Hawaii, which was an absolute monarchy from its founding in 1810, transitioned to a constitutional monarchy in 1840 when King Kamehameha III promulgated the kingdom's first constitution. This constitutional form of government continued until the monarchy was overthrown in an 1893 coup .
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible. This is traditionally dated between 1047 BCE and 930 BCE. On the succession of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, around 930 BCE, the Biblical account reports that the country split into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. The United Monarchy was accepted on an archaeological basis until Israel
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- Characteristics and Role
- Current Monarchies
- See Also
- External Links
The word "monarch" (Late Latin: monarchia) comes from the Ancient Greek word μονάρχης (monárkhēs), derived from μόνος (mónos, "one, single") and ἄρχω (árkhō, "to rule"): compare ἄρχων (árkhōn, "ruler, chief"). It referred to a single at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchyusually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare.
The similar form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric. Chiefdoms provided the concept of state formation, which started with civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley Civilization. In some parts of the world, chiefdoms became monarchies. Some of the oldest recorded and evidenced monarchies were Narmer, Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt c. 3100 BCE, and Enmebaragesi, a Sumerian King of Kishc. 2600 BCE. From earliest historical times, with the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Sudanic, reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion, and others, the king held sacral functions directly connected to sacrifice or was considered by their people to have divine ancestry. In Germanic antiquity, kingship was primarily a sacral function. The king was directly hereditary for some tribes, while for others he was elected from among eligible members of royal families by the thing. T...
Monarchies are associated with hereditary reign, in which monarchs reign for life[note 2] and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family (called a dynasty when it continues for several generations), future monarchsare often trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch. Different systems of hereditary succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law). While most monarchs in history have been male, many female monarchs also have reigned. The term "queen regnant" refers to a ruling monarch, while "queen consort" refers to the wife of a reigning king. Rule may be hereditary in practice without be...
In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynastyor bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession. Primogeniture, in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in he...
In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected or appointed by somebody (an electoral college) for life or a defined period, but then reign like any other monarch. There is no popular vote involved in elective monarchies, as the elective body usually consists of a small number of eligible people. Historical examples of elective monarchy are the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by prince-electors but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kin...
Other ways of succession
Other ways to success a monarchy can be through claiming alternative votes (e.g. as in the case of the Western Schism), claims of a mandate to rule (e.g. a popular or divine mandate), military occupation, a coup d'état, a will of the previous monarch or treaties between factions inside and outside of a monarchy (e.g. as in the case of the War of the Spanish Succession).
Currently, there are 44 nations and a population of roughly half a billion people in the world with a monarch as head of state. They fall roughly into the following categories:
The monarchy of China took the form of absolute monarchy, even though the actual power of the ruler varied depending on his/her ability to consolidate the rule and various other factors. [a] During periods of political disunity, China was divided among competing dynasties that oftentimes claimed exclusive Chinese politico-cultural orthodoxy; in ...
History of United States foreign policy is a brief overview of major trends regarding the foreign policy of the United States from the American Revolution to the present. The major themes are becoming an "Empire of Liberty", promoting democracy, there was also had three different foreign policy choices expanding across the continent, supporting ...
24 March. In Bhutan's first parliamentary elections, the pro-monarchy Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party wins 45 out of 47 seats in the National Assembly, Bhutan's lower house. Another pro-monarchy party, the People's Democratic Party, wins the remaining two seats in Gasa and Haa Districts . 18 July.
- Archaic Period
- Classical Greece
- Hellenistic Period
- Roman Republic
- Roman Empire
- Late Antiquity
- Political Revivalism
- Cultural Legacy
- See Also
The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place against the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse. The 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. Homer is usually assumed to have lived in the 8th or 7th century BC, and his lifetime is often taken as marking the beginning of classical antiquity. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient Olympic Games, in 776 BC.
The classical period of Ancient Greece corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, in particular, from the fall of the Athenian tyranny in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. In 510, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy conducted by Isagoras. The Greco-Persian Wars (499–449 BC), concluded by the Peace of Callias gave way not only to the liberation of Greece, Macedon, Thrace, and Ionia from Persian rule, but also resulted in giving the dominant position of Athens in the Delian League, which led to conflict with Sparta and the Peloponnesian League, resulting in the Peloponnesian War(431–404 BC), which ended in a Spartan victory. Greece entered the 4th century under Spartan hegemony, but by 395 BC the Spartan rulers removed Lysander from office, and Sparta lost her naval supremacy. Athens, Argos, Thebes and Corinth, the latter two of which were...
Classical Greece entered the Hellenistic period with the rise of Macedon and the conquests of Alexander the Great. Greek became the lingua franca far beyond Greece itself, and Hellenistic culture interacted with the cultures of Persia, Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Central Asia and Egypt. Significant advances were made in the sciences (geography, astronomy, mathematics, etc.), notably with the followers of Aristotle (Aristotelianism). The Hellenistic period ended with the rise of the Roman Republicto a super-regional power in the 2nd century BC and the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC.
