In Bhutan, the government moved from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy following planned parliamentary elections to the Tshogdu in 2003, and the election of a National Assembly in 2008. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Nepalese Civil War , the Maoist insurgency , and the 2001 ...
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The word "monarch" (Late Latin: monarchia) comes from the Ancient Greek word μονάρχης (monárkhēs), derived from μόνος (mónos, "one, single") and ἄρχω (árkhō, "to rule"): compare ἄρχων (árkhōn, "ruler, chief"). It referred to a single at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchyusually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare.
Monarchies are thought to be preceded by the similar form of prehistoric societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship. Chiefdoms are identified as having formed monarchic states, as in civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley Civilization. In some parts of the world, chiefdoms became monarchies. Some of the oldest recorded and evidenced monarchies were Narmer, Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt c. 3100 BCE, and Enmebaragesi, a Sumerian King of Kishc. 2600 BCE. According to a 2020 study, monarchy arose as a system of governance because of an efficiency in governing large populations and expansive territories during periods when coordinating such populations was difficult. The authors argue that monarchy declined as an efficient regime type with innovations in communications and transportation technology, as the efficiency of monarchy relative to other regime types declined. From earliest records, monarchs could be directly hereditary, while others were e...
Monarchies are associated with hereditary reign, in which monarchs reign for life[note 2] and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family (called a dynasty when it continues for several generations), future monarchsare often trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch. Different systems of hereditary succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law). While most monarchs in history have been male, many female monarchs also have reigned. The term "queen regnant" refers to a ruling monarch, while "queen consort" refers to the wife of a reigning king. Rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy: there have been some family dictatorships[no...
In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynastyor bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession. Primogeniture, in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in hereditary monarchy. The order of succ...
In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected or appointed by somebody (an electoral college) for life or a defined period, but then reign like any other monarch. There is no popular vote involved in elective monarchies, as the elective body usually consists of a small number of eligible people. Historical examples of elective monarchy are the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by prince-electors but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwe...
Other ways of succession
Other ways to success a monarchy can be through claiming alternative votes (e.g. as in the case of the Western Schism), claims of a mandate to rule (e.g. a popular or divine mandate), military occupation, a coup d'état, a will of the previous monarch or treaties between factions inside and outside of a monarchy (e.g. as in the case of the War of the Spanish Succession).
Currently, there are 44 nations and a population of roughly half a billion people in the world with a monarch as head of state. They fall roughly into the following categories:
Constitutional monarchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia which was an absolute monarchy from its founding in 1810, "Constitutional Monarchy", The Encyclopedia of Political Science (CQ Press), doi:10.4135 Absolute monarchy - The Full Wiki Absolute monarchy: Wikis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Taken literally, theocracy means rule by God or gods and refers primarily to an internal "rule of the heart", especially in its biblical application. The common, generic use of the term, as defined above in terms of rule by a church or analogous religious leadership, would be more accurately described as an ecclesiocracy.
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Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy, high-relief bronze by Léopold Morice, Monument of the Republic, Place de la République, Paris, 1883 During the French Revolution , the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté ) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on ...
Jun 30, 2011 · On that subject, in 1998 was founded the Royalist Party of America (the colorful “Purple shirts”) which advocated making the United States a kingdom. In its original incarnation the RPA worked out a plan for what constitutional amendments would have to be passed in order to establish a monarchy in the United States.