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  1. 1400 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_1400

    1526 or 1145 or 373. — to —. 阳金龙年. (male Iron- Dragon) 1527 or 1146 or 374. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1400. Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The year 1400 was not a leap year in the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar .

  2. Culture of Indonesia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture_of_Indonesia
    • Traditional Performing Arts
    • Traditional Visual Arts
    • Architecture
    • Crafts
    • Clothing
    • Foods
    • Mythology and Folklores
    • Literature
    • Recreation and Sports
    • Popular Media

    Music

    Indonesia is home to with those from the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali being frequently recorded. The traditional music of central and East Java and Bali is the gamelan(traditional instruments include: gambang, bonang, saron, petik, gong, dengung, and many more). On 29 June 1965, Koes Plus, a leading Indonesian pop group in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, was imprisoned in Glodok, West Jakarta, for playing Western-style music. After the resignation of President Sukarno, the law was rescinded,...

    Dance

    Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the nation of Indonesia.Austronesian roots and Melanesian tribal dance forms are visible, and influences ranging from neighbouring Asian countries; such as India, China, and Middle Eastto European western styles through colonization. Each ethnic group has its own distinct dances; makes total dances in Indonesia are more than 3000 Indonesian original dances. However, the dances of Indonesia can be divided into...

    Drama and theatre

    The Wayang show, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display several mythological legends such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, and many more. Wayang Orang is a Javanese traditional dance drama based on wayang stories. Various Balinese dance drama also can be included within the traditional form of Indonesian drama. Another form of local drama is Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, Sundanese Sandiwara, and Betawi Lenong. All of these dramas incorporated humour and jest, often...

    Painting

    Indonesian painting before the 19th century is mostly restricted to the decorative arts, considered to be a religious and spiritual activity, comparable to the pre-1400 European art. Artists' names are anonymous since the individual human creator was seen as far less important than their creation to honour the deities or spirits. Some examples are the Kenyah decorative art, based on endemic natural motifs such as ferns and hornbills, found decorating the walls of Kenyah longhouses. Another no...

    Wood carvings

    The art of wood carving is quite well-developed in Indonesia. Other than tribal art woodcarvings of Asmat, Batak, Dayak, Nias, and Torajaarea is well known for its refined wood carving culture; they are Jepara in Central Java and Bali. Mas village near Ubud in Bali is renowned for its wood carving art. Balinese woodcarving today has a sustained tourist market in Bali. Asmat art consists of elaborate stylized wood carvings such as the bisj pole and is designed to honour ancestors. Many Asmat a...

    Sculpture

    Indonesia has a long history of stone, bronze and Iron Ages arts. The megalithic sculptures can be found in numerous archaeological sites in Sumatra, Java to Sulawesi. The native Indonesians tribes have their own distinct tribal sculpture styles, usually created to depict ancestors, deities and animals. The stone sculpture artform particularly flourished in 8th-to-10th-century Java and Bali, which demonstrate the influences of Hindu-Buddhist culture, both as stand-alone works of art and also...

    For centuries, Indonesian vernacular architecture has shaped settlements in Indonesia which commonly took the form of timber structures built on stilts dominated by a large roof. The most dominant foreign influences on Indonesian architecture were Indian, although European influences have been particularly strong since the 19th century and modern architecture in Indonesia is international in scope. As in much of South East Asia, traditional vernacular architecture in Indonesia is built on stilts, with the significant exceptions of Java and Bali. Notable stilt houses are those of the Dayak people in Borneo, the Rumah Gadang of the Minangkabau people in western Sumatra, the Rumah Bolon of the Batak people in northern Sumatra, and the Tongkonan of the Toraja people in Sulawesi. Oversized saddle roofs with large eaves, such as the homes of the Batak and the tongkonanof Toraja, are often bigger than the house they shelter. The fronts of Torajan houses are frequently decorated with buffal...

