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  1. 1811 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_1811

    1811 (MDCCCXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1811th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 811th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1810s decade.

  2. 1813 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_1813
    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths
    • Further Reading

    January–March

    1. January 18–23 – War of 1812: The Battle of Frenchtown is fought in modern-day Monroe, Michigan, between the United States and a British and Native American alliance. 2. January 24 – The Philharmonic Society (later the Royal Philharmonic Society) is founded in London. 3. January 28 – Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudiceis published anonymously in London. 4. January 31 – The Assembly of the Year XIII is inaugurated in Buenos Aires. 5. February – War of 1812 in North America: General William Hen...

    April–June

    1. April 8 – War of 1812: Colonel James Ball arrives at Fort Meigs with 200 dragoons. 2. April 27 – War of 1812: Battle of York – United States troops raid and destroy but do not hold the capital of Upper Canada, York (modern-day Toronto). 3. May 1–9 – War of 1812: Fort Meigs is first besieged, by British allied forces under General Henry Proctor and Chief Tecumseh. 4. May 2 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Lützen – Napoleonwins against the German alliance. 5. May 11 – 1813 crossing of the Blue M...

    July–September

    1. July – War of 1812: The second siege of Fort Meigsby British allied forces fails. 2. July 5 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New Yorkbegin. 3. July 12 – Following the death of his father Wossen Seged, Sahle Selassie arrives at the capital Qundi before his other brothers, and is made Meridazmach of Shewa. 4. July 13 4.1. The Carabinieri, the national military police of Italy, are founded by Victor Emmanuel I as the police force of th...

    January–June

    1. January 19 – Sir Henry Bessemer, English inventor (d. 1898) 2. January 21 – John C. Frémont, American soldier, explorer (d. 1890) 3. January 26 – Juan Pablo Duarte, founder of the Dominican Republic (d. 1876) 4. February 8 – José Manuel Pareja, Spanish admiral (d. 1865) 5. February 11 – Otto Ludwig, German writer (d. 1865) 6. February 12 – James Dwight Dana, American geologist, mineralogist (d. 1895) 7. February 15 – Frederick Holbrook, Vermont governor (d. 1909) 8. March 14 – Joseph P. Br...

    July–December

    1. July 15 – George Peter Alexander Healy, American portrait painter (d. 1894) 2. July 19 – Samuel M. Kier, American industrialist (d. 1874) 3. August 5 – Ivar Aasen, Norwegian philologist (d. 1896) 4. August 21 – Jean Stas, Belgian chemist (d. 1891) 5. August 29 – Henry Bergh, American founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals(d. 1888) 6. September 17 – John Sedgwick, Union Army General, American Civil War (d. 1864) 7. September 24 – Gerardo Barrios, President...

    January–June

    1. January 1 – Gioacchino Navarro, Maltese priest and poet (b. 1748) 2. January 6 – Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers, French general (b. 1764) 3. January 15 – Anton Bernolák, Slovak linguist (b. 1762) 4. January 20 – Christoph Martin Wieland, German writer (b. 1733) 5. January 24 – George Clymer, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1739) 6. February 13 – Samuel Ashe, Governor of North Carolina (b. 1725) 7. February 26 – Robert Livingston, American signer of the Declaration of Inde...

    July–December

    1. July 29 – Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (suicide) (b. 1771) 2. August 1 – Carl Stenborg, Swedish opera singer (b. 1752) 3. August 11 – Henry James Pye, English poet (b. 1745) 4. August 15 – Abigail Amelia, First born daughter of John and Abigail Adams (b. 1765) 5. August 21 – Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, Queen consort of Sweden (born 1746) 6. August 23 – Alexander Wilson, Scottish-born ornithologist (b. 1766) 7. August 26 – Theodor Körner, German author, soldier (b. 1791) 8. September...

