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  1. List of Assyrian kings - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_Assyrian_kings

    The king of Assyria (Akkadian: šar māt Aššur), called the governor or viceroy of Assyria (Akkadian: Išši’ak Aššur) in the Early and Old periods, was the ruler of the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom of Assyria, which existed from approximately the 26th century BC to the 7th century BC. All modern lists of Assyrian kings generally follow ...

    • 609 BC
    • c. 2450 BC
  2. Monarchy — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Monarchy
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Characteristics and Role
    • Succession
    • Current Monarchies
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The word "monarch" (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs (from μόνος monos, "one, singular", and ἄρχω árkhō, "to rule" (compare ἄρχων arkhon, "leader, ruler, chief")) which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare nowadays.[citation needed]

    The form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric. The Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus (3.82). The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as "king" or "ruler" (translating archon, basileus, rex, tyrannos etc.) or as "queen" (translating basilinna).From earliest historical times, with the Egyptian and Mesopotamian monarchs, as well as in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion, the king holds sacral function directly connected to sacrifice, or is considered by their people to have divine ancestry. The role of the Roman emperor as the protector of Christianity was conflated with the sacral aspects held by the Germanic kings to create the notion of "Divine right of kings" in the Christian Middle Ages. The Chinese, Japanese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Godsinto the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies o...

    Monarchies are associated with political or sociocultural hereditary rule, in which monarchs rule for life (although some monarchs do not hold lifetime positions: for example, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia serves a five-year term) and pass the responsibilities and power of the position to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family (called a dynasty when it continues for several generations), future monarchsare often trained for the responsibilities of expected future rule. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law). While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs also have reigned in history; the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, while a queen consort refers to the wife of a...

    Hereditary monarchies

    In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynastyor bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession. Primogeniture, in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in hereditary monarchy. The order of succ...

    Elective monarchies

    In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected, or appointed by some body (an electoral college) for life or a defined period, but otherwise serve as any other monarch. There is no popular vote involved in elective monarchies, as the elective body usually consists of a small number of eligible people. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by prince-electors, but often coming from the same dynasty), and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuani...

    Currently there are 44 nations in the world with a monarch as head of state. They fall roughly into the following categories: 1. Commonwealth realms. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch of sixteen Commonwealth realms (Antigua and Barbuda, the Commonwealth of Australia, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). They have evolved out of the British Empire into fully independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations that retain the Queen as head of state, unlike other Commonwealth countries that are either dependencies, republics or have a different royal house. All sixteen realms are constitutional monarchies and full democracies where the Queen has limited powers or a largely ceremonial role. The Queen is head...

    "Monarchy" . Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.). 1911.
  3. People also ask

    Are there any absolute monarchies in the Middle East?

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  4. First French Empire - Wikipedia › wiki › Napoleonic_Empire

    The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire ( French: Empire Français; Latin: Imperium Francicum ), was the empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. It lasted from 18 May 1804 to 11 April 1814 and ...

  5. Khmer Empire - Wikipedia › wiki › Angkorian_Empire
    • Historiography
    • History
    • Culture and Society
    • Relations with Regional Powers
    • See Also
    • Bibliography

    The history of Angkor as the central area of settlement of the historical kingdom of Kambujadesais also the history of the Khmer kingdom from the 9th to the 13th centuries. From Kambujaitself—and so also from the Angkor region—no written records have survived other than stone inscriptions. Therefore, the current knowledge of the historical Khmer civilisation is derived primarily from: 1. Archaeological excavation, reconstruction and investigation 2. Stone inscriptions (the most important of which are foundation steles of temples), which report on the political and religious deeds of the kings 3. Reliefs in a series of temple walls with depictions of military marches, life in the palace, market scenes, and the daily life of the population 4. Reports and chronicles of Chinese diplomats, traders and travellers.


    By the 14th century, the Khmer empire suffered a long, arduous, and steady decline. Historians have proposed different causes for the decline: the religious conversion from Vishnuite-Shivaite Hinduism to Theravada Buddhism that affected social and political systems, incessant internal power struggles among Khmer princes, vassalrevolt, foreign invasion, plague, and ecological breakdown. For social and religious reasons, many aspects contributed to the decline of the Khmer empire. The relations...

