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In India, the AD series Hyundai Elantra launched on 23 August 2016 with petrol and diesel engine options. Its petrol variant displaces 2.0-litre, while the diesel engine is a 1.6-litre unit. North America. The sixth generation Elantra was announced to be released for sale in February 2016 for the 2017 model year in North America.
- Operational History
- Surviving Aircraft
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On 13 July 1934, the French Air Force launched a new technical programme, under which the development of improved fighter aircraft to improve upon the Dewoitine D.510, which was yet to enter service at that point but was already considered to be obsolete in the face of rapid advances being made in several European nations. While French aircraft company Dewoitine initially responded with an improved design based on the D.510, designated as the D.513, this quickly proved to be inferior to the i...
Specification and rivals
On 12 January 1937, the A.23 technical programme was launched by the Air Ministry. The specifications called for a maximum speed of 520 km/h (320 mph) at 4,000 m (13,000 ft), the ability to climb to 8,000 m (26,000 ft) in less than fifteen minutes, with takeoff and landing runs not exceeding 400 m (1,300 ft). The armament was to be two 7.5 mm (0.295 in) machine guns and one 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.9 cannon, or two HS.9 cannon. Other aircraft designed to the same specification included the Mora...
Modifications and first prototypes
On 2 October 1938, the first prototype aircraft, D.520-01, powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12Y-21 engine that temporarily drove a fixed-pitch, two-bladed wooden propeller, performed its maiden flight.Completion of the prototype had been delayed somewhat by the need to incorporate modifications requested by the STAe following their examination of a wooden mock-up of the type. During early flight tests, the first prototype managed to reach only 480 km/h (300 mph), and suffered from dangerously high...
The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft, intended to be a capable contemporary of types such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Supermarine Spitfire. An all-metal structure was used, except for fabric-covered ailerons and tail surfaces. The wing, even if single-spar, was a solid and rigid unit with a secondary spar and many reinforced parts. The inwardly retracting undercarriage had a broad 2.83 m (9.3 ft) track, and was fitted with wide, low-pressure tyres. The D.520 was designed to b...
The Hispano-Suiza 12Y-45 engine was an underpowered, older design, with 850 CV (840 hp) at takeoff at 2,400 rpm, or 935 CV (922 hp) emergency power at 2,520 rpm and at a height of 1,900 m (6,200 ft). The Hispano engine had some advantages over some later engines; for example, its weight was only 515 kg (1,135 lb), compared to the 620 kg (1,370 lb) of the Rolls-Royce Merlin III. Development of the engine had not been straightforward, and had delayed overall production of the aircraft. Accordin...
Fire suppression system
The D.520 had a fire-suppression system with a fire extinguisher activated from the cockpit. The engine was started by a simple but effective system, operating with compressed air. A Viet 250 air compressor charged several air bottles (one with a 12-litre capacity, as well as another eight litre tank, three smaller one litre units were matched to the weapons). The 12-litre air bottle was used for the brakes and later, for the Chauvière propeller's constant speed adjustment. The small air bott...
With the Allies
In December 1942, as French forces formerly under Vichy sided with the Allies, there were 153 D.520s left in French hands in North Africa. They flew a few patrols during the Tunisia campaign, but were considered obsolete, and their radio sets were incompatible with Allied equipment. From early 1943 on, they were relegated to training duties at the fighter school in Meknes, and progressively replaced by Supermarine Spitfires and Bell P-39 Airacobrasin combat units. During the liberation of Fra...
Regia Aeronautica Dewoitines
About 60 D.520s were acquired by the Regia Aeronautica (the Italian Air Force or RA). Italian pilots appreciated the aircraft's capabilities and Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon, at least by 1940–1941 standards. The first three D.520s were assigned to 2° Stormo based at the Torino-Caselle airfield, where they were used for the defence of Torino's industrial area. Other D.520s were captured in Montélimar, Orange, Istres and Aix-en-Provence. At the beginning of 1943, the Italian ace Luigi Gorrini fe...
Other foreign users
German forces invading Vichy's so-called "free zone" in November 1942, captured 246 D.520s; additionally, a batch of 62 was completed under German occupation. The captured Dewoitines were to be delivered to the Axis Balkan Front, although some were used by the Luftwaffe for training purposes while 60 were transferred to Italy and 96, or 120, to the Bulgarian Air Force for use in combat. However, D.520s reached Bulgaria only in August 1943, as the fighter pilots of that country were still trai...