    Date unknown

    1. Nikolaos Koutouzis– Greek painter, poet and priest (b. 1741)

    Louis Heilprin (1885). "Chronological Table of Universal History". Historical Reference Book. New York: D. Appleton and Company. hdl:2027/wu.89097349187 – via Hathi Trust. 1813

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  4. 1814 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_1814
    • January
    • February
    • March
    • April–June
    • July–September
    • October–December
    • Date Unknown

    February 1: Cagsawa Church is destroyed by the eruption of Mount Mayon. 1. January 1 – War of the Sixth Coalition – The Royal Prussian Army, led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, crosses the Rhine. 2. January 3 2.1. War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Cattaro: The French garrison surrenders to the British, after ten days of bombardment. 2.2. War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Metz (1814): Allied armies lay siege to the French city and fortress of Metz. 3. January 5 – Mexican War of Independence – Battle of Puruarán: Spanish Royalistsdefeat Mexican Rebels. 4. January 11 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Hoogstraten: Prussian forces under Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülowdefeat the French. 5. January 14 5.1. Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes the Kingdom of Norway into personal union with Sweden, in exchange for west Pomerania. This marks the end of the real union of Denmark-Norway. 5.2. War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Antwerp (1814): Allied forces besi...

    February – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, represents Britain at the Congress of Chatillon.
    February 1
    February 2 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Lesmont: French forces under Joseph Lagrangedefeat the Allies.
    February 8 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of the Mincio River (1814): French and Italian troops under Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnaisfight an Austrian army to a draw.
    March 1 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Saint-Julien (1814): Austrian Army of the South defeats the French Army of the Rhône.
    March 3
    March 4 – War of 1812 – Battle of Longwoods: American raiding party defeats British regulars and militia and Indian fighters.
    March 7 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Craonne: A French army led by Napoleon is victorious against von Blücher.
    April 6 – Napoleonic Wars – Bourbon Restoration: Louis XVIII is invited to occupy the restored French throne.
    April 10
    April 11 – Napoleonic Wars – Treaty of Fontainebleau: The War of the Sixth Coalition ends, and Napoleon is forced to abdicate unconditionally as Emperor of the French.
    April 12
    July 3 – War of 1812 – Capture of Fort Erie by the Americans under Major General Jacob Brown.
    July 5 – War of 1812 – Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
    July 7 – Walter Scott's Waverley, his first prose fiction and one of the first significant historical novels in English, is published anonymously by Archibald Constablein Edinburgh, selling out in...
    July 13 – The Carabinieri (the national military police of Italy) is established by Victor Emmanuel, as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    October 3 - Paraguay changes its form of government. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Franciabecomes Supreme Dictator.
    October 17 – London Beer Flood: A large vat full of porter (beer) owned by Meux's Breweryof London bursts, demolishing buildings and killing 8.
    October 18 – British troop transport Sovereign is wrecked on St. Paul Island (Nova Scotia)with the loss of between 199 and 212 of the 237 people on board.
    October 19 – War of 1812: – Battle of Cook's Mills: U.S. forces defeat the British in Upper Canada.

    The world's first complex machine mass-produced from interchangeable parts, Eli Terry's wooden pillar-and-scroll clock, comes off the production line in Plymouth, Connecticut.

  5. 1810s - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1810s

    The 1810s (pronounced "eighteen-tens") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1810, and ended on December 31, 1819. The decade was opened with a very hostile political climate around the world.

  6. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Main_Page

    R. J. Palacio (born July 13, 1963) is an American author and graphic designer. During her career, she has designed hundreds of book covers, including for both fiction and non-fiction works. She is also the author of several novels for children, including the best-selling Wonder, which has won several awards.

  7. History of Wales - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Wales

    The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and was completed in 78, with Roman rule lasting until 383. Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region of South Wales east of the Gower Peninsula , where there is a legacy of Romanisation. [16]

  8. Hamburg - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hamburg

    Hamburg (English: / ˈ h æ m b ɜːr ɡ /, German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] (), locally also [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] (); Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç] ()), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg; Low Saxon: Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg), is the second-largest city in Germany after Berlin, as well as the overall 7th largest city and largest non-capital city ...