    Much of what is known of the ancient Khmer society comes from the many bas-reliefs and also the first-hand Chinese accounts of Zhou Daguan, which provide information on 13th-century Cambodia and earlier. The bas-reliefs of Angkor temples, such as those in Bayon, describe everyday life of the ancient Khmer kingdom, including scenes of palace life, naval battles on the river or lakes, and common scenes of the marketplace.

    During the formation of the empire, the Khmer had close cultural, political, and trade relations with Java and with the Srivijaya empire that lay beyond Khmer's southern seas. In 851 an Arabic merchant named Sulaimaan recorded an incident involving a Khmer king and a Maharaja of Zabaj. He described the story of a Khmer king who defied the power of Maharaja of Zabaj. It was said that the Javanese Sailendras staged a surprise attack on the Khmers by approaching the capital from the river. The young king was later punished by the Maharaja, and subsequently the kingdom became a vassal of the Sailendra dynasty.:35 Zabaj is the Arabic form of Javaka and might refer to Java or Srivijaya. The legend probably describes the predecessor or initial stage of the Khmer kingdom under Javanese dominion. The Legend of the Maharaja of Zabaj was later published by the historian Masoudi in his 947 book, "Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems." The Kaladi inscription of Java (c. 909 CE) mentioned Kmir (Khme...

    Cœdès, George (1966). The making of South East Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05061-4.
    Freeman, Michael; Jacques, Claude (2006). Ancient Angkor. River Books. ISBN 974-8225-27-5.
    Higham, Charles (2001). The Civilization of Angkor. Phoenix. ISBN 978-1-84212-584-7.
    Vittorio Roveda: Khmer Mythology, River Books, ISBN 974-8225-37-2
  6. Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa - Wikipedia › wiki › Democracy_in_the_Middle

    Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa. According to The Economist Group 's Democracy Index 2020 study, Israel is the only democratic country (qualified as a "flawed democracy", ranked #28 worldwide) in the Middle East, while Tunisia (#53 worldwide) is the only democracy (also "flawed democracy") in North Africa.

  7. AH - Imperium Byzantium - 21st Century Map by BasileusTrump ... › basileustrump › art

    Jun 07, 2017 · AH - Imperium Byzantium - 21st Century Map. So thanks to a map making tutorial I found here on DA, I was able to make a much more professionally made map using GIMP and Inkscape together! Obviously not the best map in the universe, but I'd say a massive improvement over my other pieces, even if I did mess up Byzantium's Anosyria border (I tried).

  8. Pages from English Wikipedia with more than 1000 hits in Feb ... › wiki › Pages_from_English

    Apr 24, 2021 · Pages from English Wikipedia with more than 1000 hits in Feb 2004. ... 1635 Timeline_of_invention; ... 1069 Absolute_monarchy;

  9. Kingdom of Romania — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Kingdom_of_Romania
    • Unification and Monarchy
    • Romanian Old Kingdom
    • World War I
    • Union with Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania
    • Industrial Development
    • The Interbellum (Inter-War) Years
    • Monarchs
    • Demographics
    • Administrative Division
    • Timeline

    The 1859 as­cen­dancy of Alexan­dru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Mol­davia and Wal­lachia under the nominal suzerainty of the Ot­toman Em­pire united an iden­ti­fi­ably Ro­man­ian na­tion under a sin­gle ruler. On 24 Jan­u­ary (O.S.) / 5 Feb­ru­ary 1862, the two prin­ci­pal­i­ties were for­mally united to form the Prin­ci­pal­ity of Ro­ma­nia, with Bucharestas its cap­i­tal. On 11 (O.S.) / 23 Feb­ru­ary 1866 a so-called Mon­strous coali­tion, com­posed of Con­ser­v­a­tives and rad­i­cal Lib­er­als, forced Cuza to ab­di­cate. The Ger­man prince Charles of Ho­hen­zollern-Sig­marin­gen was ap­pointed as Prince of Ro­ma­nia, in a move to as­sure Ger­man back­ing to unity and fu­ture in­de­pen­dence. He im­me­di­ately adopted the Ro­man­ian spelling of his name, Carol, and his cog­natic de­scen­dants would rule Ro­ma­nia until the over­throw of the monar­chy in 1947. Fol­low­ing the Russo-Turk­ish War of 1877–1878, Ro­ma­nia was rec­og­nized as an in­de­pen­dent state by the Treaty of Ber...

