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  1. › wiki › AD_18111811 - Wikipedia

    1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1811th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 811th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1811, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

  2. › wiki › FinlandFinland - Wikipedia

    The name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned at first known time AD 98 (disputed meaning). Suomi. The name Suomi (Finnish for 'Finland ') has uncertain origins, but a common etymology with saame (the Sami, the native people of Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) has been suggested (Proto-Finnic ...


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  4. Football club Sunderland A.F.C. Full name Sunderland Association Football Club Nickname(s) The Black Cats Short name SAFC Founded 1879 ; 142 years ago (1879) (as Sunderland and District Teachers) Ground Stadium of Light Capacity 49,000 Owner Kyril Louis-Dreyfus (majority) Chairman Kyril Louis-Dreyfus Head Coach Lee Johnson League EFL League One 2020–21 EFL League One, 4th of 24 Website Club ...

  5. An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable and historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, and regional character.

  6. › wiki › ParacelsusParacelsus - Wikipedia

    • Biography
    • Philosophy
    • Contributions to Medicine
    • Reception and Legacy
    • Works
    • Further Reading

    Paracelsus was born in Egg an der Sihl, a village close to the Etzel Pass in Einsiedeln, Schwyz. He was born in a house right next to a bridge across the Sihl river (known as Teufelsbrücke). The historical house, dated to the 14th century, was destroyed in 1814. The Restaurant Krone now stands in its place. His father Wilhelm (d. 1534) was a chemist and physician, an illegitimate descendant of the Swabian noble family Bombast von Hohenheim. It has been suggested that Paracelsus's descent from the Bombast of Hohenheim family was his own invention, and that his father was in fact called Höhener and was a native of Gais in Appenzell, but it is plausible that Wilhelm was the illegitimate son of Georg Bombast von Hohenheim (1453–1499), commander of the Order of Saint John in Rohrdorf. Paracelsus's mother was probably a native of the Einsiedeln region and a bonds-woman of Einsiedeln Abbey, who before her marriage worked as superintendent in the abbey's hospital. Paracelsus in his writings...

    As a physician of the early 16th century, Paracelsus held a natural affinity with the Hermetic, Neoplatonic, and Pythagorean philosophies central to the Renaissance, a world-view exemplified by Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola.[citation needed] Astrology was a very important part of Paracelsus's medicine and he was a practising astrologer – as were many of the university-trained physicians working at that time in Europe. Paracelsus devoted several sections in his writings to the construction of astrological talismans for curing disease.[citation needed] He largely rejected the philosophies of Aristotle and Galen, as well as the theory of humours. Although he did accept the concept of the four elementsas water, air, fire, and earth, he saw them merely as a foundation for other properties on which to build. He often viewed fire as the Firmament that sat between air and water in the heavens. Paracelsus often uses an egg to help describe the elements. In his early model, he clai...


    Paracelsus was one of the first medical professors to recognize that physicians required a solid academic knowledge in the natural sciences, especially chemistry. Paracelsus pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. From his study of the elements, Paracelsus adopted the idea of tripartite alternatives to explain the nature of medicine, composed of a combustible element (sulphur), a fluid and changeable element (mercury), and a solid, permanent element (salt). The first mention...


    His hermetical beliefs were that sickness and health in the body relied upon the harmony of humans (microcosm) and nature (macrocosm). He took a different approach from those before him, using this analogy not in the manner of soul-purification but in the manner that humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and that certain illnesses of the body had chemical remedies that could cure them. As a result of this hermetical idea of harmony, the universe's macrocosm was repres...

    Discoveries and treatments

    Paracelsus is frequently credited with reintroducing opium to Western Europe during the German Renaissance. He extolled the benefits of opium, and of a pill he called laudanum, which has frequently been asserted by others to have been an opium tincture. Paracelsus did not leave a complete recipe, and the known ingredients differ considerably from 17th-century laudanum. Paracelsus invented, or at least named a sort of liniment, opodeldoc, a mixture of soap in alcohol, to which camphor and some...


    The oldest surviving portrait of Paracelsus is a woodcut by Augustin Hirschvogel, published in 1538, still during Paracelsus's lifetime. A still older painting by Quentin Matsys has been lost, but at least three 17th-century copies survive, one by an anonymous Flemish artist, kept in the Louvre, one by Peter Paul Rubens, kept in Brussels, and one by a student of Rubens, now kept in Uppsala. Another portrait by Hirschvogel, dated 1540, claims to show Paracelsus "at the age of 47" (sue aetatis...

    Paracelsianism and Rosicrucianism

    Paracelsus was especially venerated by German Rosicrucians, who regarded him as a prophet, and developed a field of systematic study of his writings, which is sometimes called "Paracelsianism", or more rarely "Paracelsism". Francis Bacon warned against Paracelsus and the Rosicrucians, judging that "the ancient opinion that man was microcosmus" had been "fantastically strained by Paracelsus and the alchemists". "Paracelsism" also produced the first complete edition of Paracelsus's works. Johan...

    In literature and drama

    A number of fictionalised depictions of Paracelsus have been published in modern literature. The first presentation of Paracelsus's life in the form of a historical novel was published in 1830 by Dioclès Fabre d'Olivet (1811–1848, son of Antoine Fabre d'Olivet), Robert Browning wrote a long poem based on the life of Paracelsus, entitled Paracelsus, published 1835. Meinrad Lienert in 1915 published a tale (which he attributed to Gall Morel) about Paracelsus's sword. The Fullmetal Alchemist cha...

    German Wikisource has original text related to this article: Paracelsus Because of the work of Karl Widemann, who copied over 30 years the work of Paracelsus, many unpublished works survived. Published during his lifetime 1. De gradibus et compositionibus receptorum naturalim, 1526. 2. Vom Holtz Guaico (on guaiacum), 1529. 3. Practica, gemacht auff Europen 1529. 4. Von der Frantzösischen kranckheit Drey Bücher (on syphilis), 1530. 5. Von den wunderbarlichen zeychen, so in vier jaren einander nach im Hymmelgewelcke und Luft ersehen 1534 6. Von der Bergsucht oder Bergkranckheiten(on miners' diseases), 1534. 7. Vonn dem Bad Pfeffers in Oberschwytz gelegen (Pfäfers baths), 1535. 8. Praktica Teutsch auff das 1535 Jar 1535 9. Die große Wundarzney("Great Book of Surgery"), Ulm 1536 (Hans Varnier); Augsburg 1536 (Haynrich Stayner (=Steyner)), Frankfurt 1536 (Georg Raben/ Weygand Hanen). 10. Prognosticatio Ad Vigesimum Quartum annum duratura 1536 Posthumous publications 1. Wundt unnd Leibart...

    Ball, Philip. The Devil's Doctor ISBN 978-0-09-945787-9(Arrow Books, Random House)
    Moran, Bruce T. (2005) Distilling Knowledge: Alchemy, Chemistry, and the Scientific Revolution(Harvard Univ. Press, 2005), Ch. 3.
    Pagel, Walter (2nd ed. 1982). Paracelsus: An Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance. Karger Publishers, Switzerland. ISBN 3-8055-3518-X.
    Webster, Charles. (2008) Paracelsus: Medicine, Magic, and Mission at the End of Time(Yale Univ. Press, 2008)
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