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How is maculopapular rash diagnosed?
What are the symptoms of pruritic rash?
What causes morbilliform rash?
What causes generalized rash?
Aug 08, 2019 · Symptoms include fever, headache, and runny nose, followed by a pruritic rash on the face ("slapped cheek"), as well as on the torso and extremities. [19,20] The disease is typically self-limited (7-10 days) and resolves without complications or sequelae in children.
Sep 28, 2019 · This rash (herald patch) may spread as small patches to other parts of the back, chest and neck. The rash may form a pattern on the back that resembles a Christmas tree. Pityriasis rosea usually goes away without treatment in four to 10 weeks, but it can last months. Medicated lotions may lessen itchiness and speed the disappearance of the rash.
Sep 28, 2019 · Previous Next 1 of 12 Atopic dermatitis. Skin rashes can occur from a variety of factors, including infections, heat, allergens, immune system disorders and medications. One of the most common skin disorders that causes a rash is atopic dermatitis (ay-TOP-ik dur-muh-TI-tis), also known as eczema.
Mar 15, 2010 · Patients with acute generalized maculopapular rashes and no systemic symptoms are often treated symptomatically without a definitive diagnosis. If the rash does not resolve spontaneously, skin ...
- John W. Ely, Mary Seabury Stone
Nov 27, 2018 · A rash can be local to just one small part of the body, or it can cover a large area. Rashes come in many forms, and common causes include contact dermatitis, bodily infections, and allergic ...
Aug 13, 2018 · Skin rashes can be both unsightly and uncomfortable. Some are caused by minor irritations or allergies, while others are related to more serious infections. We’ll help you identify different ...
The patient with an acute maculopapular rash presents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The term 'maculopapular is non-specific, as many eruptions have a primary morphology of macules or papules, and the term may be misused to indicate any rash.
- Signs and symptoms
Morbilliform rash, or \\"measles-like\\" maculopapular skin eruption, is commonly caused by certain drug reactions or viral diseases. Maculopapular rashes are skin eruptions that exhibit both the characteristics of a macule and papule. Macules are small, circumscribed and discolored spots on the skin. The diameter of a macule is not more than .4 inches (10 mm). Papules, on the other hand, are eruptions on the skin, which can look something like a pimple. Morbilliform rashes, therefore, are raised, discolored spots that spread symmetrically across the body.
These rashes may occur due to bacterial infections, drug reactions, and specific or non-specific viral exanthems, also known as viral rashes. A viral exanthem is non-specific if there is no exact information on the virus that has caused the rash. In such a case, the clinician identifies the presence of the virus that is likely to have caused the rash. Morbilliform rash is a \\"late drug rash.\\" It appears on the skin of the affected individual after one to two weeks of exposure to drugs, such as antibiotics or barbiturates. Drug-caused rashes of this kind are usually associated with penicillin, cephalosporins, sulphonamides, and anticonvulsants. Morbilliform rashes often occur in children affected by viral diseases such as measles, Rubella, Roseola, and Erythema infectiosum. In adults, these rashes are usually non-specific viral rashes. This type of rash is also frequently seen in patients who administer ampicillin for the treatment of mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus. People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tend to develop an acute morbilliform rash when treated with sulfa drugs.
This rash can also appear as a consequence of certain viral diseases. If antibiotics have been started for the patient during the early stages of the viral disease, then the appearance of a morbilliform rash may lead to confusion in diagnosis. Once a drug-induced morbilliform rash is diagnosed, the doctor may ask the patient to discontinue the use of a particular drug.
Usually, oral antihistamines or topical corticosteroids are prescribed for treating these types of rashes. Oral corticosteroids are avoided, as there are chances of the rash to worsen during the steroid therapy, which may lead to the wrong diagnosis. A drug-induced morbilliform rash will usually subside within almost two weeks after the discontinuation of the particular drug. When this type of rash heals, the affected skin sheds or peels, which is also known as skin desquamation.
- What Is A Blistering Disease?
