1920 film by James Cruze A Full House Newspaper ad Directed byJames Cruze Screenplay byAlice Eyton Based onA Full House by Fred Jackson Produced byJesse L. Lasky StarringBryant Washburn Lois Wilson CinematographyH. Kinley Martin Production companies Artcraft Pictures Corporation Famous Players-Lasky Corporation Distributed byParamount Pictures Release date October 24, 1920 Running time 50 minutes CountryUnited States LanguageSilent A Full House is a 1920 American silent comedy film directed by J
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On November 18, 1918, prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the U.S. Congress passed the temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which banned the sale of alcoholic beverages having an alcohol content of greater than 1.28%. (This act, which had been intended to save grain for the war effort, was passed after the armistice ending World War Iwas signed on November 11, 1918.) The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30, 1919, with July 1, 1919 becoming known as the "Thirsty First". The U.S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendmenton December 18, 1917. Upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16, 1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year later, on January 17, 1920. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The act established the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalti...
Naval Captain William H. Stayton was a prominent figure in the anti-prohibition fight, founding the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment in 1918. The AAPA was the largest of the nearly forty organizations that fought to end Prohibition. Economic urgency played a large part in accelerating the advocacy for repeal. The number of conservatives who pushed for prohibition in the beginning decreased. Many farmers who fought for prohibition now fought for repeal because of the negative effects it had on the agriculture business. Prior to the 1920 implementation of the Volstead Act, approximately 14% of federal, state, and local tax revenues were derived from alcohol commerce. When the Great Depression hit and tax revenues plunged, the governments needed this revenue stream. Millions could be made by taxing beer. There was controversy on whether the repeal should be a state or nationwide decision. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed an amendment to the Volstead A...
Prohibition in the early to mid-20th century was mostly fueled by the Protestant denominations in the Southern United States, a region dominated by socially conservative evangelical Protestantism with a very high Christian church attendance. Generally, Evangelical Protestant denominations encouraged prohibition, while the Mainline Protestant denominations disapproved of its introduction. However, there were exceptions to this rule such as the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (German Confessional Lutherans), which is typically considered to be in scope of evangelical Protestantism. Pietistic churches in the United States (especially Baptist churches, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and others in the evangelical tradition) sought to end drinking and the saloon culture during the Third Party System. Liturgical ("high") churches (Roman Catholic, Episcopal, German Lutheranand others in the mainline tradition) opposed prohibition laws because they did not want the government t...
According to a 2010 review of the academic research on Prohibition, "On balance, Prohibition probably reduced per capita alcohol use and alcohol-related harm, but these benefits eroded over time as an organized black market developed and public support for NP declined." One study reviewing city-level drunkenness arrests concluded that prohibition had an immediate effect, but no long-term effect. And, yet another study examining "mortality, mental health and crime statistics" found that alcoho...
Research indicates that rates of cirrhosis of the liver declined significantly during Prohibition and increased after Prohibition's repeal. According to the historian Jack S. Blocker, Jr., "death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism, alcoholic psychosis hospital admissions, and drunkenness arrests all declined steeply during the latter years of the 1910s, when both the cultural and the legal climate were increasingly inhospitable to drink, and in the early years after National Prohibition went...
It is difficult to draw conclusions about Prohibition's impact on crime at the national level, as there were no uniform national statistics gathered about crime prior to 1930. It has been argued that organized crime received a major boost from Prohibition. For example, one study found that organized crime in Chicago tripled during Prohibition. Mafia groups and other criminal organizations and gangs had mostly limited their activities to prostitution, gambling, and theft until 1920, when organ...Prohibition news page — Alcohol and Drugs History Society
At its zenith, from 95 to 66 BC, Greater Armenia extended its rule over parts of the Caucasus and the area that is now eastern and central Turkey, north-western Iran, Israel, Syria and Lebanon, forming the second Armenian empire. For a time, Armenia was one of the most powerful states east of Rome.
