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  1. Kingdom of France - Wikipedia › wiki › Kingdom_of_France

    On September 3, 1791, the absolute monarchy which had governed France for 948 years was forced to limit its power and become a provisional constitutional monarchy. However, this too would not last very long and on September 21, 1792 the French monarchy was effectively abolished by the proclamation of the French First Republic .

  2. Monarchy of Thailand - Wikipedia › wiki › Absolute_monarchy_in_Siam

    The current concept of Thai kingship evolved through 800 years of absolute rule. The first king of a unified Thailand was the founder of the Kingdom of Sukhothai, King Sri Indraditya, in 1238. The idea of this early kingship is said to be based on two concepts derived from Hinduism and Theravada Buddhist beliefs.

  3. Monarchy of China - Wikipedia › wiki › Monarchy_of_China

    China was a monarchy from prehistoric times up to 1912 CE, when the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in favor of the Republic of China. The succession of mythological monarchs of China were non-hereditary. Dynastic rule began in circa 2070 BCE when Yu the Great and his son Qi established the Xia dynasty, and lasted until 1912 CE when dynastic rule collapsed together with the monarchical system. The monarchy of China took the form of absolute monarchy, even though the actual power of

  4. History of Norway - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Norway_(2000

    The Reformation was introduced in 1537 and absolute monarchy imposed in 1661. In 1814, after being on the losing side of the Napoleonic Wars with Denmark, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel. Norway declared its independence and adopted a constitution.

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  6. Timeline of Swedish history - Wikipedia › wiki › Timeline_of_Swedish_history

    This is a timeline of Swedish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Sweden and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Sweden. See also the list of Swedish monarchs and list of Prime Ministers of Sweden. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

  7. Absolute Monarchy in France (1610-1793) timeline | Timetoast ... › timelines › absolute-monarchy-in

    Louis XIV ascended to the throne in 1643 at the age of 5. He would eventually rule France as an absolute monarch and centralize power in himself. But for now, he could not. The first years of his reign would be run by Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin would be in charge until his death in 1661. Before then, Louis XIV would rule like most of his predecessors.

  8. Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt - Wikipedia › wiki › 21st_Dynasty

    History. After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt, which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun ...

  9. Timeline of Icelandic history - Wikipedia › wiki › Timeline_of_Icelandic_history

    1801. The bishoprics of Skálholt and Hólar are united, located in Reykjavík. 1805. The Bessastaðaskóli is founded. 1807. Trade with Iceland all but disappears due to the Napoleonic Wars. 1809. Jørgen Jørgensen seizes power in Iceland and declares independence, but is deposed by the Danes shortly afterwards. 1835.

  10. History of Iceland - Wikipedia › wiki › Icelandic_history
    • Geological Background
    • Early History
    • Settlement
    • Commonwealth
    • Iceland Under Norwegian and Danish Kings
    • Republic of Iceland
    • Historiography
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    In geological terms, Iceland is a young island. It started to form in the Miocene era about 20 million years ago from a series of volcanic eruptions on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it lies between the North American and Eurasian plates. These plates spread at a rate of approximately 2.5 centimeters per year. This elevated portion of the ridge is known as the Reykjanes Ridge. The volcanic activity is attributed to a hotspot, the Iceland hotspot, which in turn lies over a mantle plume (the Iceland Plume) an anomalously hot rock in the Earth's mantle which is likely to be partly responsible for the island's creation and continued existence. For comparison, it is estimated that other volcanic islands, such as the Faroe Islands have existed for about 55 million years, the Azores (on the same ridge) about 8 million years, and Hawaii less than a million years. The younger rock strata in the southwest of Iceland and the central highlands are only about 700,000 years old. The geological his...

    Iceland remained, for a long time, one of the world's last uninhabited larger islands (the others being New Zealand and Madagascar). It has been suggested that the land called Thule by the Greek geographer Pytheas (fourth century BC) was actually Iceland, although it seems highly unlikely considering Pytheas' description of it as an agricultural country with plenty of milk, honey, and fruit: the name is more likely to have referred to Norway, or possibly the Faroe Islands or Shetland. The exact date that humans first reached the island is uncertain. Roman currency dating to the third century has been found in Iceland, but it is unknown whether they were brought there at that time or came later with Vikingsafter circulating for centuries.

    The first permanent settler in Iceland is usually considered to have been a Norwegian chieftain named Ingólfr Arnarson and his wife, Hallveig Fróðadóttir. According to the Landnámabók, he threw two carved pillars (Öndvegissúlur) overboard as he neared land, vowing to settle wherever they landed. He then sailed along the coast until the pillars were found in the southwestern peninsula, now known as Reykjanesskagi. There he settled with his family around 874, in a place he named Reykjavík "Smoke Cove", probably from the geothermal steam rising from the earth. This place eventually became the capital and the largest city of modern Iceland. It is recognized, however, that Ingólfr Arnarson may not have been the first one to settle permanently in Iceland—that may have been Náttfari, one of Garðar Svavarsson's men who stayed behind when Garðar returned to Scandinavia. Much of the information on Ingólfr comes from the Landnámabók, written some three centuries after the settlement. Archeolog...

