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      • Wikipedia was started on January 10, 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger as part of an earlier online encyclopedia named Nupedia. On January 15, 2001, Wikipedia became a separate website of its own. It's a wiki that runs using the software MediaWiki (like all other Wikimedia Foundation projects).
  1. 1 day ago · John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator who served as the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. He was appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935 ...

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kievan_Rus&Kievan Rus' - Wikipedia

    15 hours ago · Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic: Роусь, romanized: Rusĭ, or роусьскаѧ землѧ, romanized: rusĭskaę zemlę, "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation of East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic peoples in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik.

    • Old Testament
    • Intertestamental Texts
    • New Testament
    • Christian Teachings
    • History
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    • Theological Disputes
    • Iconography and Literature
    • See Also

    Satan in the Old Testament

    The original Hebrew term śāṭān (Hebrew: שָּׂטָן‎) is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or "adversary", which is used throughout the Hebrew Bible to refer to ordinary human adversaries, as well as a specific supernatural entity. The word is derived from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose". When it is used without the definite article (simply satan), the word can refer to any accuser, but when it is used with the definite article (ha-satan), it usually refers specifically to the heave...

    Identified with the Devil

    Some parts of the Bible, which do not originally refer to an evil spirit or Satan, have been retrospectively interpreted as references to the devil.

    Belial

    The term belial (בְלִיַּעַל‎, bĕli-yaal) with the broader meaning of worthlessness is used through the Old Testament to denote those who are against God or at least against God's order. In Deuteronomy 13:14 those who tempt people into worshiping something other than Yahweh are related to belial. In 1 Samuel 2:12, the sons of Eli are called belial for not recognizing Yahweh and therefore violating sacrifice rituals. In Psalm 18:4 and Psalm 41:8, belial appears in the context of death and disea...

    Although not part of the canonical Bible, intertestamental writings shaped the early Christian worldview and influenced the interpretation of the Biblical texts. Until the third Century, Christians still referred to these stories to explain the origin of evil in the world. The Book of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees are still accepted as canonical by the Ethiopian Church. Many Church Fathers accepted this view about fallen angels, though they excluded Satan from these angels. Satan instead, fell after tempting Eve in the Garden of Eden.

    Gospels

    The devil figures much more prominently in the New Testament and in Christian theology than in the Old Testament and Judaism. The New Testament records numerous accounts of the devil working against God and his plan. Although in later Christian theology, the devil and his fellow fallen angels are often merged into one category of demonic spirits, the devil is a unique entity throughout the New Testament.The devil is not only a tempter but perhaps rules over the kingdoms of earth. In the tempt...

    Acts and epistles

    The Epistle of Jude makes reference to an incident where the Archangel Michael argued with the Devil over the body of Moses. According to the First Epistle of Peter, "Like a roaring lion your adversary the devil prowls around, looking for someone to devour." The authors of the Second Epistle of Peter and the Epistle of Jude believe that God prepares judgment for the devil and his fellow fallen angels, who are bound in darkness until the Divine retribution. In the Epistle to the Romans the ins...

    Revelation

    The Book of Revelation describes a battle in heaven (Rev 12:7–10) between a dragon/serpent "called the devil, or Satan" and the archangel Michael resulting in the former's fall. Here, the devil is described with features similar to primordial chaos monsters, like the Leviathan in the Old Testament. The image of a serpent identified with Satan verified the identification with the devil and the serpent in Genesis. Thomas Aquinas, Rupert of Deutz and Gregory the Great(among others) interpreted t...

    Christian tradition and theology identified the myth about a rising star, thrown into the underworld, told about a Babylonian king in the Bible (Isaiah 14:12) with a fallen angel. The concept of fallen angels is of pre-Christian origin. They appear in writings like the Book of Enoch, Book of Jubilees and arguably in the Pentateuch. As personification of evil, Christians have understood the Devil to be the author of lies and promoter of evil. However, the Devil can go no further than God allows, resulting in the problem of evil. Christian scholars had different opinions on the reason behind evil in the world, and often explained evil in relation to the devil. The Devil is often identified with Satan, the accuser in the Book of Job.Only rarely, Satan and the Devil are depicted as separate entities. Liberal Christianity often views the Devil metaphorically. This is true of some Conservative Christian groups too, such as the Christadelphians and the Church of the Blessed Hope. Much of t...

    Early Christianity

    The notion of fallen angels already existed in Pre-Christian times, but had no unified narrative. In 1 Enoch, Azazel and his host of angels came to earth in human shape and taught forbidden arts resulting in sin. In the Apocalypse of Abraham Azazel is described with his own Kavod (Magnificence), a term usually used for the Divine in apocalyptic literature, already indicating the devil as anti-thesis of God, with the devil's kingdom on earth and God's kingdom in heaven. In the Life of Adam and...

    Byzantium

    Byzantine understanding of the devil derives mostly from the fathers of the first five centuries. Due to the focus on monasticsm, mysticism and negative theology, which were more unifying than Western traditions, the devil played only a marginal role in Byzantine theology. Within such monistic cosmology, evil was considered as a deficiency having no real ontological existence. Thus the devil became the entity most remote from God, as described by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. John Climacus...

