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Dec 04, 2021 · Download. Essay, Pages 8 (1890 words) Views. 123. In Margaret Atwood’s chilling novel “Oryx and Crake”, the readers are sent into a backwards spiral to a tragic catastrophic event while its full dimensions are slowly revealed, Jimmy is the apparent last human on Earth, making his way back to the Rejuven-Essence Compound for supplies.
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In late July 1914 the Viennese press circulated a message published by Austria's first major women's group, the Frauenhifsaktion Wien, appealing to "Austria's women" to perform their duties to the nation and take part in the war effort. Women would be expected to provide much of the necessary manpower during this time and, depending on social class, some would even take part in the leadership of local communities in Austria. Viktoria Savs served as a soldier in the Imperial Austrian army in the guise of a man and was awarded with the Medal for Bravery (Austria-Hungary)for valor in combat for her service in the Dolomitian front.
In the military
Women volunteered to serve in the military in special women-only corps; by the end of the war, over 80,000 had enlisted. Many served as nurses, in the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS), the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) founded in 1907, the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) or the Territorial Force Nursing Service. Other corps were created to release men from non-combatant roles in the armed forces: in 1917 the Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and the Women...
Large numbers of women worked in the munitions industry, leaving when the industry reduced at the end of the war. They volunteered for patriotism and the money, with wages often double what they had previously made. Women working in these munitions factories were called "Munitionettes", or were nicknamed "Canaries", because of the yellow skin which came from working with toxic chemicals. Women working in munitions factories were mainly from working class families, between the ages of 18 and 2...
Propaganda, in the form of posters to encouraged women to work in factories, did not show the more dangerous aspects of wartime labour conditions, but appealed to women to join the workforce and play their part in the war. Other posters were designed to encourage women to persuade their men to join the armed forces. One poster has a romantic setting as the women look out of an open window as the soldiers march off to war. The poster possesses a romantic appeal when, in reality, many women end...
In the 1918 Finnish Civil War, more than 2,000 women fought in the Women's Red Guards formed in early February with more than 15 female guard units. As the commanders of the Red Guard were reluctant to commit female guards to combat, and most of the female guards were held in reserve for much of the civil war, only seeing combat towards the end of the war, in battles such as the Battle of Tampere where the city hall was held by the last pockets of Red Guard resistance. At the end of the civil war over 755 Red Guard women had died, with only 70 to 130 of them killed on the battlefield, over 20% or 400 to 500 members would be executed by the anti-communist White Guard victors and 80 to 110 died in prison camps with 150 to 200 members AWOL. Thus, while Finnish women's military units were planned during the First World War, it was only during the Finnish Civil War that they were actually formed, by the Red Guard.
Women had limited front line roles, being nurses and providing a subsidiary work force of emergency medical personnel. This was in response to the lack of manpower available since the empire was battling on multiple fronts, forcing the conscription of most of its male population. This medical workforce of women was made possible through organizations created by the government and international organizations, such as the Red Cross. Women such as Safiye Huseyin risked her life working on the Resit Pasa Hospital Ship for wounded soldiers. This ship took in wounded Ottoman soldiers from the Dardanelles and was oftentimes bombarded by enemy planes and other ships. Women were also given limited roles in employment positions by the IOEW (Islamic Organization for the Employment of Women), an organization formed in 1916 with the aim to "protect women by finding them work and by making them accustomed to making a living in an honorable way". This was a necessary step to find workers to contin...
The only belligerent to deploy female combat troops in substantial numbers was the Russian Provisional Government in 1917. Its few "Women's Battalions" fought well, but failed to provide the propaganda value expected of them and were disbanded before the end of the year. In the later Russian Civil War, the Bolshevikswould also employ women infantry.
Examples of women serving in the Serbian army: soldiers and foreigners Flora Sandes and Leslie Joy Whitehead and soldier Sofija Jovanović, sergeant Milunka Savić, Antonija Javornik, and sergeant Slavka Tomić all serving with distinction. A number of women such as Milunka Savić were present and took part during the Battle of Crna Bend in 1916, this would be the battle in which Milunka famously captured 23 soldiers single-handedly. Also includes a limited role for women volunteers as nurses during the war as well as in manufacturing roles outside the front lines. During the Great War, Serbia could be considered a country of women with a far greater number of women compared to men, Serbian census in 1910 showed there were 100 females per 107 males but by the time of the Austro-Hungarian census in 1916 there were 100 females per sixty-nine males, many of the men gone from the census just a short six years later were killed in combat, involved in the war effort or interned in camps. This...
In the military
During the course of the war, 21,498 U.S. Army nurses (American military nurses were all women then) served in military hospitals in the United States and overseas. Many of these women were positioned near to battlefields, and they tended to over a million soldiers who had been wounded or were unwell. 272 U.S. Army nurses died of disease (mainly tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumonia). Eighteen African-American Army nurses served stateside caring for German prisoners of war (POWs) and African...French Madame Arnaud, widow of an army officer, organized the Volunteer Corps of French and Belgian Women for National Defense.Maria Bochkareva (Russian: Мария Леонтьевна Бочкарева), née Frolkova, nicknamed Yashka, was a Russian woman who fought in the war and formed the Women's Battalion of Deathin 1917.British nurse Edith Cavellhelped treat injured soldiers of both sides, in German-occupied Belgium. She was executed in 1915 by the Germans for helping British soldiers escape Belgium.Mabel Grouitch, an American nurse who worked with the Red Cross. In 1914 she led a group of nurses from the United Kingdom to Serbia, including Flora Sandes.Atwood, Kathryn (1 June 2014). Women Heroes of World War I: 16 Remarkable Resisters, Soldiers, Spies, and Medics. Chicago Review Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-1-61374-689-9.Janet Lee, I Wish My Mother Could See Me Now: The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (Fany) *Janet Lee, "Negotiation of Gender and Class Relations, 1907-1918," NWSA Journal,(2007) pp. 138–158.
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