    Indonesia is considered as home of world handicraft. Every ethnic group has its own uniqueness, style, and philosophy of crafting. Most of them are made from wooden, bone, fabric, stone, and paper. These natural materials were crafted using hands intoprofitable and aesthetic items. Handicraft manufacturing serves not only as an important economic sector, but also a tradition and has a social function as well.The handicraft industry employs thousands of people in towns and villages across the country. About half a billion dollar worth of handicraft is exported every year, and many more is consumed domestically. There are many varieties of handicraft from other regions. West Sumatra and South Sumatra are particularly noted for their songket cloths. Villages in the Lesser Sunda Islands produce ikat while provinces in Kalimantan are long known for their basketry and weaving using rattan and other natural fabrics. Wood art produced by the Asmat people of Papua is highly valued. Cities al...

    Indonesia's best-known national costumes are Batik and kebaya, although initially these costumes originated mainly from Javanese and Balinese culture, which are most prominent in Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese cultures. Because Java has become the political centre and population of Indonesia, the island's folk costume has been raised to national status. As a plural country, Indonesia has 34 provinces, each of which has representatives of traditional clothing from each province with unique and different designs. National costumes are worn at official occasions and traditional ceremonies. each province in Indonesia – more complete each group in Indonesia, has its own traditional costumes. The costumes of this area are in Indonesian called Pakaian tradisional or Pakaian adat, and are taken from traditional Indonesian textile traditions and crafts.

    The cuisine of indonesia has been influenced by Chinese culture and Indian culture, as well as by Western culture. However, in return, Indonesian cuisine has also contributed to the cuisines of neighbouring countries, notably Malaysia and Singapore, where Padang or Minangkabau cuisine from West Sumatra is very popular. Also, Satay (Sate in Indonesian), which originated from Java, Madura, and Sumatra, has gained popularity as a street vendor food from Singapore to Thailand. In the 15th century, both the Portuguese and Arab traders arrived in Indonesia with the intention of trading for pepper and other spices. During the colonial era, immigrants from many countries arrived in Indonesia and brought different cultures as well as cuisines. Most native Indonesians eat rice as the main dish, with a wide range of vegetables and meat as side dishes. However, in some parts of the country, such as Irian Jaya and Ambon, the majority of the people eat sago (a type of tapioca) and sweet potato. I...

    The mythology of Indonesia is very diverse, the Indonesian people consisting of hundreds of ethnic groups, each with their own myths and legends. The stories within this system of lore often incorporate supernatural entities and magical creatures which form parts of Indonesian mythology. Others relate to creation myths and place naming legends that are often intertwined with historical figures and events. Ancient rituals for healing and traditional medicine as well as complex philosophies regarding health and disease can also be found. These native mythologies are relatively free from foreign influences, such as Torajans, Nias, Bataks, Dayaks and Papuans. By contrast, Javanese, Balinese, and to some degree Sundanese were influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Indian mythology as early as the 1st century CE. Hindu gods, legends and epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharatawere adopted and adapted into a uniquely local form. Hindu-Buddhist mythical beings have a role in Javanese and Balinese mytho...

    Early Indonesian literature originates in Malay literature, and the influence of these roots was felt until well into the twentieth century. The phrase "Indonesian literature" refers to Indonesian as written in the nation of Indonesia, but also covers literature written in an earlier form of the language, i.e. the Malay language written in the Dutch East Indies. Pramoedya Ananta Toer was Indonesia's most internationally celebrated author, having won the Magsaysay Award as well as being considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Other important figures include the late Chairil Anwar, a poet and member of the "Generation 45" group of authors who were active in the Indonesian independence movement. Tight information controls during Suharto's presidency suppressed new writing, especially because of its ability to agitate for social reform. In the book Max Havelaar, Dutch author Multatulicriticised the Dutch treatment of the Indonesians, which gained him international attention. Moder...

    Many traditional games are still preserved and popular in Indonesia, although western culture has influenced some parts of them. Among three hundred officially recognised Indonesian cultures, there are many kinds of traditional games: cockfighting in Bali, annual bull races in Madura, and stone jumping in Nias. Stone jumping involves leaping over a stone wall about up to 1.5 m high and was originally used to train warriors. Pencak Silat is another popular form of sport, which was influenced by Asian culture as a whole. Another form of national sport is sepak takraw. The rules are similar to volleyball: to keep the rattan ballin the air with the players' feet. Popular modern sports in Indonesia played at the international level include football (soccer), badminton and basketball. Badminton is one of Indonesia's most successful sports. Indonesian badminton athletes have played in Indonesia Open Badminton Championship, All England Open Badminton Championships, and many international ev...

