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  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › DVDDVD - Wikipedia

    • Etymology
    • History
    • Specifications
    • DVD Recordable and Rewritable
    • Capacity
    • DVD Drives and Players
    • DVD-Video
    • DVD-Audio
    • Successors and Decline
    • Longevity

    The Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995, rival manufacturers of the product initially named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc." The OED also states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will simply be DVD. Toshibahad been using the name 'digital video disc', but that was switched to 'digital versatile disc' after computer companies complained that it left out their applications." "Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000and in the DVD Forum's mission statement.

    Development

    There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1963 and first patented in 1968. A consumer optical disc data format known as the LaserDisc was developed in the United States, and first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in December 1978. It used much larger discs than the later formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of the LaserDisc was v...

    Adoption

    Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer video distribution format. They embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, and could be interactive.[citation needed] Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers, especially collectors. When LaserDisc prices dropped from approximately $100 per disc to $20 per disc at retail, this luxury feature became av...

    The DVD specifications created and updated by the DVD Forum are published as so-called DVD Books (e.g. DVD-ROM Book, DVD-Audio Book, DVD-Video Book, DVD-R Book, DVD-RW Book, DVD-RAM Book, DVD-AR (Audio Recording) Book, DVD-VR (Video Recording) Book, etc.). DVD discs are made up of two discs; normally one is blank, and the other contains data. Each disc is 0.6 mm thick, and are glued together to form a DVD disc. The gluing process must be done carefully to make the disc as flat as possible to avoid both birefringenceand "disc tilt", which is when the disc is not perfectly flat, preventing it from being read. Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website. There are also equivalent European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma) standards for some of these specifications, such as Ecma-267 for DVD-ROMs. Also, the DVD+RW Alliance publishes competing recordable DVD speci...

    HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport.[failed verification] DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording. Three formats were developed: DVD-R/RW, DVD+R/RW (plus), and DVD-RAM. DVD-R is available in two formats, General (650 nm) and Authoring (635 nm), where Authoring discs may be recorded with CSSencrypted video content but General discs may not. Although most current DVD writers can write in both the DVD+R/RW and DVD-R/RW formats (usually denoted by "DVD±RW" or the existence of both the DVD Forumlogo and the DVD+RW Alliance logo), the "plus" and the "dash" formats use different writing specifications. Most DVD hardware plays both kinds of discs, though older models can have trouble with the "plus" variants. Some early DVD players would cause damage to DVD±R/RW/DL when attempting to read them.[citation needed] The form of the spiral groove that makes up the structure of a recordable DVD encodes un...

    The basic types of DVD (12 cm diameter, single-sided or homogeneous double-sided) are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes. In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters were changed later on as explained above, so the capacity decreased. Other formats, those with 8 cm diameter and hybrid variants, acquired similar numeric names with even larger deviation. The 12 cm type is a standard DVD, and the 8 cm variety is known as a MiniDVD. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD, respectively. The capacity by surface area (MiB/cm2) varies from 6.92 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-1 to 18.0 MB/cm2 in the DVD-18.[clarification needed] Each DVD sector contains 2,418 bytes of data, 2,048 bytes of which are user data. There is a small difference in storage space between + and -(hyphen) formats:

    DVD drives are devices that can read DVD discs on a computer. DVD players are a particular type of devices that do not require a computer to work, and can read DVD-Video and DVD-Audiodiscs.

    DVD-Video is a standard for distributing video/audio content on DVD media. The format went on sale in Japan on November 1, 1996, in the United States on March 24, 1997 to line up with the 69th Academy Awards that day; in Canada, Central America, and Indonesia later in 1997, and in Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa in 1998. DVD-Video became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale on November 1, 1996, but it shared the market for home video distribution in the United States for several years; it was June 15, 2003, when weekly DVD-Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals.DVD-Video is still the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide except for in Japan where it was surpassed by Blu-ray Discwhen Blu-ray first went on sale in Japan on March 31, 2006.

    DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates, greater sample resolution and additional channels for spatial soundreproduction). DVD-Audio briefly formed a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD-Videoavoided.

