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West Berlin (German: Berlin (West) or West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.Although no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", 1949 is widely accepted as when the name was adopted.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Berlin
West Berlin (German: Berlin (West) or West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.Although no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", 1949 is widely accepted as when the name was adopted.
West Berlin, the western half of the German city of Berlin (q.v.), which until the reunification of the German state in 1990 was treated as a city and Land (state) of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), though it was not constitutionally part of that nation. Read More on This Topic
In the late 60s and 70s, West Berlin was one of the strongholds of the student movement against the rigid structures of post-war society. The Vietnam War led many students to adopt a critical attitude against America which stood in sharp contrast to older West Berliners who tended to see the Allies as friends and protectors.
West Berlin was the name of the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. It was the American, British, and French occupied sectors that were created in 1945. In many ways it was integrated (joined) with West Germany, but it was not a part of West Germany or East Germany.
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- Legal Status
- Naming Conventions
- Period Following The Building of The Wall
- Boroughs of West Berlin
- Post and Telecommunications
- Transport and Transit Travel
The Potsdam Agreement established the legal framework for the occupation of Germany in the wake of World War II. According to the agreement, Germany would be formally under the administration of the four major wartime Allies—the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union—until a German government acceptable to all parties would be established. The territory of Germany, as it existed in 1937, would be reduced by most of Eastern Germany thus creating the former eastern territories of Germany. The remaining territory would be divided into four zones, each administered by one of the allied countries. Berlin, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone of occupation—newly established in most of Middle Germany—would be similarly divided, with the Western Allies occupying an enclave consisting of the western parts of the city. According to the agreement, the occupation of Berlin would end only as a result of a quadripartite agreement. The Western Allies were guaranteed thr...
According to the legal theory followed by the Western Allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in 1949 with the declaration of the Federal Republic of Germany (23 May 1949) and the German Democratic Republic (7 October 1949). However, because the occupation of Berlin could only be ended by a quadripartite agreement, Berlin remained an occupied territory under the formal sovereignty of the allies. Hence, the Grundgesetz (the constitution of the Federal Republic) was not fully applicable to West Berlin.When on 4 August 1950 the West Berlin parliament passed a new constitution (Verfassung von Berlin), declaring Berlin a state of the Federal Republic and the provisions of the Grundgesetz as binding law superior to Berlin state law (Article 1, clauses 2 and 3) this became statutory law only on 1 September and only with the inclusion of the western Allied proviso that Art. 1, clauses 2 and 3, were not valid (literally in German: zurückgestellt, i.e. deferred for the time being; the...
While East Germany established an East German citizenship as part of its second constitutionin 1967, a distinct West German citizenship did not exist. Instead, West Germany continued the definition of pre-World War II German citizenship for all ethnic or naturalised Germans in West Germany, East Germany or any part of Berlin. So while West Berlin was not unanimously regarded as part of the Federal Republic, its citizens were treated like West German citizens by West German authorities, save for the limitations imposed by West Berlin's legal status. This meant that West Berliners could circumvent some of these limitations if they had a second home in West Germany proper. For example, they could vote in Bundestag elections and they could be conscripted into West German military service.
The Federal Republic of Germany issued West German passports to West Berliners on request that showed West Berlin as their place of residence. However, West Berliners could not use their passports for crossing East German borders and were denied entrance by any country of the Eastern Bloc, since governments of these countries held the view that West Germany was not authorised to issue legal papers for West Berliners. However, West Berliners travelling with West German passports carrying a secondary address in West Germany were treated as West Germans by the East German authorities.Since West Berlin was not a sovereign state, it did not issue passports. West Berliners were issued an auxiliary identity card (German: Behelfsmäßiger Personalausweis) by the city state of Berlin (West) that was devoid of any West German federal symbols and did not indicate citizenship. From 11 June 1968, East Germany made it mandatory that West Berlin and West German transit passengers obtain a transit vi...