    The Ro­man­ian Old Kingdom (Ro­man­ian: Vechiul Regat or just Regat; Ger­man: Regat or Alt­reich) is a col­lo­quial term re­fer­ring to the ter­ri­tory cov­ered by the first in­de­pen­dent Ro­man­ian na­tion state, which was com­posed of the Danu­bian Prin­ci­pal­i­ties – Wal­lachia and Mol­davia. It was achieved when, under the aus­pices of the Treaty of Paris (1856), the ad hoc Di­vans of both coun­tries – which were under Im­pe­r­ial Ot­toman suzerainty at the time – voted for Alexan­der Ioan Cuza as their prince, thus achiev­ing a de facto uni­fi­ca­tion. The re­gion it­self is de­fined by the re­sult of that po­lit­i­cal act, fol­lowed by the in­clu­sion of North­ern Do­bruja in 1878, the procla­ma­tion of the King­dom of Ro­ma­nia in 1881, and the an­nex­a­tion of South­ern Do­brujain 1913. The term came into use after World War I, when the Old King­dom was op­posed to Greater Ro­ma­nia, which in­cluded Tran­syl­va­nia, Banat, Bessara­bia, and Bukov­ina. Nowa­days, the term is...

    Ro­ma­nia de­layed in en­ter­ing World War I, but ul­ti­mately de­clared war on the Cen­tral Pow­ers in 1916. The Ro­man­ian mil­i­tary cam­paign ended in stale­mate when the Cen­tral Pow­ers quickly crushed the coun­try's of­fen­sive into Tran­syl­va­nia and oc­cu­pied Wal­lachia and Do­bruja, in­clud­ing Bucharest and the strate­gi­cally im­por­tant oil fields, by the end of 1916. In 1917, de­spite fierce Ro­man­ian re­sis­tance, es­pe­cially at Mărăşeşti, due to Rus­sia's with­drawal from the war fol­low­ing the Oc­to­ber Rev­o­lu­tion, Ro­ma­nia, being al­most com­pletely sur­rounded by the Cen­tral Pow­ers, was forced to also drop from the war, sign­ing the Armistice of Focșani and next year, in May 1918, the Treaty of Bucharest. But after the suc­cess­ful of­fen­sive on the Thes­sa­loniki front which put Bul­garia out of the war, Ro­ma­nia's gov­ern­ment quickly re­asserted con­trol and put an army back into the field on 10 No­vem­ber 1918, a day be­fore the war ended in West­...

    At the Paris Peace Con­fer­ence, Ro­ma­nia re­ceived ter­ri­to­ries of Tran­syl­va­nia, part of Banat and other ter­ri­to­ries from Hun­gary, while as well Bessara­bia (East­ern Mol­davia be­tween Prut and Dni­ester rivers) and Bukov­ina. In the Treaty of Tri­anon, Hun­gary re­nounced in favor of Ro­ma­nia all the claims of the Aus­tro-Hun­gar­ian Monar­chy over Transylvania. The union of Ro­ma­nia with Bukov­ina was rat­i­fied in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Ger­main, and in 1920 some of the West­ern pow­ers rec­og­nized Ro­man­ian rule over Bessara­bia by the Treaty of Paris. Thus, Ro­ma­nia in 1920 was more than twice the size it had been in 1914. The last ter­ri­to­r­ial change dur­ing this pe­riod came in 1923, when a few bor­der set­tle­ments were ex­changed be­tween Ro­ma­nia and King­dom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The most no­table Ro­man­ian ac­qui­si­tion was the town of Jim­bo­lia, while the most no­table Yu­goslav ac­qui­si­tion was the town of Jaša Tomić. Al­though t...

    Pre-Kingdom Era to World War I

    At the time of the procla­ma­tion of the King­dom, there were al­ready sev­eral in­dus­trial fa­cil­i­ties in the coun­try: The Assan and Ola­mazu steam mills, built in 1853 and 1862 re­spec­tively, a brick fac­tory built in 1865, and two sugar fac­to­ries built in 1873, among oth­ers. In 1857, the first oil re­fin­ery in the world was built at Ploiești. In 1880, after sev­eral rail­ways were built, the CFRwas founded. After procla­ma­tion of the King­dom, the pre-es­tab­lished in­dus­trial f...