    In 2006, two new formats called HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc were released as the successor to DVD. HD DVD competed unsuccessfully with Blu-ray Disc in the format war of 2006–2008. A dual layer HD DVD can store up to 30 GB and a dual layer Blu-ray disc can hold up to 50 GB. However, unlike previous format changes, e.g., vinyl to Compact Disc or VHS videotape to DVD, there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate, with around 75% of video sales and approximately one billion DVD player sales worldwide as of April 2011. In fact, experts claim that the DVD will remain the dominant medium for at least another five years as Blu-ray technology is still in its introductory phase, write and read speeds being poor and necessary hardware being expensive and not readily available. Consumers initially were also slow to adopt Blu-ray due to the cost. By 2009, 85% of stores were selling Blu-ray Discs. A high-definition television an...

    Longevity of a storage medium is measured by how long the data remains readable, assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is, how long the disc can be stored until data is lost. Numerous factors affect longevity: composition and quality of the media (recording and substrate layers), humidity and light storage conditions, the quality of the initial recording (which is sometimes a matter of mutual compatibility of media and recorder), etc. According to NIST, "[a] temperature of 64.4 °F (18 °C) and 40% RH [Relative Humidity] would be considered suitable for long-term storage. A lower temperature and RH is recommended for extended-term storage." According to the Optical Storage Technology Association(OSTA), "Manufacturers claim lifespans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD, DVD-R and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM." According to a NIST/LoC research project conducted in 2005–2007 using accelerated life testing, "There were fifteen DVD produ...

    • DVD-ROM and DVD-R(W) use one encoding, DVD-RAM and DVD+R(W) uses another
    • 300–650 nm laser, 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)
    • 劇情
    • 角色
    • 製作
    • 發行
    • 致敬與彩蛋
    • 反響
    • 家庭媒體
    • 外部連結

    尼可拉斯·安吉(Nicholas Angel)是一位倫敦警察廳的警員,他完美的表現讓同事們相形失色。因此尼可拉斯的長官將他調到一個位於偏遠的桑福鎮(Sandford),一座位於格洛斯特郡,平靜、無犯罪的城鎮。他奉命與當地警察局長法蘭克·巴特曼(Frank Butterman)的兒子——警員丹尼·巴特曼(Danny Butterman)搭檔。丹尼是死忠的動作片迷,心地善良純真而又過於熱心,認為來自大城市的新搭檔尼可拉斯就是一個「好萊塢熱血警探」,因此十分崇拜他。尼可拉斯在短時間內也查處幾個很可能忽視的違法犯罪案件(例如商店偷盜、未成年飲酒和一農夫在其糧倉內私藏大量非法武器,包括一顆水雷),然而他不久發現,他接到最需要危急的案件是尋找一隻從主人家逃離的天鵝。 在尼可拉斯抵達這個村莊不久,桑福鎮就接連發生一系列震驚全鎮的死亡事故,而這些謀殺案的兇手似乎是一個戴著斗篷穿著披風的人。然而,隨著時間的流失,桑福鎮的治安依然平靜,尼可拉斯也開始和警局裡的其他人發生衝突,尤其是警隊裡的兩名警員更覺得尼可拉斯只不過是一名緊張不安的城市警察罷了,取笑他對鎮上的異常動靜過於敏感。儘管如此,尼可拉斯仍拒絕停止他的調查。起初,他懷疑桑福鎮當地一家超市的陰險老闆西蒙·斯金納(Simon Skinner)涉嫌謀殺,原因是受害者參與一樁利潤豐厚的土地買賣,而這損害了西蒙的利益。然而,尼可拉斯和西蒙的當面對質卻只能說明西蒙·斯金納表面是清白的,也讓尼可拉斯的同事對他的信任度進一步降低。 事後,尼可拉斯在回到旅館的房間時,中了披風謀殺犯的埋伏,這個壯碩的謀殺犯正是桑福超市中的一位弱智貨物推車工,聽從西蒙·斯金納的指使做事。尼可拉斯將弱智員工撂倒後透過對講機得知斯金納的位置隨後便前往,在那裡安吉也知道事情的真相:原來法蘭克·巴特曼和「社區巡視聯盟」(Neighbourhood Watch Alliance and Associates)為了讓桑福每年蟬聯英國的「年度最佳城鎮」,於是就下令對桑福鎮名譽構成潛在威脅的人進行滅口。發現此秘密的尼可拉斯成為了終結目標,寡不敵眾的他開始逃亡。尼可拉斯隨後在逃跑途中發現那些被滅口者的屍體,但卻不幸被聯盟成員包圍,而丹尼居然也是社區巡視聯盟的成員。在團團包圍之下,丹尼利用番茄醬包及刀子假裝刺殺尼可拉斯,讓社區巡視聯盟認為他已經死去。 丹尼駕車到至郊外放尼可拉斯離...

