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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 18131813 - Wikipedia

    1813. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1813. 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1813th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 813th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 19th century, and ...

  2. AD:1813 View source History Talk (0) Millennium: 2nd Millennium: Centuries: 18th cent. – 19th cent. – 20th cent. Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s – ...

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  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_18101810 - Wikipedia

    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths

    January–March

    1. January 1 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie officially becomes Governor of New South Wales. 2. January 4 – Australian seal hunter Frederick Hasselborough discovers Campbell Island, in the Subantarctic. 3. January 12 – The marriage of Napoleon and Joséphineis annulled. 4. February 13 - After seizing Jaén, Córdoba, Seville and Granada, Napoleonic troops enter Málaga under the command of General Horace Sebastiani. 5. February 17 - Napoleon Bonaparte decretes that Romewould become the second c...

    April–June

    1. April – Kaumualii receives an assurance of the continued independence of the Kingdom of Hawaii. 2. April 2 - Napoleon Bonaparte marries Marie Louise of Austria, Duchess of Parma, in person, in Paris. 3. April 19 – Venezuela achieves home rule: Vicente Emparán, Governor of the Captaincy General of Venezuela, is removed by the people of Caracas, and Supreme Juntais installed. Venezuela is the first South American state to proclaim independence from Spain. 4. April 27 – Beethoven composes his...

    July–September

    1. July 9 1.1. Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland. 1.2. Russia acquires Sukhumi through a treaty with the Abkhazian dukes, and declares a protectorate over the whole of Abkhazia. 2. July 11 – Frederick Hasselborough discovers Macquarie Island, in the subantarctic. 3. July 20 – Patria Boba: A junta of seven patriots, led by José Acevedo y Gómez, assemble in Bogotá in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia), to declare its independence from the Spanish Empire. 4. July 24 - Par...

    January–June

    1. January 3 – Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie, Irish-French geographer (d. 1897) 2. January 13 – Ernestine Rose, Polish-born feminist (d. 1892) 3. January 29 – Ernst Kummer, German mathematician (d. 1893) 4. February 5 – Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist (d. 1880) 5. February 8 – Eliphas Levi, French writer (d. 1875) 6. March 1 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish composer, pianist (d. 1849) 7. March 2 – Pope Leo XIII(b. Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci) (d. 1903) 8. March 10 – Samuel Ferguson, Northern...

    July–December

    1. July 5 – P. T. Barnum, American showman (d. 1891) 2. July 20 – Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, Prussian field marshal (d. 1900) 3. July 21 – Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist, physicist (d. 1878) 4. August 4 – Maurice de Guérin, French poet (d. 1839) 5. August 10 – Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, 1st Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1861) 6. August 24 – Theodore Parker, American preacher, Transcendentalist, and abolitionist (d. 1860) 7. August 29 – Juan Bautista Alberdi, Argentinian politicia...

    Date unknown

    1. Nicolae Golescu, 9th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1877)

    January–June

    1. January 15 – Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova, Russian princess, courtier and patron of the arts and sciences, first woman to head a scientific academy (b. 1743) 2. January 20 – Benjamin Chew, Chief Justice of colonial Pennsylvania (b. 1722) 3. January 23 – Johann Wilhelm Ritter, German chemist, physicist (b. 1776) 4. February 20 – Andreas Hofer, Tyrolean national hero (executed) (b. 1767) 5. February 24 – Henry Cavendish, British scientist (b. 1731) 6. March 6 – William Washington...

    July–December

    1. July 19 – Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia (b. 1776) 2. August 12 – Étienne Louis Geoffroy, French pharmacist, entomologist (b. 1725) 3. August 26 – Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires, French officer in Spanish colonial military service (executed) (b. 1753) 4. September 13 – William Cushing, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States(b. 1732) 5. September 17 – Ulla von Höpken, Swedish courtier, influential socialite (b. 1749) 6. October 15 – Alf...