Most Westerners called the Western sectors "Berlin", unless further distinction was necessary. The West German Federal government officially called West Berlin "Berlin (West)", whereas the East German government commonly referred to it as "Westberlin"; it began to use "Berlin (West)" only in the late 1980s. Starting from 31 May 1961, East Berlin was officially called Berlin, Capital of the GDR (German: Berlin, Hauptstadt der DDR), replacing the formerly used term Democratic Berlin), or simply "Berlin," by East Germany, and "Berlin (Ost)" by the West German Federal government. Other names used by West German media included "Ost Berlin", "Ostberlin", or "Ostsektor". These different naming conventions for the divided parts of Berlin when followed by individuals, governments, or media commonly indicated their political leanings.
On 26 June 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner". The Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971) and the Transit Agreement (May 1972) helped to significantly ease tensions over the status of West Berlin. While many restrictions remained in place, it also made it easier for West Berliners to travel to East Germany and it simplified the regulations for Germans travelling along the autobahntransit routes. At the Brandenburg Gate in 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan provided a challenge to the then-Soviet premier: "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" On 9 November 1989, the Wall was opened, and the two parts of the city were once again physically—though at this point not legally—united. The Two...
West Berlin comprised the following boroughs: In the American Sector: 1. Neukölln 2. Kreuzberg 3. Schöneberg 4. Steglitz 5. Tempelhof 6. Zehlendorf In the British Sector: 1. Charlottenburg 2. Tiergarten 3. Wilmersdorf 4. Spandau In the French Sector: 1. Reinickendorf 2. Wedding
Furthermore the Gatow/Staaken exchange in August 1945 resulted in the geographically western half of Berlin-Staaken, which was located at the western outskirts of the city, becoming de jure Soviet occupied. However, the de facto administration remained with the Borough of Spandau in the British sector. So all inhabitants of Staaken could vote for West Berlin's city state elections in 1948 and 1950. On 1 February 1951 East German Volkspolizei surprised the West Staakeners and occupied western Staaken and ended the administration by the Spandau Borough; instead, western Staaken became an exclave of the Soviet occupied borough Berlin-Mitte in the city centre. However, on 1 June 1952, western Staaken's de facto administration was conveyed to neighbouring East German Falkensee in the East German district Nauen. This situation was undone on 3 October 1990, the day of German unification, when West Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin. Under the Four Power Agreement on Berlinin 197...
West Berlin had its own postal administration first called Deutsche Post Berlin (1947–1955) and then Deutsche Bundespost Berlin, separate from West Germany's Deutsche Bundespost, and issuing its own postage stamps until 1990. However, the separation was merely symbolic; in reality West Berlin's postal service was completely integrated with West Germany's, using the same postal code system. East and West engaged each other in postal battles in 1948/1949 (during the Blockade) and 1959/1960 (World Year of the Refugees) refusing to transport messages with stamps showing values in the new East or West German currency or with special stamps showing subjects related to the Blockade or the fate of the World War II refugees.The Post Office also ran the telephone network in Berlin. It was in a sorry state in all four sectors, because by July 1945, before the Western Allies took control of their sectors, the Soviets had dismantled and deported almost all automatic telephone switches, allowing...
West Berliners could travel to West Germany and all Western and non-aligned states at all times, except during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union (24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949), due to restrictions on passenger flight capacity imposed by the airlift. Travelling to and from West Berlin by road or train always required passing through East German border checks, since West Berlin was an enclavesurrounded by East Germany and East Berlin.
West Berlin, Anchorage, Alaska. 2,125 likes · 15 talking about this · 3,136 were here. At West Berlin we pride ourselves on our made from scratch German dishes, which are married to the best beer...
The existence of West Berlin, a conspicuously capitalist city deep within communist East Germany, “stuck like a bone in the Soviet throat,” as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev put it. The Russians...
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The M ission of West Berlin Presbyterian Church is to follow God’s law and act in true faith by being a welcoming place where community members come to learn, take part in worship, find fellowship, and serve those in need, for the glory of God. Please join us for worship each Sunday morning...
Aug 11, 2020 · Berlin is divided Shortly after midnight on this day in 1961, East German soldiers begin laying down barbed wire and bricks as a barrier between Soviet-controlled East Berlin and the democratic...
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