    桑福警局
    社區巡視聯盟
    桑福居民
    客串

    編劇與拍攝

    萊特表示,他之所以會想要編寫並執導一部警匪片,是因為「英國從未拍過真正的警匪片……我們認為世界上每個國家,都有自己的警匪片代表作,而英國卻沒有」。萊特與佩吉花費18個月的時間撰寫劇本。初稿花了8個月的時間編寫而成。接著,兩人觀賞138部與警察相關的電影,觀摩其中的對白及劇情,並與警務人員進行50多次的訪談,9個月後,萊特與佩吉完成了另一份的劇本。該片的片名源自於1980年代及1990年代的動作片片名。在一次採訪中,萊特稱,他「想要的是一個沒有什麼真實意義的片名,就像《轟天炮》(1987年)、《驚爆點》(1991年)及《747絕地悍將》(1996年)那樣」。同時,佩吉開玩笑說,許多動作片的片名似乎都「包含兩個既是形容詞又是名詞的詞,而你會說『好,就取這片名』」。在撰寫劇本的同時,萊特與佩吉都打算聘請尼克·佛洛斯特來飾演佩吉的角色的搭檔。佛洛斯特透露,除非他能為他的角色取名,他才會出演這部電影。他將該角色取名為「丹尼·巴特曼」。 2005年底,Working Title Films物色了西南英格蘭的幾座城鎮,試著尋找一個適當的取景地點。佩吉評論道,「我們(佩吉與萊特)都生長於西郡,所...

    效果

    為了呈現因瓦斯爆炸而被炸毀的豪宅的效果,劇組將瓦斯砲射往建築物的前方,以呈現大規模的爆炸效果。然而,火舌吞沒了攝影機。為了再次呈現這種效果,劇組再次使用了瓦斯砲;但這次劇組改將瓦斯砲射往一片往攝影機傾斜的黑色天花板。當劇組以極快的速度拍攝該橋段時,火焰就像是從建築物底部竄出一般。該片最後的場景之一——桑福警局在爆炸中化為灰燼——的爆炸效果的一部份是透過一個窗戶向外爆裂、而建築物完好無損的模型來呈現的。整棟建築物炸毀的效果則透過炸毀警局的模型來呈現。 與《活人甡吃》相似,片中時常出現血腥及爆頭的鏡頭。視覺效果總監理查·布里斯科(Richard Briscoe)透露了片中出現大量血腥鏡頭的原因:「在許多方面,你做的越誇張,便有越多人能明白這只是一種風格罷了,並享受著這種極其荒唐的幽默。這道理就像《巨蟒和聖杯(英语:Monty Python and the Holy Grail)》(1975年)中的黑騎士(英语:Black Knight (Monty Python))那般」。一名角色被教堂落下的碎塊爆頭的鏡頭是全片中製作時間最長的血腥鏡頭。劇組在綠幕上放了一名假人,當教堂的一角快要擊中...

    該片的兩支前導預告於2006年10月16日發布。萊特、佩吉與佛洛斯特經營了數個影像部落格,在電影製作的不同階段發布影片。萊特與佛洛斯特在2006年聖地牙哥國際漫畫展上推廣《終棘警探》,兩人公開了片中的一些鏡頭並接受採訪。萊特與佛洛斯特於2007年再度參與聖地牙哥國際漫畫展,推銷該片的DVD。電影搶先於2007年2月14日在英國上映,並於2月16日舉行全球首映禮。首映禮上有警員騎摩托車護送,且地毯是藍色而非傳統的紅色。