2026 – The Sagrada Famíliais expected to be finished.2021 – The Tower in Dubai is set to be completed, and will become the tallest structure in the worldat a rumored height of at least 1,300 meters (4,625 feet).2019 – City Palace reconstruction in Berlinprojected for completion.2018 – The Wuhan Greenland Center in Wuhan is set to be completed and will become the tallest building in Chinawhen completed at 636 meters (2087 feet).2017 – Apple's new headquarters Apple Park, designed by Norman Foster, opened in Cupertino, California.2016 – MahaNakhon opens in Bangkok, Zaha Hadiddies.2009 – CityCenter opens on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. This project is the largest privately funded construction project in the history of the United States.2008 – "Water Cube", "Bird's Nest", South railway station, and other buildings in Beijing, completed for the 2008 Summer Olympics.2007 – Tarald Lundevall completes the Oslo Opera Housein Oslo, Norway.2006 – Construction begins on the Freedom Tower, on the site of the former World Trade Center.1999 – Jewish Museum Berlin, designed by Daniel Libeskindis completed.1998 – Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, designed by César Pelli completed (world tallest building 1998–2004). Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art by Steven Hollopens to public.1997 – Guggenheim Museum Bilbao designed by Frank Gehry. Sky Tower (Auckland)completed.1996 – Oscar Niemeyer completes the Niterói Contemporary Art Museumin Brazil.1989 – I. M. Pei's pyramid addition to the Louvreis opened.1988 – MOMA Exhibition called Deconstructivist architectureopens.1987 – The Riga Radio & TV Tower in Riga, Latvia is completed.1986 – The Lloyd's Building in London, designed by Richard Rogers, is completed.1979 – Charles Moore designs the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans.1978 – United Nations City in Vienna, Austriais completed.1977 – The Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, designed by Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini, is opened.1976 – The Barbican Estate, designed by Chamberlin, Powell and Bon, opens in the City of London.1969 – Fernsehturm Berlin opens. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropiusdie.1968 – Mies van der Rohe's New National Gallery in Berlinfinished.1967 – Expo 67 in Montreal features the American pavilion, a geodesic dome designed by Buckminster Fuller, and the Habitat 67 housing complex designed by Moshe Safdie.1966 – The Gateway Arch by Eero Saarinen is finished in St. Louis, Missouri.1959 – Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York Cityis finished after 16 years of work on the project.1958 – The Seagram Building in New York designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnsonis completed.1957 – The Interbau 57 exposition in Berlin features structures by Alvar Aalto, Walter Gropius and his The Architects' Collaborative (TAC), and an unitéby Le Corbusier.1956 – Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, designed by Mies van der Rohe, is finished.1949 – Glass House in New Canaan, Connecticut designed by Philip Johnson.1948 – Pietro Belluschi completes the Equitable Building in Portland, Oregon.1947 – Alvar Aalto builds the Baker House dormitories at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.1946 – Le Corbusier draws up plans for La Rochelle-La Pallice, while his efforts to redesign Saint-Dié-des-Vosges (both cities in France) are foiled.1939 – The 1939 World's Fair in New York includes the Finnish Pavilion by Alvar Aalto and the Brazilian Pavilion by Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer.1938 – Frank Lloyd Wright purchases 800 acres (3.2 km2) of land 26 miles away from Phoenix, and begins to build Taliesin West, his winter home, in Scottsdale, Arizona, US1937 – Wright completes his house Fallingwater, at Bear Run, Pennsylvania.1936 – Frank Lloyd Wright designs his monumental inward-looking Johnson Wax Headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin, US.
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In internal Church affairs, Benedict XV reiterated Pius X's condemnation of Modernist scholars and the errors in modern philosophical systems in Ad beatissimi Apostolorum. He declined to readmit to full communion scholars who had been excommunicated during the previous pontificate. However, he calmed what he saw as the excesses of the anti-Modernist campaign within the Church. On 25 July 1920, he wrote the motu proprio Bonum sane on Saint Josephand against naturalism and socialism.