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 18151815 - Wikipedia

    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths

    January

    1. January 2 – Lord Byron marries Anna Isabella Milbanke in Seaham, County Durham, England. 2. January 3 – Austria, Britain, and Bourbon-restored France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussiaand Russia. 3. January 8 – Battle of New Orleans: American forces led by Andrew Jackson defeat British forces led by Sir Edward Pakenham. American forces suffer around 60 casualties and the British lose about 2,000 (the battle lasts for about 30 minutes). 4. January 13 – War of 1812: Brit...

    February

    1. February – The Hartford Conventionarrives in Washington, D.C. 2. February 3 – The first commercial cheese factory is founded in Switzerland. 3. February 4 – The first Dutch student association, the Groninger Studentencorps Vindicat atque Polit, is founded in the Netherlands. The first rector of the senate is B. J. Winter. 4. February 6 – New Jersey grants the first American railroad charter to John Stevens. 5. February 17 – The Spanish reconquest of Latin Americabegins. 6. February 18 – Th...

    March

    1. March 1 1.1. Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba. 1.2. Georgetown University's congressional charter is signed into law, by President James Madison. 2. March 15 – Joachim Murat, King of Naples, declares war on Austria in an attempt to save his throne, starting the Neapolitan War. 3. March 16 – William I becomes King of the Netherlands. 4. March 2–18 – Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy, the last king in Ceylon, is deposed under the terms of the Kandyan Conve...

    January–June

    1. January 11 – John A. Macdonald, 1st Prime Minister of Canada, Father of Confederation (d. 1891) 2. January 15 – Bertha Wehnert-Beckmann, German photographer (d. 1901) 3. January 16 – Henry Halleck, American general (d. 1872) 4. January 21 – Horace Wells, American dentist, anesthesia pioneer (d. 1848) 5. February 2 – Mathilde Esch, Austrian genre painter (d. 1904) 6. February 3 – Edward James Roye, 5th President of Liberia (d. 1872) 7. February 10 – Constantin Bosianu, 4th Prime Minister of...

    July–December

    1. July 26 – Robert Remak, German embryologist, physiologist and neurologist (d. 1865) 2. August 5 – Edward John Eyre, English explorer, colonial governor (d. 1901) 3. August 16 – Saint John Bosco, Italian priest, educator (d. 1888) 4. August 26 – Bernard Jauréguiberry, French admiral and statesman (d. 1887) 5. October 16 – Francis Lubbock, Governor of Texas (d. 1905) 6. October 23 – João Maurício Vanderlei, Baron of Cotejipe, Brazilian magistrate, politician (d. 1889) 7. October 31 – Karl We...

    Date unknown

    1. William Farquharson Burnett, British commodore (d. 1863)

    January–June

    1. January 8 – Edward Pakenham, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1778) 2. January 16 – Emma, Lady Hamilton, politically active British courtesan, lover of Horatio Nelson (b. 1765) 3. January 24 – Sir Charles Malet, 1st Baronet, British East India Company official (b. 1752) 4. February 9 – Ellen Hutchins, Irish botanist (b. 1785) 5. February 22 – Smithson Tennant, English chemist, discovered the elements iridium and osmium (b. 1761) 6. February 24 – Robert Fulton, American inventor (b. 1...

    July–December

    1. July 3 – Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden, German pioneer in mining and metallurgy (b. 1752) 2. August 2 – Guillaume Marie-Anne Brune, French marshal (murdered) (b. 1763) 3. August 6 – James A. Bayard, U.S. Senator from Delaware (b. 1767) 4. September 9 – John Singleton Copley, American painter (b. 1738) 5. September 13 – Mihály Gáber, Slovene writer in Hungary (b. 1753) 6. September 20 – Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist (b. 1725) 7. October 13 – Joachim Murat, French marshal, King of Naples...

