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  1. Absolute monarchy - Wikipedia › wiki › Absolute_monarchy

    Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or unwritten customs. These are often hereditary monarchies.

  2. Absolute monarchy — Wikipedia. What is Absolute monarchy › wikipedia › Absolute_monarchy

    Absolute monarchyWikipedia article - the free encyclopedia. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

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  4. Absolute monarchy — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Absolute_monarchy
    • Historical Examples of Absolute Monarchies
    • Contemporary Trends
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Scholarship
    • Further Reading

    Outside Europe

    In An­cient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded ab­solute power over the coun­try and was con­sid­ered a liv­ing god by his peo­ple. In an­cient Mesopotamia, many rulers of As­syria, Baby­lo­nia and Sumer were ab­solute mon­archs as well. In an­cient and me­dieval India, rulers of the Mau­rya, Sa­tava­hana, Gupta, Chola and Chalukya Em­pires, as well as other major and minor em­pires, were con­sid­ered ab­solute mon­archs. In the Khmer Em­pire, the kings were called De­varaja 'god-king' and Chakravart...


    Through­out much of Eu­ro­pean his­tory, the di­vine right of kings was the the­o­log­i­cal jus­ti­fi­ca­tion for ab­solute monar­chy. Many Eu­ro­pean mon­archs claimed supreme au­to­cratic power by di­vine right, and that their sub­jects had no rights to limit their power. James VI and I and his son Charles I tried to im­port this prin­ci­ple into Scot­land and Eng­land. Charles I's at­tempt to en­force epis­co­pal polity on the Church of Scot­land led to re­bel­lion by the Covenan­ters and...

    Many na­tions for­merly with ab­solute monar­chies, such as Jor­dan, Kuwait and Mo­rocco, have moved to­wards con­sti­tu­tional monar­chy, al­though in these cases the monarch still re­tains tremen­dous power, to the point that the par­lia­ment's in­flu­ence on po­lit­i­cal life is negligible.[citation needed] In Bhutan, the gov­ern­ment moved from ab­solute monar­chy to con­sti­tu­tional monar­chy fol­low­ing planned par­lia­men­tary elec­tions to the Tshogdu in 2003, and the elec­tion of a Na­tional As­sem­bly in 2008. Nepal had sev­eral swings be­tween con­sti­tu­tional rule and di­rect rule re­lated to the Nepalese Civil War, the Maoist in­sur­gency, and the 2001 Nepalese royal mas­sacre, with the Nepalese monar­chybeing abol­ished on 28 May 2008. In Tonga, the King had ma­jor­ity con­trol of the Leg­isla­tive As­sem­blyuntil 2010. Liecht­en­stein has moved to­wards ex­pand­ing the power of the monarch: the Prince of Liecht­en­stein was given ex­panded pow­ers after a ref­er­en­...

    Saudi Ara­bia is an ab­solute monar­chy, and ac­cord­ing to the Basic Law of Saudi Ara­bia adopted by Royal De­cree in 1992, the King must com­ply with Shari'a (Is­lamic law) and the Qur'an. The Qur'an and the body of the Sun­nah (tra­di­tions of the Is­lamic prophet, Muham­mad) are de­clared to be the King­dom's Con­sti­tu­tion, but no writ­ten mod­ern con­sti­tu­tion has ever been pro­mul­gated for Saudi Ara­bia, which re­mains the only Arab na­tion where no na­tional elec­tions have ever taken place since its founding. No po­lit­i­cal par­ties or na­tional elec­tions are per­mit­ted and ac­cord­ing to The Econ­o­mist's 2010 Democ­racy Index, the Saudi gov­ern­ment is the eighth most au­thor­i­tar­ian regime from among the 167 coun­tries rated.

    An­thro­pol­ogy, so­ci­ol­ogy, and ethol­ogy as well as var­i­ous other dis­ci­plines such as po­lit­i­cal sci­ence at­tempt to ex­plain the rise of ab­solute monar­chy rang­ing from ex­trap­o­la­tion gen­er­ally, to cer­tain Marx­ist ex­pla­na­tions in terms of the class strug­gleas the un­der­ly­ing dy­namic of human his­tor­i­cal de­vel­op­ment gen­er­ally and ab­solute monar­chy in par­tic­u­lar. In the 17th cen­tury, French legal the­o­rist Jean Domat de­fended the con­cept of ab­solute monar­chy in works such as "On So­cial Order and Ab­solute Monarchy", cit­ing ab­solute monar­chy as pre­serv­ing nat­ural order as God in­tended. Other in­tel­lec­tual fig­ures who have sup­ported ab­solute monar­chy in­clude Thomas Hobbes and Charles Mau­r­ras.

    Beloff, Max. The Age of Absolutism From 1660 to 1815(1961)
    ——. Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1951.
  5. Absolute monarchy Wiki › Absolute_monarchy

    Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature.

  6. Absolute Monarchy wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › Absolute_monarchy Cached Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or unwritten customs.