  9. History of Norway - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Norway
    • Prehistory
    • Viking Age
    • Middle Ages
    • Archaeological Findings
    • Denmark–Norway
    • Union with Sweden
    • Independence
    • World War II
    • Postwar
    • Oil Age

    Norway's coastline rose from glaciation with the end of the last glacial period about 12,000 B.C. The first immigration took place during this period as the Norwegian coast offered good conditions for sealing, fishing, and hunting. They were nomadic and by 9300 B.C they were already settled at Magerøya. Increased ice receding from 8000 B.C. caused settlement along the entire coastline. The Stone Age consisted of the Komsa culture in Troms and Finnmark and the Fosna culture further south. The Nøstvet culture took over from the Fosna culture ca. 7000 BC, which adapted to a warmer climate which gave increased forestation and new mammals for hunting. The oldest human skeleton ever discovered in Norway was found in shallow water off Sogne in 1994 and has been carbon dated to 6,600 BC. Ca. 4000 BC people in the north started using slate tools, earthenware, skis, sleds and large skin boats. The first farming and thus the start of the Neolithic period, began ca. 4000 BC around the Oslofjord...

    The Viking Age was a period of Scandinavian expansion through trade, colonization and raids. One of the first raids was against Lindisfarne in 793 and is considered the beginning of the Viking Age. This was possible because of the development of the longship, suitable for travel across the sea, and advanced navigationtechniques. Vikings were well equipped, had chain mail armor, were well trained and had a psychological advantage over Christian counterparts since they believed that being killed in combat would result in them going to Valhalla. In addition to gold and silver, an important outcome from the raids were thralls, which were brought to the Norwegian farms as a slave workforce. While the men were out at sea, the management of the farm was under the control of the women. The lack of suitable farming land in Western Norway caused Norwegians to travel to the sparsely populated areas of Shetland, Orkney, the Faroe Islands and the Hebrides to colonize—the latter of which became t...

    Christianization and the abolition of the rites in Norse mythology were first attempted by Olav Tryggvason, but he was killed in the Battle of Svolder in 1000. Olav Haraldsson, starting in 1015, made the things pass church laws, destroyed heathen hofs, built churches and created an institution of priests. Many chieftains feared that Christianization would rob them of power as Goðar in traditional Norse paganism. The two sides met in the Battle of Stiklestad, where Haraldsson was killed. The church elevated Haraldsson to sainthood, and Nidaros (today Trondheim) became the Christian centre of Norway.Within a few years the Danish rule had become sufficiently unpopular that Norway again became united. From the 1040s to 1130 the country was at peace. In 1130, a civil war era broke out over succession to the throne, which allowed all the king's sons to rule jointly. At times there were periods of peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict. The Ar...

    In October 2018, Norwegian archaeologists headed by the archaeologist Lars Gustavsen announced the discovery of a buried 20 m long Gjellestad Viking ship in Haldenmunicipality. An ancient well-preserved Viking cemetery for more than 1000 years was discovered using ground-penetrating radar. Archaeologists also revealed at least seven other previously unknown burial mounds and the remnants of five longhouses with the help of the radar survey. In February 2020, Secrets of the Ice Program researchers discovered a 1,500-year-old Viking arrowhead dating back to the Germanic Iron Age and locked in a glacier in southern Norway caused by the climate change in the JotunheimenMountains. The arrowhead made of iron was revealed with its cracked wooden shaft and a feather, is 17 cm long and weighs just 28 grams.

    Sweden was able to pull out of the Kalmar Union in 1523, thus creating Denmark–Norway under the rule of a king in Copenhagen. Frederick I of Denmark favoured Martin Luther's Reformation, but it was not popular in Norway, where the Church was the one national institution and the country was too poor for the clergy to be very corrupt. Initially, Frederick agreed not to try to introduce Protestantism to Norway but in 1529 he changed his mind. Norwegian resistance was led by Olav Engelbrektsson, Archbishop of Trondheim, who invited the old king Christian II back from his exile in the Netherlands. Christian returned but his army was defeated and Christian spent the rest of his life in prison. When Frederick died and a three-way war of succession broke out between the supporters of his eldest son Christian (III), his younger Catholic brother Hans and the followers of Christian II. Olaf Engelbrektsson again tried to lead a Catholic Norwegian resistance movement. Christian III triumphed and...