    • Plot Summary
    • Characters
    • Major Themes
    • Style
    • Development of The Novel
    • Publication History
    • Reception
    • Adaptations
    • External Links

    The novel is set in rural England in the early 19th century. Mrs. Bennet attempts to persuade Mr. Bennet to visit Mr. Bingley, a rich bachelor recently arrived in the neighbourhood. After some verbal sparring with her husband, Mrs. Bennet believes he will not call on Mr. Bingley. Shortly afterwards, he visits Netherfield, Mr. Bingley's rented residence, much to Mrs. Bennet's delight. The visit is followed by an invitation to a ball at the local assembly roomsthat the entire neighbourhood will attend. At the ball, we are first introduced to the whole Netherfield party, which consists of Mr. Bingley, his two sisters, the husband of one of his sisters, and Mr. Darcy, his dearest friend. Mr. Bingley's friendly and cheerful manner earns him popularity among the guests. He appears attracted to Jane Bennet (the Bennets' eldest daughter), with whom he dances twice. Mr. Darcy, reputed to be twice as wealthy, is haughty and aloof, causing a decided dislike of him. He declines to dance with El...

    Mr Fitzwilliam Darcy – Mr Bingley's friend and the wealthy owner of the family estate of Pemberley in Derbyshire, rumoured to be worth at least £10,000 a year (equivalent to £660,000 in 2019). Whil...
    Mr Bennet – A logical and reasonable late-middle-aged landed gentleman of a modest income of £2000 per annum, and the dryly sarcastic patriarch of the now-dwindling Bennet family (a family of Hertf...
    Mrs Bennet (néeGardiner) – the middle-aged wife of her social superior, Mr Bennet, and the mother of their five daughters (Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Catherine and Lydia). Mrs Bennet is a hypochondriac...

    Many critics take the title as the start when analysing the themes of Pride and Prejudice but Robert Fox cautions against reading too much into the title (which was first entitled: First Impressions), because commercial factors may have played a role in its selection. "After the success of Sense and Sensibility, nothing would have seemed more natural than to bring out another novel of the same author using again the formula of antithesis and alliteration for the title. The qualities of the title are not exclusively assigned to one or the other of the protagonists; both Elizabeth and Darcy display pride and prejudice." The phrase "pride and prejudice" had been used over the preceding two centuries by Joseph Hall, Jeremy Taylor, Joseph Addison and Samuel Johnson. Austen probably took her title from a passage in Fanny Burney's Cecilia(1782), a popular novel she is known to have admired: A theme in much of Austen's work is the importance of environment and upbringing in developing young...

    Pride and Prejudice, like most of Austen's works, employs the narrative technique of free indirect speech, which has been defined as "the free representation of a character's speech, by which one means, not words actually spoken by a character, but the words that typify the character's thoughts, or the way the character would think or speak, if she thought or spoke". Austen creates her characters with fully developed personalities and unique voices. Though Darcy and Elizabeth are very alike, they are also considerably different. By using narrative that adopts the tone and vocabulary of a particular character (in this case, Elizabeth), Austen invites the reader to follow events from Elizabeth's viewpoint, sharing her prejudices and misapprehensions. "The learning curve, while undergone by both protagonists, is disclosed to us solely through Elizabeth's point of view and her free indirect speech is essential ... for it is through it that we remain caught, if not stuck, within Elizabet...

    Austen began writing the novel after staying at Goodnestone Park in Kent with her brother Edward and his wife in 1796. It was originally titled First Impressions, and was written between October 1796 and August 1797. On 1 November 1797 Austen's father sent a letter to London bookseller Thomas Cadell to ask if he had any interest in seeing the manuscript, but the offer was declined by return post. The militia were mobilised after the French declaration of war on Britain in February 1793, and there was initially a lack of barracks for all the militia regiments, requiring the militia to set up huge camps in the countryside, which the novel refers to several times.The Brighton camp for which the militia regiment leaves in May after spending the winter in Meryton was opened in August 1793, and the barracks for all the regiments of the militia were completed by 1796, placing the events of the novel between 1793 and 1795. Austen made significant revisions to the manuscript for First Impres...