- Acute Blistering Diseases
- Chronic Blistering Diseases
A blistering disease is a condition in which there are fluid-filled skin lesions. 1. Vesicles are small blisters less than 5 mm in diameter. 2. A bulla is a larger blister. Note that the plural of bulla is bullae. 3. Blisters may break or the roof of the blister may become detached forming an erosion. Exudation of serous fluid forms crust.
Acute blistering diseases can be generalised or localised to one body site and are due to infection or inflammatory disorders. Although most commonly eczematous, generalised acute blistering diseases can be life-threatening and often necessitate hospitalisation. Acute blistering conditions should be investigated by taking swabs for bacterial and viral culture. A skin biopsy may be helpful in making a diagnosis.
Diagnosis of chronic blistering diseases often requires skin biopsy for histopathology and direct immunofluorescence. A blood test for specific antibodies (indirect immunofluorescence) may also prove helpful in making the diagnosis of an immunobullous disease.
- Description of The Problem
- Emergency Management
- Special Considerations For Nursing and Allied Health Professionals.
- What's The Evidence?
Patients may present to the ICU with widespread skin lesions from multiple etiologies. Widespread eruptions or acute skin inflammation may be the primary problem leading to ICU admission or a cutaneous sign of a significant internal process, or may arise as a complication of management of a separate systemic disease. Patients in the ICU are at risk for developing numerous skin problems as a result of critical illness and the conditions required to care for acutely ill patients; these patients...
Initial management of patients admitted to the ICU with diffuse skin rashes is complicated and depends somewhat on the extent and morphology of the skin rash.1. Assess airway, breathing, and circulation. In cases of widespread skin failure and epidermal loss, severe cases may involve the upper airway and bronchi. Cases of widespread erythroderma and cutaneous vasodilatation may lead to circulatory collapse due to high-output cardiac failure. Patients with skin failure and widespread blisterin...
To arrive at the correct diagnosis, patients should be evaluated by a skilled dermatologist as early as possible. While a thorough history and detailed physical examination may provide clues, particularly through analysis of the lesion morphology, past patient history, and timing of the eruption, a dermatologist may be invaluable in narrowing the differential diagnosis and directing the workup. A skin biopsy can provide useful information, and should be interpreted by a pathologist familiar w...
As this section reviews the wide array of potential causes of diffuse skin eruptions in patients in the ICU, diseases of multiple etiologies due to a wide variety of pathogeneses have been discussed. In general, in cases of widespread skin eruption, there is diffuse inflammation of the dermis or epidermis, which often leads to peripheral vasodilation of the skin and can cause high-output cardiac failure. Two key functions of the skin are to serve as an impermeable barrier, preventing water lo...
This chapter discusses an array of diseases. In general, there is a trend towards more drug reactions in patients with HIV, lupus, or organ transplant, and in the elderly and in women more than men, presumably because these groups often take more medications. Patients with HIV are at a particularly elevated risk of severe adverse drug reactions. The most common cause of erythroderma is an exacerbation of an underlying skin condition, and patients with primary skin disease are at risk for prog...
See sections above on care of patients with widespread skin rash: careful hand washing, aseptic/sterile technique, avoid increased skin trauma, place IVs as areas of normal skin, keep the patient clean, keep areas of skin loss/denuded skin moist and covered with non-stick dressings, monitor temperature, regular skin exams for progression.
Rothe, MJ, Bernstein, ML, Grant-Kels, JM. “Life-threatening erythroderma: diagnosing and treating the \\"red man.\\"”. Clin Dermatol. vol. 23. 2005. pp. 206-217. Ramos-e-Silva, M, Pereira, ALC. “Life-threatening eruptions due to infectious agents”. Clin Dermatol. vol. 23. 2005. pp. 148-156. Bachot, N, Roujeau, JC. “Differential diagnosis of severe cutaneous drug eruptions”. Am J Clin Dermatol. vol. 4. 2003. pp. 561-572. Hughey, LC. “Fever and erythema in the emergency room”. Semin Cutan Med Surg....
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