Canon law reform
In 1917 Benedict XV promulgated the Church's first comprehensive Code of Canon Law, the preparation of which had been commissioned by Pope Pius X, and which is thus known as the Pio-Benedictine Code. This Code, which entered into force in 1918, was the first consolidation of the Church's Canon Law into a modern Code made up of simple articles. Previously, Canon Law was dispersed in a variety of sources and partial compilations. The new codification of canon law is credited with reviving relig...
On 30 November 1919, Benedict XV appealed to all Catholics worldwide to sacrifice for Catholic missions, stating at the same time in Maximum illud that these missions should foster local culture and not import European cultures. The damages of such cultural importswere particularly grave in Africa and Asia, where many missionaries were deported and incarcerated if they happened to originate from a hostile nation.
During his seven-year pontificate, Benedict XV wrote a total of twelve encyclicals. In addition to the encyclicals mentioned, he issued In hac tanta on St. Boniface (14 May 1919), Paterno iam diu on the Children of Central Europe (24 November 1919), Spiritus Paraclitus on St. Jerome (September 1920), Principi Apostolorum Petro on St. Ephram the Syrian (5 October 1920), Annus iam plenus also on Children in Central Europe (1 December 1920), Sacra propediem on the Third Order of St. Francis (6 January 1921), In praeclara summorum on Dante (30 April 1921), and Fausto appetente dieon St. Dominic (29 June 1921). His Apostolic Exhortations include Ubi primum (8 September 1914), Allorché fummo chiamati (28 July 1915) and Dès le début (1 August 1917). The Papal bulls of Benedict XV include Incruentum Altaris (10 August 1915), Providentissima Mater (27 May 1917), Sedis huius (14 May 1919), and Divina disponente (16 May 1920). Benedict issued nine Briefs during his pontificate: Divinum praecep...
Canonizations and beatifications
Benedict XV canonized a total of four individuals including Joan of Arc and Marguerite Marie Alacoque. He also beatified a total of forty six people, including the Uganda Martyrs (1920), Oliver Plunkett (1920) and Louise de Marillac(1920).
Doctor of the Church
He named Ephrem the Syrian as a Doctor of the Churchon 5 October 1920.
The pope created 32 cardinals in five consistories, elevating men into the cardinalate such as Pietro La Fontaine (1916) and Michael von Faulhaber (1921); he reserved two in pectore but later published one name (Adolf Bertram). The pope's death in 1922 therefore invalidated the second appointment (it has been alleged that the second in pectore cardinal was to be Pavel Huyn). Benedict XV also created his immediate successor Achille Rattias a cardinal in 1921.
Pope Benedict XV was a slight man. He wore the smallest of three cassocks that were prepared for the election of a new pope in 1914, and became known as "Il Piccoletto" or "The Little Man". The cassock he wore upon his election had to be quickly stitched up so it could properly fit him. The new pope jokingly said to the tailors: "My dear, had you forgotten me?" He was dignified in bearing and courtly in terms of manners, but his appearance was not that of a pope. He had a sallow complexion, a mat of black hair, and prominent teeth.He himself had referred to his appearance as an "ugly gargoyle upon the buildings of Rome". It was even said that his father looked upon his newborn son with incredulity and turned away in dismay at the sight of the infant della Chiesa, due to the small, bluish pallor and frail appearance of the infant. He was renowned for his generosity, answering all pleas for help from poor Roman families with large cash gifts from his private revenues. When he was shor...
1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1890th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 890th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1890s decade.
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean (10 August 1920 - Treaty of Sevres: Ottoman Turkey was the last of the Central Powers to sign a treaty with the victorious Allies, surrendering much of its Middle Eastern empire to the British, French, Greeks, and Armenians.