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  1. Kalmar Union - Wikipedia › wiki › Union_of_Denmark,_Norway

    The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish: Kalmarunionen; Latin: Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe ...

  2. Timeline of Japanese history - Wikipedia › wiki › Timeline_of_Japanese_history

    This is a timeline of Japanese history, comprising important legal, territorial and cultural changes and political events in Japan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Japan .

  3. Tibet (1912–1951) - Wikipedia › wiki › Tibet_(1912–51)

    The polity of Tibet was a de facto independent state between the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951. The Tibetan Ganden Phodrang regime was a protectorate of the Qing dynasty until 1912. When the Provisional Government of the Republic of China replaced the Qing dynasty as ...

  4. History of Portugal (1415–1578) - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Portugal_(1415

    The unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the region's monarchs with the intent of restoring the Visigothic monarchy. [7] The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the first Braganza Dynasty monarchs was a period of transition.

  5. Constitution of Thailand - Wikipedia › wiki › Constitution_of_Thailand
    • History
    • Overview
    • 1932 Temporary Charter
    • 1932 Constitution
    • 1946 Constitution
    • 1947 Charter
    • 1949 Constitution
    • 1952 Constitution
    • 1959 Charter
    • 1968 Constitution

    The Rattanakosin Kingdom and the four traditionally counted preceding kingdoms, collectively called Siam, had an uncodified constitution until 1932. In the preamble to the Penal Code promulgated 1 April 1908, which came into effect on 21 September, King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) stated: "In the ancient times the monarchs of the Siamese nation governed their people with laws which were originally derived from the Dhamasustra of Manu, which was then the prevailing law among the inhabitants of India and the neighbouring countries.":91 The transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional democracy began when King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) agreed to a codified constitution to resolve the bloodless coup of 1932. The king signed a temporary charter on 27 June 1932 at 17:00, which began by announcing that "the highest power in the land belongs to all people.":25 A significant disadvantage of a codified constitution is that controversies arise due to different understandings of the usages and c...

    Siam (today known as Thailand) has had 20 constitutions and charters since the overthrow of absolute monarchy in 1932. 1. Temporary Charter for the Administration of Siam Act 1932 2. Constitution of the Kingdom of Siam 1932 3. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1946 4. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim) 1947 5. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1949 6. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1932 (Revised 1952) 7. Charter for the Administration of the Kingdom 1959 8. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1968 9. Interim Charter for Administration of the Kingdom 1972 10. Constitution for the Administration of the Kingdom 1974 11. Constitution for Administration of the Kingdom 1976 12. Charter for Administration of the Kingdom 1977 13. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1978 14. Charter for Administration of the Kingdom 1991 15. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1991 16. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1997 17. Constitution of the Kingdom...

    On 24 June 1932, the People's Party, a coalition of civil servants, princes, and army officers, seized power in a bloodless coup. A provisional constitution was sent to King Prajadhipokalong with an ultimatum from party leaders. On 26 June, the king met the party leaders and refused to sign the charter. The next day, the king met the leaders again and signed the charter. The People's Party leaders generally followed the British parliamentary structurefor the temporary charter. However, there were key differences, particularly regarding the powers of the monarch. The charter began by stating that sovereign power belongs to the people of Siam. Empowered to exercise power on behalf of the people were the People's Assembly (the legislature) a 70-member, all appointed by the Khana Ratsadon, a 15-member People's Committee of Siam (the executive), the courts of law (the judiciary), and the monarch. Members of the People's Assembly and the People's Committee were initially appointed. After...

    The People's Party, facing an internal power struggle and opposition from the king, promulgated a permanent constitution on 10 December 1932 that gave the monarchy a significant increase in authority compared to the temporary charter. This day, 10 December, is currently celebrated as Constitution Day. The constitution continued to state that sovereign power belonged to the people of Siam. However, unlike the temporary charter, the monarchy would now be the direct exerciser of that power, rather than the branches of government. This royal power would be exercised by and with the advice and consent of the People's Assembly, the State Council (the cabinet), and the courts. However, the monarchy lacked any say in the composition of any of the branches of government and the royal veto could still be overruled. The monarchy was also made "sacred and inviolable", in contrast to the temporary charter. After the new constitution was adopted, a new 20-member cabinet was formed; 10 of whom cam...

    At the end of the World War II, the collaborationist leadership (including Marshal Plaek) was arrested and tried for war crimes, democratic elections for the entire People's Assembly were first held, and the young King Ananda Mahidol returned to Thailand for the first time in seven years. King Ananda Mahidol had just come of age, turning 20 in September 1945, and returned with his mother and Prince Bhumibolin December 1945. A new constitution, Thailand's most democratic until the enactment of the 1997 People's constitution, was drafted in his honor. In 1972, Pridi Banomyong called it the constitution that gave the Thai people the most complete democratic rights, though these guarantees were later surpassed by those of the 1997 and 2007 constitutions. One key difference from previous constitutions was that the House of Representatives would, for the first time, be fully elected by the people (176 members). A Senate (80 members) was also established, which would, unlike the British Ho...

