Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (/ v ʊ n t /; German: ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founders of modern psychology.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Wundt
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (/ v ʊ n t /; German: ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founders of modern psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt, (born August 16, 1832, Neckarau, near Mannheim, Baden [Germany]—died August 31, 1920, Grossbothen, Germany), German physiologist and psychologist who is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. Wundt earned a medical degree at the University of Heidelberg in 1856.
- Biographical Timeline
- Life & Times
- Experimental Psychology: Object and Method
- Wundt’s “Individual Psychology”
- The Theoretical Framework of Experimental Psychology
- The Order of Knowledge
1. 1832 born atNeckarau/Mannheim, August 16 2. 1845 enters BruchsalGymnasium 3. 1851–2 study ofmedicine at Tübingen 4. 1852–5 study ofmedicine at Heidelberg 5. 1853 first publication“on the sodium chloride content of urine” 6. 1855 medical assistantat a Heidelberg clinic 7. 1856 semester of studywith J. Müller and DuBois-Reymond at Berlin; 8. doctorate inmedicine at Heidelberg; habilitation as Dozent inphysiology; 9. nearly fatalillness 10. 1857–64 Privatdozentat the Physiological Institute,...
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was born on August 16, 1832, in the Germantown of Neckarau, outside of Mannheim, the son of a Lutheran minister(Titchener 1921b: 161). The family moved when Wilhelm was six to thetown of Heidenheim, in central Baden (Boring 1950: 316). By allaccounts, he was a precocious, peculiar boy, schooled mainly by hisfather’s assistant, the vicar, Friedrich Müller; youngWilhelm was so attached to Müller that he moved in with him whenthe latter got a post in a neighboring villag...
“The exact description of consciousness [Bewusstsein]is the sole aim of experimental psychology” (cited by Titchener1921b: 164). Wundt identifies “physiological” with“experimental” psychology. Thus, for Wundt, experimental psychology is the unmediated study ofconsciousness, aided by the experimental protocols of thenatural sciences. Yet this definition involves two contestableassumptions: first, that “consciousness” is susceptible toexperiment (rejected by Kant); second, that psychology, even...
Wundt, like most early experimental psychologists, concentrated his investigations upon sensation and perception; of allpsychic phenomena, sensation is the most obviously connected to thebody and the physical world (Hearst 1979b: 33). For Wundt, sensationsand our somatic sensory apparatus are especially important for theproject of physiological psychology for the simple reason thatsensations are the “contact points” between the physicaland the psychological (PP I: 1). Sensations(Empfindungen)...
As we have seen (Section 3.2), for Wundt the possibility of a physiological psychology (asopposed to a purely physiological inquiry into sensation, behavior,learning, etc.) depends on the possibility of self-observation.Self-observation, in turn, is of scientific use only if the sequenceof “inner” phenomena of consciousness is assumed to fallunder an independent principle of psychic causality. For if it doesnot, then these phenomena could never be more than a chaotic muddle,of which there cou...
Whereas experimental psychology focuses in the first place on theeffects of the physical (outer) upon the psychic (inner), the willingconsciousness is characterized by intervening in the external world,that is, by expressing the internal (PP I:2). This latter feature of consciousness lies beyond the scope ofexperiment, because the origins of conscious expression cannot becontrolled. Moreover, psychological development is obviously notdetermined merely by sensation, but also by the meaningful...
As we have seen, Wundt was concerned not only with expanding the setof known psychological facts, but also with interpreting them withinan appropriate explanatory framework. Of course, the necessity ofestablishing such a closed framework distinct from physiology amountedto distinguishing psychological causality from physical causality ingeneral, and hence psychology from the natural sciences altogether.But psychology has to be defined against two other areas of“scientific” (wissenschaftlich)...
Wundt’s conception of psychology was always controversial. Atleast in Germany, the struggle over the status and philosophicalmeaning of “consciousness” resulted, on the one hand, inthe exclusion of Wundtian empiricism from philosophy departments,striving to maintain their speculative purity, and, on the other, theinstitutional establishment of experimental psychology as anindependent discipline. This was not the outcome Wundt had desired. Hehad wished to reform philosophy, not as a synthetic...