1. The main production version, sometimes designated the D.520 S (for série – production) or the D.520 C1 (for chasseur– fighter, single-seat).
Apart from the first prototype and postwar examples, D.520s sported the usual French camouflage of dark blue-grey, khaki, and dark brown with light blue-grey undersurfaces. The camouflage pattern was not standardized. National markingswere the standard light-blue-white-red roundels on the wingtips, as well as on the rear fuselage, and the rudder flag. Specific markings were applied during the Vichy era, consisting of white outlined fuselage roundels with a white fuselage stripe, and from mid-1941 on, the infamous "slave's pajamas" with red and yellow stripes on the engine cowling and tail surfaces.
Main operators Kingdom of Bulgaria 1. Bulgarian Air Force France 1. French Air Force 2. Aéronautique navale Free France 1. Free French Air Force Germany 1. Luftwaffe Italy 1. Regia Aeronautica Intended operators Romania Royal Romanian Air Forcen°603 – D.520 on display at the Conservatoire de l’air et de l’espace d'Aquitaine in Bordeaux–Mérignac.n°650 – D.520 under restoration at the Musée National de la Marine in Rochefort.n°862 – D.520 on display at the Musée de l’air et de l’espace. It is painted as n°277, which was used by GC III/6 in June 1940.[failed verification]
Data from Le Dewoitine D.520, The Dewoitine D.520 General characteristics 1. Crew:1 2. Length:8.6 m (28 ft 3 in) 3. Wingspan:10.2 m (33 ft 6 in) 4. Height:2.57 m (8 ft 5 in) 5. Wing area: 15.87 m2(170.8 sq ft) 6. Empty weight:2,123 kg (4,680 lb) 7. Gross weight:2,677 kg (5,902 lb) 8. Max takeoff weight:2,785 kg (6,140 lb) 9. Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Y-49 V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine, 710 kW (950 hp) (from No.351) 10. Propellers:3-bladed Chauvière type 3918, 3 m (9 ft 10 in) diameter pneumatically operated variable-pitch propeller Performance 1. Maximum speed:560 km/h (350 mph, 300 kn) 2. Range:1,250 km (780 mi, 670 nmi) 3. Service ceiling:10,000 m (33,000 ft) 4. Rate of climb:14.3 m/s (2,810 ft/min) 5. Wing loading: 167 kg/m2(34 lb/sq ft) 6. Power/mass:0.257 kW/kg (0.156 hp/lb) Armament 1. Guns: 1.1. 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) Hispano-Suiza HS.404(60-round drum) cannon 1.2. 4 × 7.5 mm (0.295 in) MAC 1934(675 rpg) machine guns
Related development 1. D.521 2. D.522 3. D.523 4. D.524 5. D.525 6. D.530 Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era 1. Arsenal VG.33C1 2. Bloch MB.150 3. Caudron C.714C1 "Cyclone" 4. Curtiss P-40 5. Hawker Hurricane 6. Lavochkin LaGG-3 7. Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien 8. Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa 9. North American P-51 Mustang 10. Macchi C.200 11. Messerschmitt Bf 109 12. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 13. Mitsubishi A6M Zero 14. Rogožarski IK-3 15. SNCAO 200 16. Supermarine Spitfire 17. Yakovlev Yak-1 Related lists 1. List of aircraft of the French Air Force 2. List of aircraft of World War IIAngelucci, Enzo and Paolo Matricardi. World Aircraft: World War II, Volume I (Sampson Low Guides). Maidenhead, UK: Sampson Low, 1978. ISBN 0-562-00096-8.L'aviazione encyclopedia (The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft). London: Aerospace Publishing /De Agostini, 1986.Avions Militaires 1919–1939 – Profiles et Histoire. Paris: Connaissance de l’Histoire Hachette, 1979.Bączkowski, W. Dewoitine D.520(in Polish). Warsaw, Poland: Books International, 1998.
WQLQ. WQLQ (99.9 FM) is a radio station licensed to Benton Harbor, Michigan targeting the South Bend, Indiana market. WQLQ is owned by Mid-West Family Broadcasting. Its signal is regularly heard as far as Chicago, Illinois, and as far east as Battle Creek, Michigan. As of June 2011, the station has re-imaged from Cat Country 99-9 to Real ...
Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class. The Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class is a series of subcompact executive car manufactured by Mercedes-Benz since 2013. The first generation was a four-door fastback based on the platform of the W176 A-Class and W246 B-Class compact cars, marketed as a four-door coupé. In 2015, Mercedes-Benz expanded the CLA family to include ...
WDGY (740 kHz) is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Hudson, Wisconsin, and serving the Minneapolis-St. Paul radio market. It is owned by WRPX, inc. and airs a Classic Hits / Oldies radio format. The station's studios and offices are in Lakeland, Minnesota.
May 31, 2019 · T he year 1930 had many trends; some that lasted throughout the decade, and some that only lasted a season. This creative explosion was driven by the need of an entire new look that could survive the Great Depression. Designers were earnestly moving away from the 1920s look. There was a push towards more femininity in fashion by 1930.
The Vizio D-Series is an entry-level smart TV with voice controls that works with Google Assistant, Amazon Alexa, and the Apple Ecosystem. Other features also include a full LED 1080p HD resolution display that can be controlled with the standard remote, or you can use any smartphone. The Vizio 32" D-Series TV has a height of 18.8" (47.9 cm), width of 28.8" (73.2 cm), depth of 7.9" (20.1 cm ...
- Frame Rate
- Recording Limits
- Focus Peaking and Zebras
- Settings Carry-Over
- Image Stabilization
- High Dynamic Range Capture
- Log Capture
The most quoted video specification you'll see for a camera is the output resolution, typically 1080p/Full HD, 4K or even 8K on the latest cameras. Most recent TVs can display 1080p/Full HD, and the ability to show 4K video, which has twice the resolution, is becoming increasingly common. Shooting 4K footage gives some flexibility during the editing process, even if your final output will be 1080, but the files tend to be a lot larger and require more storage and a more powerful machine for editing. The same is true to an even greater degree with 8K capture: it affords you some creative flexibility (in terms of cropping or stabilizing your footage) if you're outputting a 4K video, but the storage and processing requirements are even greater. Most people will find good quality 4K more useful than 8K footage, most of the time. An important consideration beyond the quoted output resolution is how the footage is captured: the best cameras capture greater-than-4K resolution and downscale...
Most video is shot at approximately 24 frames per secondor 30 frames per second (with 25 fps being the standard for TV broadcast outside North America). But many cameras offer faster frame rates, which can be used in a number of ways. 60p footage can do a better job of representing motion, so can be a good way of capturing bursts of action. The alternative is to capture 60p or faster and then slow it down to 24 or 30p, to give a slow-motion effect. Most cameras can't offer fast frame rates at their highest resolution, but 1080 capture at 120 fps or faster is not uncommon, which can be great if your project doesn't have to be 4K.
Another detail to check is whether a camera has any recording restrictions. Some models can only record for 29 minutes and 59 seconds (an old restriction that related to import duty), but most end up being limited simply because high-resolution video capture generates a lot of heat. The processing needed to capture video generates heat and most stills/video cameras aren't very effective at dissipating this heat, eventually requiring them to shut down to cool off. Pro video cameras have cooling fans but most stills/video hybrids simply try to transfer this heat to the camera's body panels, where it can escape into the environment. The best of these designs can continue shooting for extended periods, while other models let you disable their overheat limits (or, at least, make them less stringent). This is rarely a problem if you plan to shoot lots of short clips to edit together but will prevent you leaving the camera running at something like a school recital, especially if you try t...
Once you've found a camera that shoots good footage at the resolution you want, a key thing to consider is audio. Most audiences are more forgiving of poor-looking footage than they are of bad-sounding video, and it's a factor easily overlooked if most of your experience is photographic. A microphone input socket is a must: the internal microphones in cameras tend to be simple affairs that will pick up ever movement of the operators hands or clothes moving nearby, so you'll want to be able to attach an external microphone. The next most valuable feature is a headphone socket so that you can check the volume level and monitor for distracting background sounds: the human brain is great at filtering-out the sound of a car passing or an airplane flying overhead but you won't be able to remove it from your audio recording, when you watch the footage back.
