellieden (boyars) en werd gedood in de moerassen nabij Bălteni, halverwege Târgovişte en Boekarest in het huidige Roemenië. De oudere halfbroer van Vlad, Mircea, werd naast zijn vader gedood. Niet lang na deze schokkende gebeurtenissen, begon Vlad in 1448 aan een campagne om zijn vaders stoel te herwinnen van de nieuwe heerser, Vladislav II. Zijn eerste poging tot de troon was volgens Curta gebaseerd op de militaire steun van de Ottomaanse gouverneurs van de steden langs de rivier de Donau in het noorden van Bulgarije. Vlad maakte ook gebruik van het feit dat Vladislav in die tijd afwezig was, omdat hij naar de Balkan was gegaan om de Ottomanen te verslaan voor de toenmalige gouverneur van Hongarije, John Hunyadi. Vlad won zijn vaders...

    Om zijn macht als voivode te consolideren, moest Vlad de onophoudelijke conflicten ondermijnen die zich historisch hadden voorgedaan tussen de jongens van Walachije. Volgens legendes die na zijn dood circuleerden, nodigde Vlad honderden van deze boyars uit voor een banket en - wetende dat ze zijn autoriteit zouden uitdagen - hadden zijn gasten gestoken en hun nog steeds trillende lichamen spietsen tegen spikes. Dit is slechts een van de vele gruwelijke gebeurtenissen die Vlad zijn postume bijnaam Vlad de Spietser opleverde. Dit verhaal - en anderen vinden het leuk - is gedocumenteerd in gedrukt materiaal rond de tijd van de regel van Vlad III, volgens Miller. "In de jaren 1460 en 1470, vlak na de uitvinding van de drukpers, circuleerden veel van deze verhalen over Vlad mondeling en werden ze door verschillende personen in pamfletten samengesteld en afgedrukt", aldus Miller. Of deze verhalen volledig waar zijn of aanzienlijk verfraaid, is discutabel, voegde Miller eraan toe. Immers,...

    Niet lang na de impalement van Ottomaanse krijgsgevangenen, werd Vlad in augustus 1462 gedwongen in ballingschap te gaan in Hongarije, niet in staat om zijn veel machtigere tegenstander, Mehmet II, te verslaan. Vlad werd tijdens zijn ballingschap een aantal jaren gevangengezet, hoewel hij in diezelfde tijd trouwde en twee kinderen kreeg. De jongere broer van Vlad, Radu, die tijdens de aanhoudende militaire campagnes de Ottomanen had gekozen, nam het bestuur van Walachije over na de gevangenschap van zijn broer. Maar na de dood van Radu in 1475, steunden lokale boyars, evenals de heersers van verschillende nabijgelegen vorstendommen, Vlad's terugkeer aan de macht. In 1476, met de steun van de voivode van Moldavië, Stephen III de Grote (1457-1504), deed Vlad nog een laatste poging om zijn zetel als heerser van Walachije terug te vorderen.Hij stal met succes de troon terug, maar zijn triomf was van korte duur. Later dat jaar, tijdens het marcheren naar nog een gevecht met de Ottomanen,...

  5. Aug 25, 2021 · Pagkalipas ng isang taon, pinatay ng mga maharlika ng Wallachia si Vladislav II kasama ang kanyang kuya na si Vlad. At pinalaya ng mga Turko si Tepes na may balak na ilagay siya sa trono. Ngunit pinasiyahan niya nang hindi hihigit sa ilang buwan - tumakas siya, hindi makatiis sa presyon ng gobernador na si Janos Hunyadi.

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