The Republican period of Ancient Rome began with the overthrow of the Monarchy c. 509 BC and lasted over 450 years until its subversion through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. During the half millennium of the Republic, Rome rose from a regional power of the Latium to the dominant force in Italy and beyond. The unification of Italy under Roman hegemony was a gradual process, brought about in a series of conflicts of the 4th and 3rd centuries, the Samnite Wars, Latin War, and Pyrrhic War. Roman victory in the Punic Wars and Macedonian Wars established Rome as a super-regional power by the 2nd century BC, followed up by the acquisition of Greece and Asia Minor. This tremendous increase of power was accompanied by economic instability and social unrest, leading to the Catiline conspiracy, the Social War and the First Triumvirate, and finally the transformation to the Roman Empire in the latter half of the 1st century BC.
The precise end of the Republic is disputed by modern historians;[note 2] Roman citizens of the time did not recognize that the Republic had ceased to exist. The early Julio-Claudian Emperors maintained that the res publica still existed, albeit under the protection of their extraordinary powers, and would eventually return to its full Republican form. The Roman state continued to call itself a res publicaas long as it continued to use Latin as its official language. Rome acquired imperial character de facto from the 130s BC with the acquisition of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyria, Greece and Hispania, and definitely with the addition of Iudaea, Asia Minor and Gaul in the 1st century BC. At the time of the empire's maximal extension under Trajan (AD 117), Rome controlled the entire Mediterranean as well as Gaul, parts of Germania and Britannia, the Balkans, Dacia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia. Culturally, the Roman Empire was significantly Hellenized, but also saw the rise of sy...
Late antiquity saw the rise of Christianity under Constantine I, finally ousting the Roman imperial cult with the Theodosian decrees of 393. Successive invasions of Germanic tribes finalized thedecline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, while the Eastern Roman Empire persisted throughout the Middle Ages, in a state called the Roman Empire by its citizens, and labeled the Byzantine Empire by later historians.Hellenistic philosophy was succeeded by continued developments in Platonism and Epicureanism, with Neoplatonism in due course influencing the theology of the Church Fathers. Many writers have attempted to put a specific date on the symbolic "end" of antiquity with the most prominent dates being the deposing of the last Western Roman Emperor in 476, the closing of the last Platonic Academy in Athens by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I in 529, and the conquest of much of the Mediterranean by the new Muslim faith from 634–718. These Muslim conquests, of Syria (637)...
In politics, the late Roman conception of the Empire as a universal state, headed by one supreme divinely-appointed ruler, united with Christianity as a universal religion likewise headed by a supreme patriarch, proved very influential, even after the disappearance of imperial authority in the west. This tendency reached its peak when Charlemagne was crowned "Roman Emperor" in the year 800, an act which led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. The notion that an emperor is a monarchwho outranks a mere king dates from this period. In this political ideal, there would always be a Roman Empire, a state whose jurisdiction extended through the entire civilized western world. That model continued to exist in Constantinople for the entirety of the Middle Ages; the Byzantine Emperor was considered the sovereign of the entire Christian world. The Patriarch of Constantinople was the Empire's highest-ranked cleric, but even he was subordinate to the Emperor, who was "God's Vicegerent on...
Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history. Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many rather disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" often refers to an idealized vision of later people, of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe's words, In the 18th and 19th centuries AD, reverence for classical antiquity was much greater in Europe and the United States than it is today. Respect for the ancient people of Greece and Rome affected politics, philosophy, sculpture, literature, theatre, education, architecture, and sexuality. Epic poetry in Latin continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. John Milton and even Arthur Rimbaud received their first poetic educations in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, pastoral verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from Greek mythology left a deep mark on Western literature. In architecture, there have been several Greek Revivals, which seem more inspired in retrospect by R...
- Geological Background
- Early History
- Iceland Under Norwegian and Danish Kings
- Republic of Iceland
- See Also
- External Links
In geological terms, Iceland is a young island. It started to form in the Miocene era about 20 million years ago from a series of volcanic eruptions on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it lies between the North American and Eurasian plates. These plates spread at a rate of approximately 2.5 centimeters per year. This elevated portion of the ridge is known as the Reykjanes Ridge. The volcanic activity is attributed to a hotspot, the Iceland hotspot, which in turn lies over a mantle plume (the Iceland Plume) an anomalously hot rock in the Earth's mantle which is likely to be partly responsible for the island's creation and continued existence. For comparison, it is estimated that other volcanic islands, such as the Faroe Islands have existed for about 55 million years, the Azores (on the same ridge) about 8 million years, and Hawaii less than a million years. The younger rock strata in the southwest of Iceland and the central highlands are only about 700,000 years old. The geological his...