    Cinema

    The largest chain of cinemas in Indonesia is 21 Cineplex, which has cinemas spread throughout twenty-four cities on the major islands of Indonesia. Many smaller independent cinemas also exist. In the 1980s, the film industry in Indonesia was at its peak, and dominated the cinemas in Indonesia with movies that have retained a high reputation, such as Catatan Si Boy and Blok M and actors like Onky Alexander, Meriam Bellina, Nike Ardilla and Paramitha Rusady. The film Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1988) win...

    Radio

    The state radio network Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) was founded in 1945. It consists of a network of regional stations located in all thirty-three provinces of the archipelago. In most cities and large towns there are also many commercial stations. Since 2006, several digital radio stations have been based in Jakarta and Surabaya, using Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and Hybrid HD-Radio.

  3. Tebedu - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tebedu

    Tebedu ICQS. Built since 1990, the Tebedu ICQS (Immigration, Customs, Quarantine and Security (ICQS) Complex at the border crossing was planned for upgrading or rebuilding in 2018 to further improve its services and facilities to be on par with the ICQS at Entikong in Indonesia as well as to foster cross-border trade and tourism between Indonesia and Malaysia.

    • 99 m (325 ft)
    • Malaysia
  4. 1403 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_1403
    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths

    January–December

    1. January / February – Treaty of Gallipoli: Süleyman Çelebi makes wide-ranging concessions to the Byzantine Empireand other Christian powers' in the southern Balkans. 2. February 7 – King Henry IV of England marries as his second wife Joan of Navarre, the daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and widow of John IV, Duke of Brittany, at Winchester Cathedral. 3. March 12 – As King Martin I of Aragon helps to end the siege by the French of the papal palace in Avignon, Antipope Benedict XIII fle...

    Date unknown

    1. Jan Hus begins preaching Wycliffite ideas in Bohemia. 2. In China, the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty 2.1. moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing. 2.2. commissions the Yongle Encyclopedia, one of the world's earliest and largest known general encyclopedias. 2.3. orders his coastal provinces to build a vast fleet of ships, with construction centered at Longjiang near Nanjing; the inland provinces are to provide wood and float it down the Yangtze River. 3. The Temple of a City God is...

    January 2 – Basilios Bessarion, Latin Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1472)
    February 22 – King Charles VII of France, monarch of the House of Valois, King of France from 1422 to his death (d. 1461)
    June 11 – John IV, Duke of Brabant, son of Antoine (d. 1427)
    August 11 – Ravenna Petrova, Princess of Amara Palace, daughter of William Hamilton and Anita Petrova. (d. 1423)
    March 8 – Beyazid, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1354)
    April 27 – Maria of Bosnia, Countess of Helfenstein (b. 1335)
    April – Đurađ II Stracimirović, Serbian nobleman from the House of Balšić in Zeta
    May 10 – Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster, spouse of John of Gaunt
  5. Fin Komodo - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Fin_Komodo

    Fin Komodo designed to have easy maintenance, with spare parts easy obtainable in market. Fin Komodo is designed by ex-IPTN engineer, Ibnu Susilo, to have light weight but able to carry heavy load. Before being launched, PT FKT initially made 4 prototypes. Back from the first and second prototypes, it uses a two stroke engine with a capacity of ...

    • Ibnu Susilo
    • 2006-present
    • PT Fin Komodo Teknologi
    • Buggy
  6. Samarahan Division - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Samarahan_Division

    Samarahan Division is one of the twelve administrative divisions in Sarawak, Malaysia. Formerly part of the First Division, which included Kuching , it became a separate Division on 24 July 1986, with a total area of 4,967.4 square kilometres.

  7. Jiaozhi - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Jiaozhi

    Jiaozhi (Pinyin: Jiāozhǐ; bahasa Vietnam: Giao Chỉ, Tai: kɛɛu A1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), adalah nama untuk berbagai provinsi, wilayah komando, prefektur, dan kabupaten di utara Vietnam dari era raja-raja Hùng sampai pertengahan dominasi Tiongkok ketiga di Vietnam (abad ke-7 sampai ke-10) dan kembali pada masa dominasi Tiongkok keempat (1407–1427).