    Austen sold the copyright for the novel to Thomas Egerton from the Military Library, Whitehall in exchange for £110 (Austen had asked for £150). This proved a costly decision. Austen had published Sense and Sensibility on a commission basis, whereby she indemnified the publisher against any losses and received any profits, less costs and the publisher's commission. Unaware that Sense and Sensibility would sell out its edition, making her £140,she passed the copyright to Egerton for a one-off payment, meaning that all the risk (and all the profits) would be his. Jan Fergus has calculated that Egerton subsequently made around £450 from just the first two editions of the book. Egerton published the first edition of Pride and Prejudice in three hardcover volumes on 28 January 1813. It was advertised in The Morning Chronicle, priced at 18s.Favourable reviews saw this edition sold out, with a second edition published in October that year. A third edition was published in 1817. Foreign lan...

    At first publication

    The novel was well received, with three favourable reviews in the first months following publication. Anne Isabella Milbanke, later to be the wife of Lord Byron, called it "the fashionable novel". Noted critic and reviewer George Henry Lewes declared that he "would rather have written Pride and Prejudice, or Tom Jones, than any of the Waverley Novels". Charlotte Brontë, however, in a letter to Lewes, wrote that Pride and Prejudicewas a disappointment, "a carefully fenced, highly cultivated ga...

    20th century

    The American scholar Claudia Johnson defended the novel from the criticism that it has an unrealistic fairy-tale quality. One critic, Mary Poovey, wrote that the "romantic conclusion" of Pride and Prejudice is an attempt to hedge the conflict between the "individualistic perspective inherent in the bourgeois value system and the authoritarian hierarchy retained from traditional, paternalistic society". Johnson wrote that Austen's view of a power structure capable of reformation was not an "es...

    21st century

    1. In 2003 the BBC conducted a poll for the "UK's Best-Loved Book" in which Pride and Prejudice came second, behind The Lord of the Rings. 2. In a 2008 survey of more than 15,000 Australian readers, Pride and Prejudicecame first in a list of the 101 best books ever written. 3. The 200th anniversary of Pride and Prejudice on 28 January 2013 was celebrated around the globe by media networks such as the Huffington Post, The New York Times, and The Daily Telegraph, among others. 4. Pride and Prej...

    Film, television and theatre

    Pride and Prejudice has engendered numerous adaptations. Some of the notable film versions include the 1940 Academy Award-winning film, starring Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier (based in part on Helen Jerome's 1936 stage adaptation) and that of 2005, starring Keira Knightley (an Oscar-nominated performance) and Matthew Macfadyen. Notable television versions include two by the BBC: a 1980 version starring Elizabeth Garvie and David Rintoul and the popular 1995 version, starring Jennifer Ehle...

    Literature

    The novel has inspired a number of other works that are not direct adaptations. Books inspired by Pride and Prejudiceinclude the following: 1. Mr Darcy's Daughters and The Exploits and Adventures of Miss Alethea Darcy by Elizabeth Aston 2. Darcy's Story (a best seller) and Dialogue with Darcyby Janet Aylmer 3. Pemberley: Or Pride and Prejudice Continued and An Unequal Marriage: Or Pride and Prejudice Twenty Years Later by Emma Tennant 4. The Book of Ruth by Helen Baker 5. Jane Austen Ruined M...

    Media related to Pride and Prejudiceat Wikimedia Commons
    Pride and Prejudice at Standard Ebooks
    Pride and Prejudice (Chapman edition) at Project Gutenberg
    Pride and Prejudice public domain audiobook at LibriVox
    • 28 January 1813
    • Classic Regency novel, Romance novel
  6. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1810s1810s - Wikipedia

    November 10, 1813 – A general election in the United Kingdom sees victory for the Tory Party under Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. 1813 – George Hamilton-Gordon serves as ambassador extraordinaire in Vienna. Norway in 1814. January 14, 1814 – Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in exchange for west Pomerania, as part of the Treaty of ...

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