Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or unwritten customs. These are often hereditary monarchies.
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- Historical Examples of Absolute Monarchies
- Contemporary Trends
- Saudi Arabia
- Further Reading
In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satavahana, Gupta, Chola and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs. In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja 'god-king' and Chakravart...
Throughout much of European history, the divine right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs claimed supreme autocratic power by divine right, and that their subjects had no rights to limit their power. James VI and I and his son Charles I tried to import this principle into Scotland and England. Charles I's attempt to enforce episcopal polity on the Church of Scotland led to rebellion by the Covenanters and...
Many nations formerly with absolute monarchies, such as Jordan, Kuwait and Morocco, have moved towards constitutional monarchy, although in these cases the monarch still retains tremendous power, to the point that the parliament's influence on political life is negligible. In Bhutan, the government moved from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy following planned parliamentary elections to the Tshogdu in 2003, and the election of a National Assembly in 2008. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Nepalese Civil War, the Maoist insurgency, and the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre, with the Nepalese monarchybeing abolished on 28 May 2008. In Tonga, the King had majority control of the Legislative Assemblyuntil 2010. Liechtenstein has moved towards expanding the power of the monarch: the Prince of Liechtenstein was given expanded powers after a referen...
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy, and according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by Royal Decree in 1992, the King must comply with Shari'a (Islamic law) and the Qur'an. The Qur'an and the body of the Sunnah (traditions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad) are declared to be the Kingdom's Constitution, but no written modern constitution has ever been promulgated for Saudi Arabia, which remains the only Arab nation where no national elections have ever taken place since its founding. No political parties or national elections are permitted and according to The Economist's 2010 Democracy Index, the Saudi government is the eighth most authoritarian regime from among the 167 countries rated.
Anthropology, sociology, and ethology as well as various other disciplines such as political science attempt to explain the rise of absolute monarchy ranging from extrapolation generally, to certain Marxist explanations in terms of the class struggleas the underlying dynamic of human historical development generally and absolute monarchy in particular. In the 17th century, French legal theorist Jean Domat defended the concept of absolute monarchy in works such as "On Social Order and Absolute Monarchy", citing absolute monarchy as preserving natural order as God intended. Other intellectual figures who have supported absolute monarchy include Thomas Hobbes and Charles Maurras.Beloff, Max. The Age of Absolutism From 1660 to 1815(1961)——. Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1951.
Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature.
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Absolute_monarchy Cached Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or unwritten customs.
An Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy where one person, usually called a monarch holds absolute power. It is in contrast to constitutional monarchy, which is restrained or controlled by other groups of people. Controllers may be an entity such as clergy, lawmakers, social elites or a written constitution.
Absolute monarchy - Wikipedia <> check everything. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satavahana, Gupta, Chola and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered ...
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kingdom_of_Prussia Cached 15 hours ago · The Kingdom of Prussia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, after which Prussia became a constitutional monarchy and Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg was appointed as Prussia's first prime minister.
- Examples of State-Collapse Anarchy
- Anarchist Communities
- Lists of Ungoverned Communities
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Anarchy comes from the Medieval Latin anarchia and from the Greek anarchos ("having no ruler"), with a- + archos ("ruler") literally meaning "without ruler". The circle-A anarchist symbol is a monogram that consists of the capital letter A surrounded by the capital letter O. The letter A is derived from the first letter of anarchy or anarchism in most European languages and is the same in both Latin and Cyrillic scripts. The O stands for order and together they stand for "society seeks order in anarchy" (French: la société cherche l'ordre dans l'anarchie), a phrase written by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book What Is Property?
Although most known societies are characterized by the presence of hierarchy or the state, anthropologists have studied many egalitarian stateless societies, including most nomadic hunter-gatherer societies and horticultural societies such as the Semai and the Piaroa. Many of these societies can be considered to be anarchic in the sense that they explicitly reject the idea of centralized political authority. The egalitarianism typical of human hunter-gatherers is interesting when viewed in an...
In international relations, anarchy is "the absence of any authority superior to nation-states and capable of arbitrating their disputes and enforcing international law".
English Civil War
Anarchy was one of the issues at the Putney Debatesof 1647: As people began to theorize about the English Civil War, anarchy came to be more sharply defined, albeit from differing political perspectives: 1. 1651 – Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) describes the natural condition of mankind as a war of all against all, where man lives a brutish existence: "For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families, the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no go...
Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist of the Victorian era known foremost for his widely influential work of history, The French Revolution, wrote that the French Revolution was a war against both aristocracy and anarchy: In 1789, Armand, duc d'Aiguillon came before the National Assemblyand shared his views on the anarchy: Armand was later exiled because he was viewed as being opposed to the revolution's violent tactics. Professor Chris Bossche commented on the role of anarchy in the revolution:
In 1720, Sir Nicholas Lawes, Governor of Jamaica, wrote to John Robinson, the Bishop of London: In the letter, Lawes goes on to complain that these "estated men now are like Jonah's gourd" and details the humble origins of the "creolians" largely lacking an education and flouting the rules of church and state. In particular, he cites their refusal to abide by the Deficiency Act which required slave owners to procure from England one white person for every 40 enslaved Africans, thereby hoping...
Russian Civil War
During the Russian Civil War which initially started as a confrontation between the Bolsheviks and monarchists, on the territory of today's Ukraine a new force emerged, namely the Anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno. The Ukrainian Anarchist during the Russian Civil War (also called the Black Army) organized the Free Territory, an anarchist society committed to resisting state authority, whether capitalist or communist. This project was cut short by the...
Francisco Franco, a fascist Spanish general staged a military rebellion which attempted to overthrow the Popular Front (the established Spanish government), in 1936. Following Franco's rebellion, anarchist, communist and what remained of Popular Front joined forces against Franco. This was seen as a social revolution as much as a political revolution to some. Throughout the war and shortly after, many Spanish working-class citizens lived in anarchist communities, many of which thrived during...
1. Zomia, Southeast Asian highlands beyond control of governments 2. Republic of Cospaia(1440–1826) 3. Anarchy in the United States(19th century) 4. Diggers(England; 1649–1651) 5. Libertatia(late 17th century) 6. Neutral Moresnet(26 June 1816 – 28 June 1919) 7. Kowloon Walled City, a largely ungoverned squatter settlement from the mid 1940s until the early 1970s 8. Drop City, the first rural hippie commune(Colorado; 1965–1977) 9. Comunidades de Población en Resistencia (CPR), indigenousmoveme...
Anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities. While there are only a few instances of mass society anarchies that have come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, there are also examples of intentional communitiesfounded by anarchists. Intentional communities 1. Utopia, Ohio(1847) 2. Whiteway Colony(1898) 3. Kibbutz(1909–present) 4. Life and Labor Commune(1921) 5. Freetown Christiania(26 September 1971) 6. Trumbullplex(1993) Mass societies 1. Free Territory(Ukraine; No...Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays"Who Needs Government? Pirates, Collapsed States, and the Possibility of Anarchy", August 2007 issue of Cato Unboundfocusing on Somali anarchy.