One of the biggest distinctions in modern cameras is how reliably their autofocus works when capturing video. Unlike stills shooting, video captures all of the camera's attempts to focus, as well as the moments it's in focus, so you'll need a camera that's decisive and dependable if you're hoping to trust it to autofocus while you're recording. The best performers are able to reliably track subjects (especially human subjects), and let you decide whether they should re-focus rapidly (to keep a moving subject in focus), or slowly and smoothly, for when you want to draw attention from one subject to another. Autofocus depends on both the camera and the design of the lens you use, so it's worth doing a degree of research (and, perhaps, testing), before you decide to rely heavily on autofocus.
The alternative to autofocus is, as you might expect, to focus manually. This is the way a lot of professional video is still shot. Most modern cameras let you use autofocus to set your initial focus position, before you start recording, then provide a 'focus peaking' function that highlights the edges of the in-focus points in your scene. When used with an appropriate lens (ideally one with linear focus response, where the focus always changes by the same amount as you turn the focus ring) and a bit of practice, manual focus is pretty workable, but a lot of subjects can be arranged so that you don't need to re-focus very often. As well as focus peaking, most cameras let you 'punch-in' to the video: giving a magnified view of part of the scene to check critical focus. Whereas nearly all cameras will punch-in before you start recording, only some will let you zoom-in to double-check your focus while you're recording, which is a useful option to have. The other useful video tool worth...
One detail that won't be mentioned on a camera makers' website is whether exposure and other settings are carried over from stills to video shooting. The ideal photo settings are often drastically different from the ideal video settings, so we prefer when exposure, white balance and focus modes are kept separate. Even with separate (or separable) settings for stills and video, it's not uncommon to have to add darkening (neutral density) filters to your lens when jumping from stills to video capture, but not having to constantly adjust your settings can help make switching back and forth a lot simpler.
Stabilization is an essential part of video. At its most basic this can mean the use of a tripod with a head designed to move smoothly for video. Cameras with in-body stabilization can allow greater freedom of motion, letting you add some dynamism to your projects. Most image-stabilized cameras have modes designed to cancel out shake (letting you get steady shots without a tripod) and modes that smooth things out as you intentionally move the camera (these modes often crop-in to the footage to allow some digital stabilization). There’s some variation in terms of performance, with some cameras smoothly responding to intentional movement and others initially trying to fight against it. The final type of stabilization worth considering is a gimbal: an external device that that provides a greater degree of motion smoothing than a camera can give on its own. Gimbals are becoming more affordable and easier to use, and can give the production values of your project a major boost.
Unhelpfully, the term 'High Dynamic Range' is used to refer to two things: modes that try to squeeze a wide range of bright and dark tones into standard footage, and modes that capture a wide range of bright and dark tones for playback on HDR TVs that can properly display them as bright and dark. This second approach can arguably have more of an impact on the viewer than the jump from Full HD resolution to 4K. The most common system for doing this is Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG), a system developed for broadcast TV, designed to show wider dynamic range on the latest TVs but still look good on older sets. The other option is called 'PQ,' which is a more sophisticated system, but doesn't necessarily offer a dramatic difference to HLG. Both systems are supported by YouTube, which will also generate a standard DR (SDR) version for viewers without HDR TVs. Most HDR standards require 10-bit capture(which has sufficient space to encode the additional color and tonal range that HDR footage needs).
The other type of video that benefits from 10-bit capture is Log recording: a way of capturing and retaining more information about the original scene, to provide greater flexibility when you come to edit the footage. Log footage tends to look very low contrast and desaturated, to prevent color or tonal data clipping and becoming harder to edit. The downsides are that Log capture usually encourages lower exposure levels, which capture more highlight information but risk other parts of your footage looking noisier. The other disadvantage is that you'll definitely need to edit and color-grade your footage. This can be as simple as applying a color preset (called a LUT), but it's an extra step you'll have to go through. On the subject of LUTs, most cameras that shoot Log let you apply some kind of correction to their screen or viewfinder to let you preview what the processed footage might look like. so you're not looking at grey, washed-out footage.
Dec 27, 2019 · Warm intervals are associated with higher solar activity, and cool periods, like the Little Ice Age, with minima. The LIA began closer to AD 1400 than 1600, suffering at least the Spörer, Maunder and Dalton Minima. The late 13th and early 14th century Wolf Minimum either marks the end of the Medieval WP or beginning of the LIA CP.