    萊特表示,他從他的最後一部業餘電影《死權(英语:Dead Right (film))》(1993年)中擷取了些許元素,加入《終棘警探》中。此外,萊特指出,該片仿效了「背景設定在索美塞特郡的《轟天炮》」及「在索美塞特郡取景的《緊急追捕令》(1971年)」。在桑默費爾超市(英语:Somerfield)的場景中可以看到《活人甡吃》的拷貝DVD。DVD盒上的片名是《Zombies' Party》——該片的西班牙文和葡萄牙文片名。佛洛斯特飾演的角色(《終棘警探》的丹尼,《活人甡吃》的艾德)喜歡吃科爾內托冰淇淋(英语:Cornetto (ice cream)),片中出現了藍色的原味冰淇淋,代表該片的警察元素。萊特與佩吉表示,該片為「血腥冰淇淋三部曲(英语:Three Flavours Cornetto trilogy)」中的第二部作品,前一部是2004年的《活人甡吃》,而下一部則是2013年的《醉後末日》。 片中出現了《警察故事III超級警察》(1992年)的DVD及《驚爆點》和《絕地戰警2》(2003年)的片段。萊特透露,他必須先獲得每段場景中每個演員或特技演員的許可才能使用,且在片中加入DVD盒也需支付製片商酬勞。佩吉認為,該片並不帶有惡搞的意味。片中亦有出現《異教徒》的題材,《異教徒》中主演愛德華·伍德沃德(英语:Edward Woodward)飾演的角色便是一名剛正不阿的警察。

    評價

    《終棘警探》收穫了普遍影評人的讚譽。爛蕃茄上收集的203篇專業影評文章中,有185篇給予該片「新鮮」的正面評價,「新鮮度」為91%,平均得分7.65分(滿分10分),該網站對電影的共識性評價寫道「《活人甡吃》優秀的原班人馬成功地拍了一部警察搭檔片《終棘警探》。《終棘警探》是一部帶有犀利的諷刺意味,且極具娛樂性的戲仿電影」,而基於另一影評匯總網站Metacritic上的37篇評論文章,其中36篇予以好評,無差評,1篇褒貶不一,平均分為81(滿分100),綜合結果為「普遍良好的評價」。 《帝國雜誌》的影評人奧利·理查茲(Olly Richards)給予該片4顆星(滿分5顆)的好評,並稱讚了賽門·佩吉與尼克·佛洛斯特之間的火花。編劇沙恩·布萊克給予《終棘警探》好評。《觀察家報》的菲利浦·芬奇(Phillip French)稱讚了該片的喜劇團隊,並稱電影「有趣且別出心裁」。影評人理查·羅珀(英语:Richard Roeper)指出,該片比任何一部純粹充斥著槍枝的電影都還要有笑料。《終棘警探》為演員安娜·坎卓克最喜歡的前五部電影之一。 相反的,《每日鏡報》指出,電影在試圖嘲諷高預算大片時犯...

    票房

    截至下檔日,《終棘警探》在美國及加拿大地區共累積了2,360萬美元的票房,加上來自其他地區的5,690萬美元,全球票房共計8,050萬美元,而其製片預算則是1,200萬美元。在英國,《終棘警探》於首映週末收穫了710萬英鎊的票房。在美國,電影於首映週末從825家劇院中進帳580萬美元,名列當週票房排名的前十名,同時,該成績還超越了佩吉與萊特的前一部作品《活人甡吃》(330萬美元)的首週末票房成績。隔週,電影的上映劇院數從825家增加到1,272家。該片在第二個週末收穫490萬美元,較上週下跌17%。

    榮譽

    該片於第13屆(英语:13th Empire Awards)帝國獎頒獎典禮上榮獲最佳喜劇獎(英语:Empire Award for Best Comedy),並入圍了最佳英國電影獎(英语:Empire Award for Best British Film),而佩吉與萊特則獲最佳男主角獎及最佳導演獎(英语:Empire Award for Best Director)的提名,但不敵《贖罪》(2007年)的演員詹姆斯·麥艾維及《哈利波特:鳳凰會的密令》(2007年)的導演大衛·葉茨。此外,《終棘警探》還拿下了第1屆國家電影大獎(英语:National Movie Awards)的最佳喜劇獎,並入圍了俄羅斯國家電影大獎(Russian National Movie Awards)的最佳夏季大片獎,但敗給《300壯士:斯巴達的逆襲》(2007年)。在2007年英國喜劇獎頒獎典禮上,電影奪下了最佳喜劇片的提名,但不敵《辛普森家庭大電影》(2007年)。為《終棘警探》譜寫配樂的大衛·阿諾德入圍2007年國際電影配樂評論家獎(International Film Music Critics...