Iceland remained, for a long time, one of the world's last uninhabited larger islands (the others being New Zealand and Madagascar). It has been suggested that the land called Thule by the Greek geographer Pytheas (fourth century BC) was actually Iceland, although it seems highly unlikely considering Pytheas' description of it as an agricultural country with plenty of milk, honey, and fruit: the name is more likely to have referred to Norway, or possibly the Faroe Islands or Shetland. The exact date that humans first reached the island is uncertain. Roman currency dating to the third century has been found in Iceland, but it is unknown whether they were brought there at that time or came later with Vikingsafter circulating for centuries.
The first permanent settler in Iceland is usually considered to have been a Norwegian chieftain named Ingólfr Arnarson and his wife, Hallveig Fróðadóttir. According to the Landnámabók, he threw two carved pillars (Öndvegissúlur) overboard as he neared land, vowing to settle wherever they landed. He then sailed along the coast until the pillars were found in the southwestern peninsula, now known as Reykjanesskagi. There he settled with his family around 874, in a place he named Reykjavík "Smoke Cove", probably from the geothermal steam rising from the earth. This place eventually became the capital and the largest city of modern Iceland. It is recognized, however, that Ingólfr Arnarson may not have been the first one to settle permanently in Iceland—that may have been Náttfari, one of Garðar Svavarsson's men who stayed behind when Garðar returned to Scandinavia. Much of the information on Ingólfr comes from the Landnámabók, written some three centuries after the settlement. Archeolog...
In 930, the ruling chiefs established an assembly called the Alþingi (Althing). The parliament convened each summer at Þingvellir, where representative chieftains (Goðorðsmenn or Goðar) amended laws, settled disputes and appointed juries to judge lawsuits. Laws were not written down but were instead memorized by an elected Lawspeaker (lǫgsǫgumaðr). The Alþingi is sometimes said to be the world's oldest existing parliament. Importantly, there was no central executive power, and therefore laws were enforced only by the people. This gave rise to feuds, which provided the writers of the sagas with plenty of material. Iceland enjoyed a mostly uninterrupted period of growth in its commonwealth years. Settlements from that era have been found in southwest Greenland and eastern Canada, and sagas such as Saga of Erik the Red and Greenland sagaspeak of the settlers' exploits.
Little changed in the decades following the treaty. Norway's consolidation of power in Iceland was slow, and the Althing intended to hold onto its legislative and judicial power. Nonetheless, the Christian clergy had unique opportunities to accumulate wealth via the tithe, and power gradually shifted to ecclesiastical authorities as Iceland's two bishops in Skálholt and Hólaracquired land at the expense of the old chieftains. Around the time Iceland became a vassal state of Norway, a climate...
Iceland remained under Norwegian kingship until 1380, when the death of Olaf II of Denmark extinguished the Norwegian male royal line. Norway (and thus Iceland) then became part of the Kalmar Union, along with Sweden and Denmark, with Denmark as the dominant power. Unlike Norway, Denmark did not need Iceland's fish and homespun wool. This created a dramatic deficit in Iceland's trade. The small Greenland colony, established in the late 10th century, died out completely before 1500. With the i...
Foreign merchants and fishermen
English and German merchants became more prominent in Iceland at the start of the 15th century. Some historians refer to the 15th century as the "English Age" in Iceland's history, due to the prominence of English traders and fishing fleets. What drew foreigners to Iceland was primarily fishing in the fruitful waters off the coast of Iceland. The Icelandic trade was important to some British ports; for example, in Hull, the Icelandic trade accounted for more than ten percent of Hull's total t...
Founding of the republic
On 31 December 1943, the Act of Union agreement expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with the King of Denmark and establish a republic. The vote was 97% in favour of ending the union and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland became an independent republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as its first president. Denmark was still occupied by Germany at the time. Danish Ki...
NATO membership, US defense agreement, and the Cold War
In October 1946, the Icelandic and United States governments agreed to terminate U.S. responsibility for the defense of Iceland, but the United States retained certain rights at Keflavík, such as the right to re-establish a military presence there, should war threaten. Iceland became a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 30 March 1949, with the reservation that it would never take part in offensive action against another nation. The membership came amid an anti-...
The Cod Wars were a series of militarized interstate disputes between Iceland and the United Kingdomfrom the 1950s to the mid-1970s. The Proto Cod War (1952–1956) revolved around Iceland's extension of its fishery limits from 3 to 4 nautical miles. The First Cod War (1958–1961) was fought over Iceland's extension from 4 to 12 nautical miles (7 to 22 km). The Second Cod War (1972–1973) occurred when Iceland extended the limits to 50 miles (93 km). The Third Cod War (1975–1976) was fought over...
