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  1. Historical fiction - Wikipedia › wiki › Historical_fiction_novel
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Subgenres
    • The Performing Arts
    • Theory and Criticism
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Definitions differ as to what constitutes a historical novel. On the one hand the Historical Novel Society defines the genre as works "written at least fifty years after the events described", while critic Sarah Johnson delineates such novels as "set before the middle of the last [20th] century ... in which the author is writing from research rather than personal experience." Then again Lynda Adamson, in her preface to the bibliographic reference work World Historical Fiction, states that while a "generally accepted definition" for the historical novel is a novel "about a time period at least 25 years before it was written", she also suggests that some people read novels written in the past, like those of Jane Austen(1775–1817), as if they were historical novels. Historical fiction sometimes encouraged movements of romantic nationalism. Walter Scott's Waverley novels created interest in Scottish history and still illuminate it.[citation needed] A series of novels by Józef Ignacy Kra...

    History up to 18th century

    Historical prose fiction has a long tradition in world literature. Three of the Four Classics of Chinese literature were set in the distant past: Shi Nai'an's 14th-century Water Margin concerns 12th-century outlaws; Luo Guanzhong's 14th-century Romance of the Three Kingdoms concerns 3rd-century wars which ended the Han Dynasty; Wu Cheng'en's 16th-century Journey to the West concerns the 7th-century Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang. Classical Greek novelists were also "very fond of writing novels abo...

    19th century

    Historical fiction rose to prominence in Europe during the early 19th century as part of the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment, especially through the influence of the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott, whose works were immensely popular throughout Europe. Among his early European followers we can find Willibald Alexis, Theodor Fontane, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, Miklós Jósika, Mór Jókai, Jakob van Lennep, Demetrius Bikelos, Enrique Gil y Carrasco, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Victor Rydberg...

    21st century

    In the first decades of the 21st century an increased interest for historical fiction has been noted. One of the most successful writers of historical novels is Hilary Mantel. Other writers of historical fiction include George Saunders, Shirley Hazzard and Julie Orringer.

    Documentary fiction

    A 20th-century variant of the historical novel is documentary fiction, which incorporates "not only historical characters and events, but also reports of everyday events" found in contemporary newspapers. Examples of this variant form of historical novel include U.S.A. (1938), and Ragtime (1975) by E.L. Doctorow.

    Fictional biographies

    Memoirs of Hadrian by the Belgian-born French writer Marguerite Yourcenar is about the life and death of Roman Emperor Hadrian. First published in France in French in 1951 as Mémoires d'Hadrien, the book was an immediate success, meeting with enormous critical acclaim. Margaret George has written fictional biographies about historical persons in The Memoirs of Cleopatra (1997) and Mary, called Magdalene (2002). An earlier example is Peter I (1929–34) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, and I, Cl...

    Historical mysteries

    Historical mysteries or "historical whodunits" are set by their authors in the distant past, with a plot that which involves the solving of a mystery or crime (usually murder). Though works combining these genres have existed since at least the early 1900s, many credit Ellis Peters's Cadfael Chronicles (1977–1994) with popularizing them. These are set between 1137 and 1145 A.D.The increasing popularity of this type of fiction in subsequent decades has created a distinct subgenre recognized by...

    Period drama films and television series

    Historical drama film stories are based upon historical events and famous people. Some historical dramas are docudramas, which attempt an accurate portrayal of a historical event or biography, to the degree that the available historical research will allow. Other historical dramas are fictionalized tales that are based on an actual person and their deeds, such as Braveheart, which is loosely based on the 13th-century knight William Wallace's fight for Scotland's independence. For films pertai...

    Historical reenactment

    Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. This may be as narrow as a specific moment from a battle, such as the reenactment of Pickett's Charge presented during the Great Reunion of 1913, or as broad as an entire period, such as Regency reenactmentor The 1920s Berlin Project.