- The Father of Modern Psychology
- His Life
- Career in Psychology
- Other Thinkers Also Considered "Fathers of Psychology"
Wilhelm Wundt is the man most commonly identified as the father of psychology.1 Why Wundt? Other people such as Hermann von Helmholtz, Gustav Fechner, and Ernst Weber were involved in early scientific psychology research, so why are they not credited as the father of psychology? Wundt is bestowed this distinction because of his formation of the world's first experimental psychology lab, which is usually noted as the official start of psychology as a separate and distinct science.1 In addition to making psychology a separate science, Wundt also had a number of students who went on to become influential psychologists themselves. Edward B. Titchener was responsible for establishing the school of thought known as structuralism, James McKeen Cattell became the first professor of psychology in the United States, and G. Stanley Hallestablished the first experimental psychology lab in the U.S.
Wilhelm Wundt was a German psychologist who established the very first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. This event is widely recognized as the formal establishment of psychology as a science distinct from biology and philosophy. Among his many distinctions, Wundt was the very first person to refer to himself as a psychologist. He is often associated with the school of thought known as structuralism, although it was his student Edward B. Titchener who was truly responsible for the formation of that school of psychology. Wundt also developed a research technique known as introspection, in which highly trained observers would study and report the content of their own thoughts.2
Wilhelm Wundt graduated from the University of Heidelberg with a degree in medicine. He went on to study briefly with Johannes Muller and later with the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. Wundt's work with these two individuals is thought to have heavily influenced his later work in experimental psychology. Wundt later wrote the Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874), which helped establish experimental procedures in psychological research. After taking a position at the University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first experimental psychology lab in the world. Although another psychology lab already existed—William James had established a lab at Harvard a few years before—James' lab was focused on offering teaching demonstrations rather than experimentation. After studying with Wundt, G. Stanley Hall founded the first American experimental psychologylab at John Hopkins University. Wundt is often associated with the theoretical perspective known as structuralism, which involves de...
The creation of a psychology lab established psychology as a separate field of study with its own methods and questions. Wilhelm Wundt's support of experimental psychology also set the stage for behaviorism, and many of his experimental methods are still used today. Wundt also had many students who later became prominent psychologists, including Edward Titchener, James McKeen Cattell, Charles Spearman, G. Stanley Hall, Charles Judd, and Hugo Munsterberg.
A number of other influential thinkers can also claim to be "fathers of psychology" in some way or another. The following are just a few of these individuals who are noted in specific areas of psychology:2 1. William James: The Father of American Psychology; he helped establish psychology in the U.S., and his book, The Principles of Psychology, became an instant classic. 2. Sigmund Freud: The Father of Psychoanalysis; his theories and work established psychoanalysis as a major school of thought in psychology. 3. Hugo Münsterberg: The Father of Applied Psychology; he was an early pioneer of several applied areas including clinical, forensic, and industrial-organizational psychology. 4. John Bowlby: The Father of Attachment Theory; he developed the theory of attachment. 5. Kurt Lewin: The Father of Social Psychology; his work pioneered the use of scientific methods to study social behavior. 6. Edward Thorndike: The Father of Modern Educational Psychology; his research on the lea...
- Publications by Wundt
- External Links
For Wundt, psychology was the scientific study of immediate experience, and thus the study of human consciousness, or the mind, as long as mind is understood as the totality of conscious experience at a given moment. Wundt combined philosophical introspection with techniques and laboratory apparatus brought over from his physiological studies with Helmholtz, as well as many of his own design. This experimental introspection was in contrast to what had been called psychology until then, a branch of philosophywhere people introspected themselves. Wundt argued that: In fact, Wundt proposed an introspective psychology. According to Wundt, it is unnecessary to postulate a special inner sense to observe one’s consciousness. One simply has experiences and can describe them; one does not have to observe the experiences happening. Wilhelm Wundt considered the development of mind an important topic, which could be addressed partially by child and animal (comparative) psychology, but above all...
Structuralism and Ganzheit: Wundtian School of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt never gave a name to his school of psychology. As the founder, what he did was simply psychology without qualification. Wundt’s student Edward B. Titchener, who opposed the functionalism widely accepted in the United States, called his own system structuralism, in the year 1898. This label became attached to Wundt’s psychology. Wundt's laboratory students in Germany called their approach Ganzheit Psychology("holistic psychology") following Wundt's death.