    Denmark–Norway entered the Napoleonic Wars on France's side in 1807. This had a devastating effect on the Norwegian economy as the Royal Navy hindered export by ship and import of food. Sweden invaded Norway the following year, but after several Norwegian victories a cease-fire was signed in 1809. After pressure from Norwegian merchants license trade was permitted with corn from Denmark to Eastern Norway in exchange for Norwegian timber export to Great Britain. Following the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, the Treaty of Kielsigned on 14 January 1814 ceded Norway to the king of Sweden. Christian Frederik, heir to the Danish and Norwegian crowns, had since 1813 been governor-general of Norway. He spearheaded the Norwegian resistance against the Kiel Treaty and planned to claim the throne as the legitimate heir. He traveled to Trondheim to gain support for his person, and then assembled twenty-one prominent citizens at Eidsvoll on 16 February 1814 to discuss his plans. They rejected a new a...

    With the four-party Michelsen's Cabinet appointed in 1905, Parliament voted to establish a Norwegian consular service. This was rejected by the king and on 7 June Parliament unanimously approved the dissolution of the union. In the following dissolution referendum, only 184 people voted in favor of a union. The government offered the Norwegian crown to Denmark's Prince Carl, who after a plebiscite became Haakon VII. The following ten years, Parliament passed a series of social reforms, such as sick pay, factory inspection, a ten-hour working day and worker protection laws. Waterfalls for hydroelectricity became an important resource in this period and the government secured laws to hinder foreigners from controlling waterfalls, mines and forests. Large industrial companies established in these years were Elkem, Norsk Hydro and Sydvaranger. The Bergen Line was completed in 1909, the Norwegian Institute of Technology was established the following year and women's suffrage was introduc...

    From the start of World War II in 1939, Norway maintained a strict neutrality.Both Britain and Germany realized the strategic location; both made plans to invade Norway, regardless of Norwegian opposition. The Germans struck first and attacked Norway on 9 April 1940. After furious battles with the Norwegians and British forces, Germany prevailed and controlled Norway until the end of the war. The German goal was to use Norway to control access to the North Sea and the Atlantic, and to station air and naval forces to stop convoys from Britain to the USSR.

    1945–1950

    A legal purge took place in Norway after WWII in which 53,000 people were sentenced for treason and 25 were executed. The post-war years saw an increased interest in Scandinavism, resulting in Scandinavian Airlines System in 1946, the Nordic Council in 1952 and the Nordic Passport Union along with the metric system being introduced. Reconstruction after the war gave Norway the highest economic growth in Europe until 1950, partly created through rationing private consumption allowing for highe...

    Marshall Plan

    Norway joined the Marshall Plan ("ERP") in 1947, receiving US$400 million in American support. Given the business background of the Marshall Plan's American leaders, their readiness to work with the Norwegian Labor government's ERP Council disappointed the conservative Norwegian business community. It was represented by the major business organizations, the Norges Industriforbund and the Norsk Arbeidsgiverforening. While reluctant to work with the government, Norwegian business leaders also r...

    1950 to 1972

    The sale of cars was deregulated in October 1960, and in the same year the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation introduced Norway's first television broadcasts. Norway feared competition from Swedish industry and Danish agriculture and chose not to join any free trade organizations until 1960, when it joined the European Free Trade Association. Throughout the post-war period both fishing and agriculture became more mechanized, the agricultural subsidies rose to the third-highest in the world an...

    Prospecting in the North Sea started in 1966 and in 1969 Phillips Petroleum found oil in the Ekofisk field—which proved to be among the ten largest fields in the world. Operations of the fields was split between foreign operators, the state-owned Statoil, the partially state-owned Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. Ekofisk experienced a major blowout in 1977 and 123 people were killed when the Alexander Kielland accommodation rig capsized in 1980; these incidents led to a strengthening of petroleum safety regulations. The oil industry not only created jobs in production, but a large number of supply and technology companies were established. Stavanger became the center of this industry. High petroleum taxesand dividends from Statoil gave high income from the oil industry to the government. Norway established its exclusive economic zone in the 1970s, receiving an area of 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi). A series of border disputes followed; agreements were reached with Denma...

  10. Mexico - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Mexico

    Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica.The terms are plainly linked; it is generally believed that the toponym for the valley was the origin of the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance, but it may have been the other way around.

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