  7. Absolute Monarchy wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s

    An Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy where one person, usually called a monarch holds absolute power. It is in contrast to constitutional monarchy, which is restrained or controlled by other groups of people. Controllers may be an entity such as clergy, lawmakers, social elites or a written constitution.

  8. Absolute monarchy - Wikipedia | Only here › absolute-monarchy---wikipedia

    Absolute monarchy - Wikipedia <> check everything. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satavahana, Gupta, Chola and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered ...

  9. Absolute Monarchie wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › Kingdom_of_Prussia Cached 15 hours ago · The Kingdom of Prussia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, after which Prussia became a constitutional monarchy and Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg was appointed as Prussia's first prime minister.

  10. Anarchy - Wikipedia › wiki › Anarchic
    • Etymology
    • Overview
    • Examples of State-Collapse Anarchy
    • Anarchist Communities
    • Lists of Ungoverned Communities
    • External Links

    Anarchy comes from the Medieval Latin anarchia and from the Greek anarchos ("having no ruler"), with a- + archos ("ruler") literally meaning "without ruler". The circle-A anarchist symbol is a monogram that consists of the capital letter A surrounded by the capital letter O. The letter A is derived from the first letter of anarchy or anarchism in most European languages and is the same in both Latin and Cyrillic scripts. The O stands for order and together they stand for "society seeks order in anarchy" (French: la société cherche l'ordre dans l'anarchie), a phrase written by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book What Is Property?


    Although most known societies are characterized by the presence of hierarchy or the state, anthropologists have studied many egalitarian stateless societies, including most nomadic hunter-gatherer societies and horticultural societies such as the Semai and the Piaroa. Many of these societies can be considered to be anarchic in the sense that they explicitly reject the idea of centralized political authority. The egalitarianism typical of human hunter-gatherers is interesting when viewed in an...

    International relations

    In international relations, anarchy is "the absence of any authority superior to nation-states and capable of arbitrating their disputes and enforcing international law".

    English Civil War

    Anarchy was one of the issues at the Putney Debatesof 1647: As people began to theorize about the English Civil War, anarchy came to be more sharply defined, albeit from differing political perspectives: 1. 1651 – Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) describes the natural condition of mankind as a war of all against all, where man lives a brutish existence: "For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families, the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no go...

    French Revolution

    Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist of the Victorian era known foremost for his widely influential work of history, The French Revolution, wrote that the French Revolution was a war against both aristocracy and anarchy: In 1789, Armand, duc d'Aiguillon came before the National Assemblyand shared his views on the anarchy: Armand was later exiled because he was viewed as being opposed to the revolution's violent tactics. Professor Chris Bossche commented on the role of anarchy in the revolution:


    In 1720, Sir Nicholas Lawes, Governor of Jamaica, wrote to John Robinson, the Bishop of London: In the letter, Lawes goes on to complain that these "estated men now are like Jonah's gourd" and details the humble origins of the "creolians" largely lacking an education and flouting the rules of church and state. In particular, he cites their refusal to abide by the Deficiency Act which required slave owners to procure from England one white person for every 40 enslaved Africans, thereby hoping...

    Russian Civil War

    During the Russian Civil War which initially started as a confrontation between the Bolsheviks and monarchists, on the territory of today's Ukraine a new force emerged, namely the Anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno. The Ukrainian Anarchist during the Russian Civil War (also called the Black Army) organized the Free Territory, an anarchist society committed to resisting state authority, whether capitalist or communist. This project was cut short by the...


    Francisco Franco, a fascist Spanish general staged a military rebellion which attempted to overthrow the Popular Front (the established Spanish government), in 1936. Following Franco's rebellion, anarchist, communist and what remained of Popular Front joined forces against Franco. This was seen as a social revolution as much as a political revolution to some. Throughout the war and shortly after, many Spanish working-class citizens lived in anarchist communities, many of which thrived during...

    Ungoverned communities

    1. Zomia, Southeast Asian highlands beyond control of governments 2. Republic of Cospaia(1440–1826) 3. Anarchy in the United States(19th century) 4. Diggers(England; 1649–1651) 5. Libertatia(late 17th century) 6. Neutral Moresnet(26 June 1816 – 28 June 1919) 7. Kowloon Walled City, a largely ungoverned squatter settlement from the mid 1940s until the early 1970s 8. Drop City, the first rural hippie commune(Colorado; 1965–1977) 9. Comunidades de Población en Resistencia (CPR), indigenousmoveme...

    Anarchist communities

    Anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities. While there are only a few instances of mass society anarchies that have come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, there are also examples of intentional communitiesfounded by anarchists. Intentional communities 1. Utopia, Ohio(1847) 2. Whiteway Colony(1898) 3. Kibbutz(1909–present) 4. Life and Labor Commune(1921) 5. Freetown Christiania(26 September 1971) 6. Trumbullplex(1993) Mass societies 1. Free Territory(Ukraine; No...

    Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays
    "Who Needs Government? Pirates, Collapsed States, and the Possibility of Anarchy", August 2007 issue of Cato Unboundfocusing on Somali anarchy.
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