  8. Kepala Bhairawa - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kepala_Bhairawa

    81,3 cm × 91,4 cm (32,0 in × 36,0 in) Lokasi. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Kode. 2012.444.2. Kepala Bhairava adalah sebuah topeng yang berasal dari Periode Malla di Nepal. Patung ini ditemukan di Lembah Kathmandu, Nepal. Topeng ini dibuat pada abad ke-16. Topeng ini terbuat dari sepuhan tembaga dengan tambahan batu kuarsa dan dicat.

  9. 1980 - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1980
    • Peristiwa
    • Kelahiran
    • Kematian
    22 Juni - Kesebelasan Jerman Barat berhasil mengalahkan kesebelasan Belgia di Final Kejuaraan Eropa UEFA 1980.
    25 Agustus - Bumi Manusia karangan Pramoedya Ananta Toerterbit untuk pertama kalinya.
    22 September - Agresi Irak terhadap Iran.
    15 Oktober - Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesiadidirikan.
    4 Januari - Happy Salma, aktris Indonesia.
    18 Januari - Robert Green, pemain sepak bola Inggris.
    19 Januari - Jenson Button, pembalap Formula Satu Inggris.
    25 Januari - Xavi Hernandez, pemain sepak bola Spanyol.
    29 April - Alfred Hitchcock, sutradara asal Inggris (l. 1899)
    14 Maret - Mohammad Hatta, negarawan Indonesia (l. 1902)
    8 Desember - John Lennon, musisi asal Inggris dan mantan vokalis grup musik The Beatles (l. 1940)
    16 Desember - Harland Sanders, pendiri restoran cepat saji KFC (l. 1890)
  10. Afganistan - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Afganistan
    • Etimologi
    • Sejarah
    • Geografi
    • Politik
    • Ekonomi
    • Demografi
    • Budaya
    • Lihat Pula
    • Pranala Luar

    Nama Afghanistan berasal dari Afghanistan kata. Para Pushtuns tampaknya telah mulai menggunakan istilah Afghanistan sebagai nama untuk diri mereka sendiri dari periode Islam seterusnya. Menurut W.K. Frazier Tyler, M.C. Gillet, dan beberapa sarjana lain, "Kata Afghanistan pertama kali muncul dalam sejarah dalam al-Hudud Alam di 982 AD." Ada pandangan banyak, tentang asal usul nama Afghanistan, sebagian besar dari mereka yang murni spekulatif seperti dapat dilihat di bawah ini: Makhzan-i-Afghni oleh Nematullah ditulis pada tahun 1612 Masehi, jejak asal Afghanistan atau Pakhtun dari super-Patriark Abraham ke satu bernama Raja Talut atau Saul. Ini menyatakan bahwa Saul memiliki seorang putra Irmia (Jeremia), yang memiliki seorang putra yang disebut Afghana. Setelah kematian Raja Saul, Afghana dibesarkan oleh David, dan kemudian dipromosikan ke perintah kepala tentara selama pemerintahan Raja Salomo. Keturunan dari Afghana dikalikan banyak sekali, dan kemudian disebut Bani Israel. Pada a...

    Sebelum dipanggil 'Afghanistan, wilayah itu sudah memiliki beberapa nama dalam sejarah panjang sekitar 5000 tahun. Salah satu nama yang paling kuno, menurut sejarawan, dan sarjana, Ariana - pengucapan Yunani kuno Aryanam Avestan Vaeja atau Sanskerta "Aryavarta", Tanah bangsa Arya. Hari ini Persia-Kuno, dan bahasa Avestaekspresi yang diawetkan dalam nama Iran, dan itu adalah dicatat dalam nama maskapai penerbangan nasional Afghanistan, Ariana Airlines. Istilah 'Ariana Afghanistan masih populer di kalangan pembicara Persia di negeri ini. Berabad-abad kemudian, Afganistan adalah bagian dari Khorasan Raya, dan karenanya diakui dengan nama Khurasan (bersama dengan daerah berpusat di sekitar Merv, dan Neishabur), yang dalam Pahlevi berarti "Tanah Timur" (خاور زمین dalam bahasa Persia). (Dehkhoda, p8457) Afghanistan ada pada titik perhubungan-unik di mana banyak peradaban Eurasia telah berinteraksi, dan sering bertempur, dan merupakan situs penting dari aktivitas sejarah awal. Melalui usia...