    《終棘警探》的DVD版本於2007年6月11日在英國發行。在發行的頭4個星期,DVD在英國一共賣出了100萬份。導演萊特與昆汀·塔倫提諾在DVD收錄的講評中討論了近200部電影。美國的DVD及HD DVD於7月31日發布。美國版本的DVD在發行首週賣出853,000萬份,收穫1,400萬美元,排名當週第二。三碟珍藏版於11月27日發行,而藍光版本則於2009年9月22日推出。

    互联网电影数据库(IMDb)上《Hot Fuzz》的资料(英文)
    Box Office Mojo上《Hot Fuzz》的資料(英文)
    爛番茄上《Hot Fuzz》的資料(英文)
    Metacritic上《Hot Fuzz》的資料(英文)
  3. Rozlišení. Rozlišení ( anglicky resolution) monitoru nebo displeje je počet pixelů (nebo maximální rozlišení obrazu), které může být zobrazeno na obrazovce (monitoru). Tento pojem se občas používá i u videa, zaměnitelně se slovem rozměr. Udává se jako počet sloupců (též bodů na šířku či horizontální rozlišení ...

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  5. Jul 03, 2011 · The most popular standard resolutions are 640 x 360 and 640 × 480 for video, and 720 × 480 and 720 × 576 for DVD. HD video usually has a resolution of 1280 × 720 (720p) or 1920 × 1080 (1080p, also called Full HD).

    • Resolution
    • Frame Rate
    • Recording Limits
    • Audio
    • Autofocus
    • Focus Peaking and Zebras
    • Settings Carry-Over
    • Image Stabilization
    • High Dynamic Range Capture
    • Log Capture

    The most quoted video specification you'll see for a camera is the output resolution, typically 1080p/Full HD, 4K or even 8K on the latest cameras. Most recent TVs can display 1080p/Full HD, and the ability to show 4K video, which has twice the resolution, is becoming increasingly common. Shooting 4K footage gives some flexibility during the editing process, even if your final output will be 1080, but the files tend to be a lot larger and require more storage and a more powerful machine for editing. The same is true to an even greater degree with 8K capture: it affords you some creative flexibility (in terms of cropping or stabilizing your footage) if you're outputting a 4K video, but the storage and processing requirements are even greater. Most people will find good quality 4K more useful than 8K footage, most of the time. An important consideration beyond the quoted output resolution is how the footage is captured: the best cameras capture greater-than-4K resolution and downscale...

    Most video is shot at approximately 24 frames per secondor 30 frames per second (with 25 fps being the standard for TV broadcast outside North America). But many cameras offer faster frame rates, which can be used in a number of ways. 60p footage can do a better job of representing motion, so can be a good way of capturing bursts of action. The alternative is to capture 60p or faster and then slow it down to 24 or 30p, to give a slow-motion effect. Most cameras can't offer fast frame rates at their highest resolution, but 1080 capture at 120 fps or faster is not uncommon, which can be great if your project doesn't have to be 4K.

    Another detail to check is whether a camera has any recording restrictions. Some models can only record for 29 minutes and 59 seconds (an old restriction that related to import duty), but most end up being limited simply because high-resolution video capture generates a lot of heat. The processing needed to capture video generates heat and most stills/video cameras aren't very effective at dissipating this heat, eventually requiring them to shut down to cool off. Pro video cameras have cooling fans but most stills/video hybrids simply try to transfer this heat to the camera's body panels, where it can escape into the environment. The best of these designs can continue shooting for extended periods, while other models let you disable their overheat limits (or, at least, make them less stringent). This is rarely a problem if you plan to shoot lots of short clips to edit together but will prevent you leaving the camera running at something like a school recital, especially if you try t...

    Once you've found a camera that shoots good footage at the resolution you want, a key thing to consider is audio. Most audiences are more forgiving of poor-looking footage than they are of bad-sounding video, and it's a factor easily overlooked if most of your experience is photographic. A microphone input socket is a must: the internal microphones in cameras tend to be simple affairs that will pick up ever movement of the operators hands or clothes moving nearby, so you'll want to be able to attach an external microphone. The next most valuable feature is a headphone socket so that you can check the volume level and monitor for distracting background sounds: the human brain is great at filtering-out the sound of a car passing or an airplane flying overhead but you won't be able to remove it from your audio recording, when you watch the footage back.

