- Dogs were just a loose category of wolves until around 15,000 years ago, when our ancestors tamed and began to manage them. We fed them, bred them, and spread them from continent to continent. While other wolf descendants died out, dogs grew into a new species.
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3 days ago · The dog diverged from a now-extinct population of wolves 27,000-40,000 years ago immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum, when much of the mammoth steppe was cold and dry. The origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's genetic divergence from the wolf, its domestication, and the emergence of the first dogs.
3 days ago · The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the evolutionary lineage of the modern human species, Homo sapiens, throughout the history of life, beginning some 4.2 billion years ago down to recent evolution within H. sapiens during and since the Last Glacial Period.
- Domestication of Dogs
- Examples in Agriculture
- Disadvantages of Selective Breeding
One of the earliest examples of selective breeding is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), which humans have been breeding for at least 14,000 years.2 Scientists believe that the domestic dog evolved from the wild gray wolf (Canis lupus), and through artificial selection, humans were able to create hundreds of different dog breeds.3 As people domesticated and bred dogs over time, they favored specific traits, like size or intelligence, for certain tasks, such as hunting, shepherding, or companionship. As a result, many dog breeds have vastly different appearances. Think of the Chihuahua and the Dalmatian — they're both dogs, but they share few physical attributes. This degree of difference in a single species is a unique phenomenon in the animal world.
Selective breeding has also been practiced in agriculture for thousands of years.1Almost every fruit and vegetable eaten today is a product of artificial selection.
Without selective breeding, many of the plants and animals on earth today would not exist. However, there are some disadvantages of artificial selection, especially in the case of inbreeding. Through inbreeding, two closely related organisms reproduce to yield a purebred with desired traits. However, these organisms may also have undesirable traits due to recessive genes found in both parents. Thus, purebred dogs are sometimes born with health defects like hip dysplasia and have shorter life spans than other mixed-breed dogs.10
Sep 07, 2021 · Experts think dogs have gradually evolved over 30,000 years to understand humans. Selective breeding has meant those which could communicate better with their owners were preferred, encouraging ...
Sep 08, 2021 · Animal testing in the United States is regulated by the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA), passed in 1966 and amended in 1970, 1976, and 1985. [ 27] The AWA defines “animal” as “any live or dead dog, cat, monkey (nonhuman primate mammal), guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or such other warm blooded animal.”. The AWA excludes birds, rats and ...