    The military overthrew the elected government of Rear Admiral Thamrong Navasavat on 8 November 1947, amid the political chaos that followed the official finding that the mysterious death of King Ananda Mahidol was not due to suicide. The coup restored power to Marshal Plaek, and was supported by Phin Choonhavan, Seni Pramoj, and the palace. The coup leaders alleged that government corruption had demeaned the sacredness of King Ananda's 1946 Constitution, as proven by the appearance of vultures at the royal cremation ground. Vultures had also appeared in Ayutthaya before it fell to the Burmese, and this was used as justification for the military's coup. The regent, Prince Rangsit officially accepted the coup within 24 hours and immediately promulgated the new charter the coup leaders had drafted. The king, who at the time was studying in Lausanne, endorsed the coup and the charter on 25 November, noting "Those who were involved in this operation do not desire power for their own good...

    The constitution of 1949 was promulgated on 23 January 1949 as a permanent instrument to replace the temporary 1948 charter. The drafting committee was headed by Seni Pramoj and dominated by royalists under the direction of Prince Rangsitand Prince Dhani. The 1949 constitution elevated the throne to its most powerful position since the 1932 overthrow of the absolute monarchy. The Supreme Council of State was transformed into a nine-person Privy Council. For the first time, members this council would be selected by the kingalone. A 100-member senate would also be selected by the king alone. The president of the privy council, rather than the prime minister, would countersign all laws. The king's veto was strengthened, with a two-thirds vote of parliament required to overrule it. The king could issue his own decrees with authority equal to that of the government. The king also gained the power to call for a plebiscite, the ability to amend the constitution via public referendum, bypas...

    On 29 November 1951, as the king was returning to Thailand from Switzerland via ship, the military seized power from Privy Council President Dhani, abrogated the 1949 constitution, and appointed Marshal Plaek as regent. A single 123-member national assembly was appointed, 103 of whom were from the military or police. The assembly re-used the 1932 constitution with some additional amendments, namely allowing a privy council rather than a supreme council of state and using multi-member legislative constituencies rather than single-member constituencies. Half of the legislature was appointed. After much confrontation between the government and the palace in early 1952, the king promulgated the constitution unchanged on 8 March 1952. Democratic elections were held for half of the legislature in March 1952. Nearly all of the appointed parliamentary members were army officers.Legislative elections were held again in March 1957.

    On the evening of 16 September 1957, General Sarit Dhanarajata seized power from the government of Marshal Plaek (for additional information on the King's role in the coup, see Bhumibol Adulyadej's role in Thai politics). Sarit abrogated the 1952 constitution, abolished the national assembly, declared martial law, and ruled via a revolutionary council. Sarit and his successors deified the throne and relied on royal sponsorship to legitimize their dictatorship. A temporary charter was promulgated in February 1959 and remained in place for nine years, even after Sarit's death in 1964. The charter has been called "perhaps the most repressive in Thailand's history." It granted the premier near absolute power, including the authority to order summary executions. It banned political parties and called for an appointed unicameral parliament, consisting of 240 mostly military appointees.It contained only 20 articles, making it the shortest charter in Thai history.

    General Thanom Kittikachorn succeeded Sarit as dictator of Thailand, ruling amid a rising communist insurgency in Thailand and an escalating US presence in Indochina. The United States provided the Thai government with a billion US dollars in aid, but corruption was rampant. During a trip by King Bhumibol to the US, the American anti-war movementpressured the US government to reduce its support for the regime. Despite resistance from Thanom, a new constitution was promulgated on 20 June 1968. Although democratic on the surface, the 1968 constitution legitimized Thanom's military-dominated regime. A bicameral parliament was established, with an elected 219-member house and a royally appointed 164-member senate. Contrary to the principles of parliamentary democracy, members of the house were banned from serving in the cabinet. In addition, the senate had the power to delay any legislation for up to a year, and the senate president was the president of parliament. King Bhumibolapproved...

  6. Kalmar Union — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Kalmar_Union

    Mar 07, 2021 · The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish: Kalmarunionen; Latin: Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe ...

  7. 6,000 Years of Jewish history & legacy at a glance in a one-page infographic. The poster combines different fields on a single timeline such as demography, literature, Jewish and World events, traditions, historical figures and more. Every entry on the timeline is a hot-spot that pops a balloon with an image, further reading and useful links (Wikipedia & more). In addition, you may freely ...

  8. World History Hybrid Course › pages › spiffy204

    Analyze how the Enlightenment ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity, and nationalism spread throughout Napoleon's empire and how the ideals of the revolution inspired revolts against absolute governments into the 20 th century. Explain how the French Revolution transitioned from constitutional monarchy to autocratic rule under Napoleon.

  9. France, Religion And Social Profile | National Profiles ... › internationalData › countries

    Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored, replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy, then briefly by a Second Republic, and then by a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.

  10. World History Journal 5 th Six Weeks Todays › world-history-journal-5-th-six

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