    One of the biggest distinctions in modern cameras is how reliably their autofocus works when capturing video. Unlike stills shooting, video captures all of the camera's attempts to focus, as well as the moments it's in focus, so you'll need a camera that's decisive and dependable if you're hoping to trust it to autofocus while you're recording. The best performers are able to reliably track subjects you've chosen (especially human subjects), and let you decide whether they should re-focus rapidly (to keep a moving subject in focus), or slowly and smoothly, for when you want to draw attention from one subject to another. Autofocus depends on both the camera and the design of the lens you use, so it's worth doing a degree of research (and, perhaps, testing), before you decide to rely heavily on autofocus.

    The alternative to autofocus is, as you might expect, to focus manually. This is the way a lot of professional video is still shot. Most modern cameras let you use autofocus to set your initial focus position, before you start recording, then provide a 'focus peaking' function that highlights the edges of the in-focus points in your scene. When used with an appropriate lens (ideally one with linear focus response, where the focus always changes by the same amount as you turn the focus ring) and a bit of practice, manual focus is pretty workable, but a lot of subjects can be arranged so that you don't need to re-focus very often. As well as focus peaking, most cameras let you 'punch-in' to the video: giving a magnified view of part of the scene to check critical focus. Whereas nearly all cameras will punch-in before you start recording, only some will let you zoom-in to double-check your focus while you're recording, which is a useful option to have. The other useful video tool worth...

    One detail that won't be mentioned on a camera makers' website is whether exposure and other settings are carried over from stills to video shooting. The ideal photo settings are often drastically different from the ideal video settings, so we prefer when exposure, white balance and focus modes are kept separate. Even with separate (or separable) settings for stills and video, it's not uncommon to have to add darkening (neutral density) filters to your lens when jumping from stills to video capture, but not having to constantly adjust your settings can help make switching back and forth a lot simpler.

    Stabilization is an essential part of video. At its most basic this can mean the use of a tripod with a head designed to move smoothly for video. Cameras with in-body stabilization can allow greater freedom of motion, letting you add some dynamism to your projects. Most image-stabilized cameras have modes designed to cancel out shake (letting you get steady shots without a tripod) and modes that smooth things out as you intentionally move the camera (these modes often crop-in to the footage to allow some digital stabilization). There’s some variation in terms of performance, with some cameras smoothly responding to intentional movement and others initially trying to fight against it. The final type of stabilization worth considering is a gimbal: an external device that that provides a greater degree of motion smoothing than a camera can give on its own. Gimbals are becoming more affordable and easier to use, and can give the production values of your project a major boost.

    Unhelpfully, the term 'High Dynamic Range' is used to refer to two things: modes that try to squeeze a wide range of bright and dark tones into standard footage, and modes that capture a wide range of bright and dark tones for playback on HDR TVs that can properly display them as bright and dark. This second approach can arguably have more of an impact on the viewer than the jump from Full HD resolution to 4K. The most common system for doing this is Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG), a system developed for broadcast TV, designed to show wider dynamic range on the latest TVs but still look good on older sets. The other option is called 'PQ,' which is a more sophisticated system, but doesn't necessarily offer a dramatic difference to HLG. Both systems are supported by YouTube, which will also generate a standard DR (SDR) version for viewers without HDR TVs. Most HDR standards require 10-bit capture(which has sufficient space to encode the additional color and tonal range that HDR footage needs).

    The other type of video that benefits from 10-bit capture is Log recording: a way of capturing and retaining more information about the original scene, to provide greater flexibility when you come to edit the footage. Log footage tends to look very low contrast and desaturated, to prevent color or tonal data clipping and becoming harder to edit. The downsides are that Log capture usually encourages lower exposure levels, which capture more highlight information but risk other parts of your footage looking noisier. The other disadvantage is that you'll definitely need to edit and color-grade your footage. This can be as simple as applying a color preset (called a LUT), but it's an extra step you'll have to go through. On the subject of LUTs, most cameras that shoot Log let you apply some kind of correction to their screen or viewfinder to let you preview what the processed footage might look like. so you're not looking at grey, washed-out footage.

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