    Interwar years

    De­spite the de­struc­tion pro­voked by the First World War, Ro­man­ian in­dus­try man­aged sig­nif­i­cant growth, as a re­sult of new es­tab­lish­ments and de­vel­op­ment of the older ones. The MALAXA in­dus­trial en­gi­neer­ing and man­u­fac­tur­ing com­pany was es­tab­lished in 1921 by Ro­man­ian in­dus­tri­al­ist Nico­lae Malaxa and dealt es­pe­cially with rolling stock main­te­nance and man­u­fac­tur­ing. It de­vel­oped rapidly, and by 1930 Ro­ma­nia had man­aged to cease im­port­ing lo­...

    Armament industry

    Ro­man­ian mil­i­tary in­dus­try dur­ing World War I was mainly fo­cused on con­vert­ing var­i­ous for­ti­fi­ca­tion guns into field and anti-air­craft ar­tillery. Up to 334 Ger­man 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Ro­man­ian-built car­riages and trans­formed into mo­bile field ar­tillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being trans­formed into anti-air­craft ar­tillery. The Ro­ma­ni­a...

    The Ro­man­ian ex­pres­sion România Mare (lit­eral trans­la­tion "Great Ro­ma­nia", but more com­monly ren­dered in Eng­lish: "Greater Ro­ma­nia") gen­er­ally refers to the Ro­man­ian state in the in­ter­war pe­riod, and by ex­ten­sion, to the ter­ri­tory Ro­ma­nia cov­ered at the time. Ro­ma­nia achieved at that time its great­est ter­ri­to­r­ial ex­tent (al­most 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)). At the 1930 cen­sus, there were over 18 mil­lion in­hab­i­tants in Ro­ma­nia. The re­sult­ing "Greater Ro­ma­nia" did not sur­vive World War II. Until 1938, Ro­ma­nia's gov­ern­ments main­tained the form, if not al­ways the sub­stance, of a lib­eral con­sti­tu­tional monar­chy. The Na­tional Lib­eral Party, dom­i­nant in the years im­me­di­ately after World War I, be­came in­creas­ingly clien­telist and na­tion­al­ist, and in 1927 was sup­planted in power by the Na­tional Peas­ants' Party. Be­tween 1930 and 1940 there were over 25 sep­a­rate gov­ern­ments; on sev­eral oc­ca­sions in the last f...

    Ac­cord­ing to the 1930 Ro­man­ian Cen­sus, Ro­ma­nia had a pop­u­la­tion of 18,057,028. Ro­ma­ni­ans made up 71.9% of the pop­u­la­tion and 28.1% of the pop­u­la­tion were eth­nic mi­nori­ties.

    After In­de­pen­dence, the Ro­man­ian Old King­dom was di­vided into 33 coun­ties. After World War I, as a re­sult of the 1925 ad­min­is­tra­tive uni­fi­ca­tion law, the ter­ri­tory was di­vided into 71 coun­ties, 489 dis­tricts (plăși) and 8,879 com­munes. In 1938, King Carol II pro­mul­gated a new Con­sti­tu­tion, and sub­se­quently he had the ad­min­is­tra­tive di­vi­sion of the Ro­man­ian ter­ri­tory changed. Ten țin­u­turi (ap­prox­i­mate trans­la­tion: "lands") were cre­ated (by merg­ing the coun­ties) to be ruled by rezi­denți regali(ap­prox­i­mate trans­la­tion: "Royal Res­i­dents") - ap­pointed di­rectly by the King. This ad­min­is­tra­tive re­form did not last and the coun­ties were re-es­tab­lished after the fall of Carol's regime.

    Selection of newspapers of the Kingdom of Romania
    Alegătorul liber, Jan­u­ary 23, 1875
    Bukarester Tagblatt, Au­gust 10, 1880 (in Ger­man)
    Voința naționala, No­vem­ber 1, 1884
  10. మౌర్య సామ్రాజ్యం - వికీపీడియా › wiki › మౌర్యులు

    Centralized Absolute Monarchy with Divine Right of Kings as described in the Arthashastra: Divisions 4 provinces: Tosali Ujjain Suvarnagiri Taxila Semi-independent tribes Administration: Inner Council of Ministers (Mantriparishad) under a Mahamantri with a larger assembly of ministers (Mantrinomantriparisadamca).

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