    The Marxist literary critic, essayist, and social theorist György Lukács wrote extensively on the aesthetic and political significance of the historical novel. In 1937's Der historische Roman, published originally in Russian, Lukács developed critical readings of several historical novels by various authors, including Gottfried Keller, Charles Dickens, and Gustave Flaubert. He interprets the advent of the "genuinely" historical novel at the beginning of the 19th century in terms of two developments, or processes. The first is the development of a specific genre in a specific medium—the historical novel's unique stylistic and narrative elements. The second is the development of a representative, organic artwork that can capture the fractures, contradictions, and problems of the particular productive mode of its time (i.e., developing, early, entrenched capitalism).

    Works cited

    1. de Groot, Jerome (2009-09-23). The Historical Novel. Routledge. ISBN 9780203868966. 2. Lukacs, Georg (1969). The Historical Novel. Penguin Books.

    Cole, Richard. "Breaking the frame in historical fiction." Rethinking History(2020) 24#3/4, pp 368–387. Frame breaking, or metalepsis, is authors placing themselves in their work, or characters eng...
    Fisher, Janet. "Historical fiction." in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature(2004) pp: 368-376.
    Freeman, Evelyn B., and Linda Levstik. "Recreating the past: Historical fiction in the social studies curriculum." The elementary school journal88.4 (1988): 329-337.
    Grindon, Leger. Shadows on the past: Studies in the historical fiction film(Temple University Press, 2010).
  2. Warner Bros. Movie World - Wikipedia › wiki › Movie_World

    Warner Bros. Movie World is a theme park on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. Owned and operated by Village Roadshow 's Theme Parks division, the park opened on 3 June 1991. It is part of a 154-hectare (380.5-acre) entertainment precinct, with the adjacent Village Roadshow Studios and nearby Wet'n'Wild Gold Coast, among other sites ...

  3. Werewolf - Wikipedia › wiki › Wolf_man
    • Names
    • History
    • Lycanthropy as A Medical Condition
    • Folk Beliefs
    • Modern Reception
    • See Also
    • References

    The word werewolf comes from the Old English word werwulf, a compound of wer "man" and wulf "wolf". The only Old High German testimony is in the form of a given name, Weriuuolf, although an early Middle High German werwolf is found in Burchard of Worms and Berthold of Regensburg. The word or concept does not occur in medieval German poetry or fiction, gaining popularity only from the 15th century. Middle Latin gerulphus Anglo-Norman garwalf, Old Frankish *wariwulf.Old Norse had the cognate varúlfur, but because of the high importance of werewolves in Norse mythology, there were alternative terms such as ulfhéðinn ("one in wolf-skin", referring still to the totemistic or cultic adoption of wolf-nature rather than the superstitious belief in actual shapeshifting). In modern Scandinavian also used was kveldulf "evening-wolf", presumably after the name of Kveldulf Bjalfason, a historical berserker of the 9th century who figures in the Icelandic sagas. The term lycanthropy, referring bot...

    Indo-European comparative mythology

    The werewolf folklore found in Europe harks back to a common development during the Middle Ages, arising in the context of Christianisation, and the associated interpretation of pre-Christian mythology in Christian terms. Their underlying common origin can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European mythology, where lycanthropy is reconstructed as an aspect of the initiation of the warrior class. This is reflected in Iron Age Europe in the Tierkrieger depictions from the Germanic sphere, among othe...

    Classical antiquity

    A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology. Herodotus, in his Histories, wrote that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape. This tale was also mentioned by Pomponius Mela. In the second century BC, the Greek geographer Pausanias related the story of King Lycaon of Arcadia, who was transformed into a wolf because...

    Middle Ages

    There is evidence of widespread belief in werewolves in medieval Europe. This evidence spans much of the Continent, as well as the British Isles. Werewolves were mentioned in Medieval law codes, such as that of King Cnut, whose Ecclesiastical Ordinances inform us that the codes aim to ensure that “…the madly audacious werewolf do not too widely devastate, nor bite too many of the spiritual flock.’ Liutprand of Cremona reports a rumour that Bajan, son of Simeon I of Bulgaria, could use magic t...

    Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in 1963 entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves, in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria, stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity, reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf. This is however argued against by Woodward, who points out how mythological werewolves were almost invariably portrayed as resembling true wolves, and that their human forms were rarely physically conspicuous as porphyria victims. Others have pointed out the possibility of historical werewolves having been sufferers of hypertrichosis, a hereditary condition manifesting itself in excessive hair growth. However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out...