    Anglo-Saxon period

    Although the teachings of Augustine, who rejected the Enochian writings and associated the devil with pride instead of envy, are usually considered the fundamental depictions of the devil in Medieval Christianity, some concepts, like regarding evil as the mere absence of good, were far too sophisticated to be represented by most theologians during the Anglo-Saxon period. They sought a more concrete image of evil to represent spiritual struggle and pain, so the devil became more of a concrete...

    Catholicism

    The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the Church regards the Devil as being created as a good angel by God, and by his and his fellow fallen angels' free will, fell out of God's grace. Satan is not an infinitely powerful being. Although he is an angel, and thus pure spirit, he is considered a creature nonetheless. Satan's actions are permitted by divine providence. Catholicism rejects Apocatastasis, the reconciliation with God suggested by the Church Father Origen. A number of pray...

    Eastern Orthodox views

    In Eastern Orthodoxy, the devil is an integral part of Christian cosmology. The existence of the devil is taken seriously and not subject to questions. According to Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition, there are three enemies of humanity: Death, Sin and Satan. In contrast to Western Christianity, sin is not viewed as a deliberate choice but as a universal and inescapable weakness. Sin is turning from God towards oneself, a form of egoism and ungratefulness, leading away from God towards deat...

    Evangelical Protestants

    Evangelical Protestants agree that Satan is a real, created being entirely given over to evil and that evil is whatever opposes God or is not willed by God. Evangelicals emphasize the power and involvement of Satan in history in varying degrees; some virtually ignore Satan and others revel in speculation about spiritual warfare against that personal power of darkness. Protestants are much less concerned with the cause of devil's fall, and do not deal with an angelic hierarchy,since it is thou...

    Angelic hierarchy

    The devil might either be a cherub or a seraph. Christian writers were often undecided from which order of the angels the devil fell. While the devil is identified with the cherub in Ezekiel 28:13–15, this conflicts with the view that the devil was among the highest angels, who are, according to Pseudo-Dionysius, the seraphim. Thomas Aquinas quotes Gregory the Great who stated that Satan "surpassed [the angels] all in glory". Arguing that the higher an angel stood the more likely he was to be...

    Hell

    Christianity is undecided whether the devil fell immediately into hell or if he is given respite until the Day of Judgment. Several Christian authors, among them Dante and Milton, have depicted the devil as resident in Hell. This is in contrast to parts of the Bible that describe the devil as traveling about the earth, like Job 1:6–7 and 1 Peter 5:8, discussed above. On the other hand, 2 Peter 2:4 speaks of sinning angels chained in hell. At least according to Revelation 20:10 the devil is th...

    Sinfulness of angels

    Some theologians believe that angels cannot sin because sin brings death and angels cannot die. Supporting the idea that an angel may sin, Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa TheologiaeQuestion 63 article 1, wrote: He further divides angelic orders, as distinguished by Pseudo-Dionysius, into fallible and infallible based whether the Bible mentions them in relation to the demonic or not. He concludes that because seraphim (the highest order) and thrones (the third-highest) are never mentioned as devi...

    Images

    The earliest representation of the devil might be a mosaic in San Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna from the sixth century, in the form of a blue angel. Blue and violet were common colors for the devil in the early middle ages, reflecting his body composed of the air below the heavens, considered to consist of thicker material than the ethereal fire of heavens the good angels are made from and thus colored red. The devil's first appearance as black rather than blue was in the ninth century.Only lat...

    Dante's Inferno

    The portrayal of the devil in Dante Alighieri's Inferno reflects early Christian Neo-Platonic thought. Dante structures his cosmology morally; God is beyond heaven and the devil at the bottom of hell beneath the earth. Imprisoned in the middle of the earth, the devil becomes the center of the material and sinful world to which all sinfulness is drawn. In opposition to God, which is portrayed by Dante as a love and light, Lucifer is frozen and isolated in the last circle of hell. Almost motion...

    John Milton in Paradise Lost

    In John Milton's Renaissance epic poem Paradise Lost, Satan is one of the main characters, perhaps an anti-hero. In line with Christian theology, Satan rebelled against God and was subsequently banished from heaven along with his fellow angels. Milton breaks with previous authors who portray Satan as a grotesque figure; instead, he becomes a persuasive and charismatic leader who, even in hell, convinced the other fallen angels to establish their own kingdom. It is unclear whether Satan is a h...

    Devil in popular culture - includes references to Milton's Paradise Lost, Goethe's Faust, C. S. Lewis's The Screwtape Letters, etc.
  3. 15 hours ago · Street Fighter II: The World Warrior is a competitive fighting game developed by Capcom and originally released for arcades in 1991. It is the second installment in the Street Fighter series and the sequel to Street Fighter, released in 1987. It is Capcom's fourteenth game to use the CP System arcade system board.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ice-TIce-T - Wikipedia

    15 hours ago · Tracy Lauren Marrow (born February 16, 1958), better known by his stage name Ice-T, is an American rapper, actor, songwriter, and producer.He began his career as an underground rapper in the 1980s and was signed to Sire Records in 1987, when he released his debut album Rhyme Pays—the second hip-hop album to carry an explicit content sticker (following Slick Rick's La Di Da Di).

  5. 15 hours ago · The school system was created to isolate Indigenous children from the influence of their own native culture and religion in order to assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. [3] [4] [5] : 42 [6] Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, around 150,000 children were placed in residential schools nationally.

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