Division of history into named periods
While it is convenient to divide history into named periods, it is also misleading because the course of human events neither starts nor ends abruptly in most cases, and movements and influences often overlap. One period in Icelandic history, as Gunnar Karlsson describes, can be considered the period from 930 CE to 1262–1264, when there was no central government or leader, political power being characterised by chieftains ("goðar"). This period is referred to therefore as the þjóðveldisöld or...Axel Kristinsson. "Is there any tangible proof that there were Irish monks in Iceland before the time of the Viking settlements?" (2005) in English in IcelandicBergsteinn Jónsson and Björn Þorsteinsson. "Íslandssaga til okkar daga" Sögufélag. Reykjavík. (1991) (in Icelandic) ISBN 9979-9064-4-8Byock, Jesse. Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas and Power University of California Press (1988) ISBN 0-520-06954-4 ISBN 0-226-52680-1Guðmundur Hálfdanarson;"Starfsmaður | Háskóli Íslands". Hug.hi.is. Retrieved 2010-01-31. "Historical Dictionary of Iceland" Scarecrow Press. Maryland, USA. (1997) ISBN 0-8108-3352-2The physical anthropology of the mediaeval Icelanders with special reference to their racial origin Manuscriptat Dartmouth College Library
- Symbols and Titles
- Second French Empire
- The Accord de Drapeau and Philippian France
- Carlism and The French State
- Modern France
Since the end of World War II, the style of the King of France is as follows: By the Grace of God and by the Constitutional Law of the State, King of France The Fleur-de-lisand the French crown jewels are the primary emblems of the French monarchy. In terms of protocol and ceremony the King of France is accorded first within the French government, followed by the Queen of France and the Prime Minister.
By the French Constitution, succession to the French throne is through agnatic primogeniture. Although there have been numerous proposals to reform the Constitution to allow absolute primogeniture instead, none have gained significant government attention or a place on national ballots.
Napoleon III was the sole emperor of the Second French Empire. Prior to the empire's establishment, Napoleon was also the authoritarian president of the Second French Republic. Napoleon III was the nephew of the famous Napoleon Bonaparte. During Napoleon III's reign, France began to become a major world power and possessed one of the strongest militaries in Europe. As one of the great powers, France became involved in numerous conflicts such as the Crimean War. Napoleon III also sponsored the ultimately unsuccessful Second Mexican Empire in North America. France also began numerous colonies in Asia and Africa. Napoleon III abdicated the throne following France's surprise defeat in the Franco-Prussian War but support for Napoleon and his descendants would remain in France for decades.
Following Napoleon's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, a large majority of monarchists won the legislative elections that soon followed. However, they were split between supporting Henri the Count of Chambord of the Legitimist line and Philippe the Count of Paris of the Orleanist line. The two factions reached an agreement where the childless Henri would recognize Philippe as his heir. A problem soon arose when Henri would not accept the tricolor as the flag of France, insisting on the original Bourbon flag. After substantial pressure and compromise, Henri agreed to accept the tricolor and became Henri V of France. Henri V's reign saw a significant yet short-lived rise of influence in France's right-leaning factions as well as a less significant but longer-lived threat of Bonapartist victories in legislative elections. The governments that acted under Henri V were frequently described as part of a new "Ordre Moral" that supported proper governance and political and social morals. M...
In 1932, the far-right fascist Parti Action National (National Action Party) seized power in the weakened Vichy Republic and declared the formation of the French State. PAN leader Jacques Doriot supported the idea of the "National People's State" that would place indisputable executive authority within the hands of a dictator. Doriot took the title of Chef (Chief) and began to reshape France in the PAN's image. However, significant opposition to the idea of a sole Chef took form in other French conservative circles, forcing Doriot to consider the idea of restoring the monarchy. The PAN and other far-right parties desired a return to the values of France before the French Revolution. Forced to consider a possible monarch, Doriot ruled out a return of the Orleanists under Jean III, as they embodied the liberal ideals of the French Revolution and were blamed by the PAN for France's defeat in the first world war. He also rejected the Bonapartists under Napoleon IV, as he considered thei...
Following World War II, France was divided into occupation zones. The question of what system of government would be implemented in France following the war dominated the concerns of the Allied powers. The United States wanted to institute a republican form of government or at least one committed to liberal values. Britain shared the commitment to liberal values. Germany was most concerned that the new monarchy in France would be one that would be one that would not pose a threat to Germany. Because of the Legitimists' association with the prior French State, they were not considered for the throne of France. The first proposal floated was to install Jean-Napoleon (Napoleon VI) as the King of France. This was a popular proposal at first, since Napoleon was related to both the British Royal Family and the Grand Duchess of Luxemburg, a German state. However, this ran into opposition both from the United States and members of French politics and the French public, all of whom feared th...