    Afghanistan ialah negeri yang bergunung-gunung, walau ada dataran di utara, dan barat daya. Titik tertinggi di Afghanistan ialah Noshaq dengan ketinggian 7485 m. Sebagian besar negara ini kering, dan pasokan air bersih terbatas. Afghanistan memiliki iklim tanah, dengan musim panas yang panas, dan musim salju yang dingin. Negara ini sering menjadi pusat gempa bumi. Di samping ibu kotanya Kabul, Herat, Jalalabad, Mazar-e Sharif dan Kandahar ialah kota-kota utama negara ini. Lihat juga Kota-kota di Afganistan.

    Artikel utama: Politik Afganistan Kini, sebuah pemerintahan sementara telah didirikan. Diketuai oleh presiden Hamid Karzai, kebanyakan anggotanya dari Aliansi Utara, dan campuran dari daerah, dan kelompok etnis lainnya yang terbentuk dari pemerintahan transisi oleh Loya jirga. Mantan raja Zahir Shahyang kembali ke negeri, namun tak dikembalikan lagi sebagai raja, dan hanya menjalankan kekuatan seremonial terbatas. Di bawah Persetujuan Perjanjian Bonn (Bonn Agreement), Komisi Konstitusi Afganistandidirikan untuk berkonsultasi dengan publik, dan pembentukan konstitusi draft. Dijadwalkan meluncurkan draft pada 1 September 2003, komisi itu telah meminta penundaan agar mengerjakan konsultasi lebih lanjut. Pertemuan loya jirga (dewan agung) konstitusional diselenggarakan pada Desember 2003 saat konstitusi baru diadopsi yang menciptakan bentuk pemerintahan presiden. Pasukan, dan dinas intelijen dari AS dan sejumlah negara lain hadir, beberapa untuk menjaga perdamaian, lainnya ditugaskan me...

    Afghanistan ialah sebuah negara yang relatif miskin, sangat bergantung pada pertanian dan peternakan. Ekonominya melemah akibat kerusuhan politik, dan militer terkini, tambahan kemarau keras dengan kesulitan bangsa antara 1998-2001. Sebagian penduduk mengalami krisis pangan, sandang, papan, dan minimnya perawatan kesehatan. Kondisi ini diperburuk oleh operasi militer, dan ketidakpastian politik. Inflasi menyisakan banyak masalah. Menyusul perang koalisi yang dipimpin AS yang menimbulkan jatuhnya Taliban pada November 2001, dan pembentukan Otoritas Interim Afganistan (AIA) yang diakibatkan dari Persetujuan Bonn Desember 2001, usaha Internasional untuk membangun kembali Afganistan ditujukan di Konferensi Donor Tokyountuk Rekonstruksi Afganistan pada Januari 2002, di mana $4,5 juta dikumpulkan untuk dana perwalian yang akan diatur oleh Bank Dunia. Wilayah prioritas untuk rekonstruksi termasuk konstruksi pendidikan, kesehatan, dan fasilitas kesehatan, peningkatan kapasitas administratif...

    Populasi Afganistan diperkirakan 29.2 juta penduduk pada tahun 2017.Dengan 15 juta penduduk adalah pria dan 14.2 juta penduduk adalah perempuan.

    Banyak monumen bersejarah negara ini rusak dalam perang tahun-tahun terakhir. 2 unit Patung Buddha Bamiyan yang terkenal di Provinsi Bamiyandihancurkan Taliban karena dianggap sebagai lambang agama lain. Orang Afganistan dikenal sebagai penunggang kuda. Olahraga yang terkenal seperti Buzkashiterkenal di sana. Sebelum Taliban memegang kekuasaan, kota Kabul merupakan tempat tinggal banyak musisi yang ahli dalam musik Afganistan tradisional, dan modern. Kabul pada paruh abad ke-20 sama dengan Wina selama abad XVIII dan XIX.

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