    The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul, which goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar sp...

    Becoming a werewolf

    Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin (which also is frequently described). In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve. Drinking rainwater out of the footprint of the animal in question or from certain enchanted streams were also considered effectual modes of accomplishing metamorphosis.The 16th-century...


    Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form. In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations. In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to...

    Werewolf fiction

    Most modern fiction describes werewolves as vulnerable to silver weapons and highly resistant to other injuries. This feature appears in German folklore of the 19th century. The claim that the Beast of Gévaudan, an 18th-century wolf or wolflike creature, was shot by a silver bullet appears to have been introduced by novelists retelling the story from 1935 onwards and not in earlier versions. English folklore, prior to 1865, showed shapeshifters to be vulnerable to silver. "...till the publica...

    Nazi Germany

    Nazi Germany used Werwolf, as the mythical creature's name is spelled in German, in 1942–43 as the codename for one of Hitler's headquarters. In the war's final days, the Nazi "Operation Werwolf" aimed at creating a commando force that would operate behind enemy lines as the Allies advanced through Germany itself. Two fictional depictions of "Operation Werwolf"—the US television series True Blood and the 2012 novel Wolf Hunterby J. L. Benét—mix the two meanings of "Werwolf" by depicting the 1...

    Secondary sources

    1. Baring-Gould, Sabine (1865). The Book of Werewolves: Being an Account of a Terrible Superstition. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Google Books 2. Douglas, Adam (1992). The Beast Within: A History of the Werewolf. London: Chapmans. ISBN 0-380-72264-X. 3. Goens, Jean (1993). Loups-garous, vampires et autres monstres : enquêtes médicales et littéraires. Paris: CNRS Editions. 4. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, 4, ii. and iii. 5. Hertz, Der Werwolf(Stuttgart, 1862) 6. Lecouteux, Claude, Fées, Sorcières...

    Primary sources

    1. Wolfeshusius, Johannes Fridericus. De Lycanthropia: An vere illi, ut fama est, luporum & aliarum bestiarum formis induantur. Problema philosophicum pro sententia Joan. Bodini ... adversus dissentaneas aliquorum opiniones noviter assertum... Leipzig: Typis Abrahami Lambergi, 1591. (In Latin; microfilm held by the United States National Library of Medicine) 2. Prieur, Claude. Dialogue de la Lycanthropie: Ou transformation d'hommes en loups, vulgairement dits loups-garous, et si telle se peut...

    • Mythology
    • Lycanthrope
  4. Film speed - Wikipedia › wiki › ASA_film_speed

    Film speed is the measure of a photographic film 's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship between exposure and output image lightness in digital cameras.

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    According to some writers, the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History (2003) locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional "system of the arts" in the West before the eighteenth century.

  6. 1400: D.B. Cooper - explain xkcd › wiki › index

    Explanation. Cooper. In 1971, a man referred to by the media as D. B. Cooper hijacked a Boeing 727 and escaped with $200,000 in ransom money (equivalent to $900,000 in 2003 or $1,250,000 in 2020). While the FBI maintains that Cooper was most likely killed when he parachuted from the plane, they have never determined his identity, and the ...

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    Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes". Professors are usually experts in their field and teachers of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks ...

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  9. Ancient Aliens: 20 Facts History Channel Got Totally Wrong › ancient-aliens-20-facts

    Nov 06, 2019 · Nevertheless, pollen analysis and wooden artifacts show trees (specifically the Easter Palm) were once plentiful. Massive deforestation took place by 1400 AD as a result of human over-harvesting. 8 Aliens Cut off the Top of a Mountain

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    Another Doorstopper is seen later, this time a guide for the "~ATH" programming language. More doorstoppers appear in a Show Within a Show Within A Show "Complacency of the Learned". "Complacency" itself is a doorstopper series, and a stack of six books is half the height of Roxy's sprite or roughly half a meter. While in those books, Frigglish ...

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