    In 930, the ruling chiefs established an assembly called the Alþingi (Althing). The parliament convened each summer at Þingvellir, where representative chieftains (Goðorðsmenn or Goðar) amended laws, settled disputes and appointed juries to judge lawsuits. Laws were not written down but were instead memorized by an elected Lawspeaker (lǫgsǫgumaðr). The Alþingi is sometimes said to be the world's oldest existing parliament. Importantly, there was no central executive power, and therefore laws were enforced only by the people. This gave rise to feuds, which provided the writers of the sagas with plenty of material. Iceland enjoyed a mostly uninterrupted period of growth in its commonwealth years. Settlements from that era have been found in southwest Greenland and eastern Canada, and sagas such as Saga of Erik the Red and Greenland sagaspeak of the settlers' exploits.

    Norwegian rule

    Little changed in the decades following the treaty. Norway's consolidation of power in Iceland was slow, and the Althing intended to hold onto its legislative and judicial power. Nonetheless, the Christian clergy had unique opportunities to accumulate wealth via the tithe, and power gradually shifted to ecclesiastical authorities as Iceland's two bishops in Skálholt and Hólaracquired land at the expense of the old chieftains. Around the time Iceland became a vassal state of Norway, a climate...

    Kalmar Union

    Iceland remained under Norwegian kingship until 1380, when the death of Olaf II of Denmark extinguished the Norwegian male royal line. Norway (and thus Iceland) then became part of the Kalmar Union, along with Sweden and Denmark, with Denmark as the dominant power. Unlike Norway, Denmark did not need Iceland's fish and homespun wool. This created a dramatic deficit in Iceland's trade. The small Greenland colony, established in the late 10th century, died out completely before 1500. With the i...

    Foreign merchants and fishermen

    English and German merchants became more prominent in Iceland at the start of the 15th century. Some historians refer to the 15th century as the "English Age" in Iceland's history, due to the prominence of English traders and fishing fleets. What drew foreigners to Iceland was primarily fishing in the fruitful waters off the coast of Iceland. The Icelandic trade was important to some British ports; for example, in Hull, the Icelandic trade accounted for more than ten percent of Hull's total t...

    Founding of the republic

    On 31 December 1943, the Act of Union agreement expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with the King of Denmark and establish a republic. The vote was 97% in favour of ending the union and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland became an independent republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as its first president. Denmark was still occupied by Germany at the time. Danish Ki...

    NATO membership, US defense agreement, and the Cold War

    In October 1946, the Icelandic and United States governments agreed to terminate U.S. responsibility for the defense of Iceland, but the United States retained certain rights at Keflavík, such as the right to re-establish a military presence there, should war threaten. Iceland became a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 30 March 1949, with the reservation that it would never take part in offensive action against another nation. The membership came amid an anti-...

    Cod Wars

    The Cod Wars were a series of militarized interstate disputes between Iceland and the United Kingdomfrom the 1950s to the mid-1970s. The Proto Cod War (1952–1956) revolved around Iceland's extension of its fishery limits from 3 to 4 nautical miles. The First Cod War (1958–1961) was fought over Iceland's extension from 4 to 12 nautical miles (7 to 22 km). The Second Cod War (1972–1973) occurred when Iceland extended the limits to 50 miles (93 km). The Third Cod War (1975–1976) was fought over...

    Division of history into named periods

    While it is convenient to divide history into named periods, it is also misleading because the course of human events neither starts nor ends abruptly in most cases, and movements and influences often overlap. One period in Icelandic history, as Gunnar Karlsson describes, can be considered the period from 930 CE to 1262–1264, when there was no central government or leader, political power being characterised by chieftains ("goðar"). This period is referred to therefore as the þjóðveldisöld or...

    Axel Kristinsson. "Is there any tangible proof that there were Irish monks in Iceland before the time of the Viking settlements?" (2005) in English in Icelandic
    Bergsteinn Jónsson and Björn Þorsteinsson. "Íslandssaga til okkar daga" Sögufélag. Reykjavík. (1991) (in Icelandic) ISBN 9979-9064-4-8
    Byock, Jesse. Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas and Power University of California Press (1988) ISBN 0-520-06954-4 ISBN 0-226-52680-1
    Guðmundur Hálfdanarson;"Starfsmaður | Háskóli Íslands". Retrieved 2010-01-31. "Historical Dictionary of Iceland" Scarecrow Press. Maryland, USA. (1997) ISBN 0-8108-3352-2
    The physical anthropology of the mediaeval Icelanders with special reference to their racial origin Manuscriptat Dartmouth College Library
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