Wundt's Students and His Impact on World Psychology
Several of Wundt's students became eminent psychologists in their own right: 1. James McKeen Cattell, the first professor of psychology in the United States 2. Edward B. Titchener, founded the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Cornell University. 3. Charles Spearman, English psychologist who developed the two-factor theory of intelligenceand several important statistical analyses. 4. Oswald Külpe, at the University of Würzburg. 5. Hugo Munsterberg, pioneer of industrial psyc...Die Lehre von der Muskelbewegung(1858)Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung(1862)Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele (1863), English translation, Lectures on Human and Animal PsychologyLehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen(1865)Anderson, S.J. 1975. The untranslated content of Wundt’s Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 10, 381-386.Ben-David, J. and R. Collins. 1966. Social factors in the origin of a new science: The case of psychology. American Psychological Review, 31, 451-465.Blumental, A.L. 1970. Language and Psychology: Historical aspects of psychlinguistics. New York: John Wiley.Blumental, A.L. 1975. A reappraisal of Wilhelm Wundt. American Psychologist 30, 1081-1088.
All links retrieved August 1, 2013. 1. Biography and bibliography 2. Detailed study by Alan Kim at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 3. Outlines of Psychology 4. Principles of Physiological Psychology 5. Wilhelm Wundt - Father of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) played such a major role in the emergence of the new scientific psychology as a discipline separate from philosophy and physiology that he has been called the “founder,” or the “father,” of experimental psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Indeed, Wundt is often regarded as the father of psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt formed the first experimental psychology lab in the 19th century. He used introspection, or having a subject talk about experiences as the subject is doing something, ...
- 6 min
- Wilhelm Wundt: Historical Context
- The Birth of Experimental Psychology
- Methods of Experimental Psychology
- Edward B. Titchener and Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundtwas a psychologist, philosopher and linguist responsible for setting up the first psychology laboratory. He was active in the late 1800s and early 1900s, at a time when the future of the discipline of psychology was unsure. Up until that point, psychology had been seen as a branch of philosophy, and that branch was dangerously close to being cut off when Immanuel Kant claimed that psychology had no viability as an academic discipline because he saw consciousness as impossible to study objectively. It was Wundt's work and his establishment of a psychology laboratory that cemented psychology's identity as a legitimate discipline. He is therefore often referred to as the 'father of experimental psychology.'
Wundt's work was preceded by an important breakthrough by E.H. Weber in the study of human physiology. Weber discovered that if you hold a pile of rocks in your hand, there is a specific ratio by which the weight of that pile would need to be increased before you would notice the change in weight. Weber discovered this by noticing that weight-lifters were able to discriminate between weights better when picking them straight off the floor, but when they were already holding the weights in their hands, the weight had to increase by a specific ratio before the weight-lifters noticed the increased heaviness. What was most important about Weber's breakthrough was that it was discovered not through introspection but through experimentation. Wundt believed that this approach could be applied to experimental psychology. Experimental psychology is the branch of psychology that seeks to study the mind through empirical experiments. Wundt was one of the first people to believe that consciousn...
These days, we have MRIs, computed tomography and other methods of neuroimaging that allow us to see physiological reactions in the brain. Of course, Wundt did not have these technologies at his disposal. Therefore, he had to rely on a combination of control of external stimuli and reports of internal observations by the research subject. He believed that there were two sides to any explanation of a phenomena - the external side, measured in the laboratory, and the psychological side, measured by self-report of internal observations. Many of Wundt's experiments, especially his earlier ones, built on Weber's work by concentrating on sensation and perception. Sensation is the physiological response to an external stimuli (for example, the mechanisms of the eye registering a round, small, red object), and perceptionis the psychological interpretation of sensation (for example, stating that you see an apple). Wundt's experiments consisted of varying external stimuli in a laboratory sett...
Edward B. Titchenerwas a student of Wundt's at his psychological laboratory. When Titchner left Germany and came to the United States to continue his study of psychology, he became a vocal advocate of Wundt's work and produced translations of his primary writings. However, there is controversy surrounding these translations. Many of them are considered to be mistranslated in a way that makes Wundt appear to support Titchener's ideas more than he actually did.
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Wilhelm Wundt was born in the village of Neckerau in Baden, Germany on August 16, 1832. The son of a Lutheran pastor, he was a solitary and studious boy. He roomed with and was tutored by his father's assistant, the vicar of the church. He was sent off to boarding school at 13, and the university at 19.