en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afroasiatic_languages#:~:text=Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and in,Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel.
- Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and in older sources as Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages that are spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel.
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- Cushitic Languages
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic...
- Cushitic Languages
The Semitic languages, previously also named Syro-Arabian languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East that are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Malta, in small pockets in the Caucasus as well as in often large immigrant and expatriate communities in North America, Europe and Australasia.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages. This speech area is known as the Urheimat. Afroasiatic languages are today distributed in parts of Africa and Western Asia. The contemporary Afroasiatic languages are spoken in the Near East, North Africa, the Horn of Af
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat (Urheimat meaning "original homeland" in German) refers to the hypothetical place where Proto-Afroasiatic language speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. Afroasiatic languages are today primarily spoken in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel.
Afroasiatic ( Afro-Asiatic ), also known as Afrasian and in older sources as Hamito-Semitic ( Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel .
(The articles on the main branches of Afroasiatic languages should do the same.) For example, if all Afroasiatic languages have mostly 3-letter verb roots, the article should say so. Also, if any of these properties are found only in Afroasiatic languages and not in any other language groups, the article should say so.
Afroasiatic languages are spoken throughout North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia and parts of the Sahel. There are approximately 375 Afroasiatic languages spoken by over 400 million people. The main subfamilies of Afroasiatic are Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Omotic, Egyptian and Semitic. The Afroasiatic Urheimat is uncertain.
- Distribution and Branches
- Classification History
- Position Among The World's Languages
- Date of Afroasiatic
- Afroasiatic Urheimat
- Similarities in Grammar and Syntax
- Shared Vocabulary
- See Also
- External Links
The Afroasiatic language family was originally referred to as \\"Hamito-Semitic\\", a term introduced in the 1860s by the German scholar Karl Richard Lepsius. The name was later popularized by Friedrich Müller in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft (Vienna 1876-88).The term \\"Afroasiatic\\" (often now spelled as \\"Afro-Asiatic\\") was later coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). However, it did not come into general use until Joseph Greenberg (1950) formally proposed its adoption. In doing so, Greenberg...
The Afroasiatic language family is usually considered to include the following branches: 1. Berber 2. Chadic 3. Cushitic 4. Egyptian 5. Omotic 6. SemiticAlthough there is general agreement on these six families, there are some points of disagreement among linguists who study Afroasiatic. In particular: 1. The Omotic language branch is the most controversial member of Afroasiatic, because the grammatical formatives that most linguists have given greatest weight in classifying languages in the...
In the 9th century, the Hebrew grammarian Judah ibn Quraysh of Tiaret in Algeria was the first to link two branches of Afroasiatic together; he perceived a relationship between Berber and Semitic. He knew of Semitic through his study of Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic.In the course of the 19th century, Europeans also began suggesting such relationships. In 1844, Theodor Benfey suggested a language family consisting of Semitic, Berber, and Cushitic (calling the latter \\"Ethiopic\\"). In the same year...
Afroasiatic is one of the four language families of Africa identified by Joseph Greenberg in his book The Languages of Africa (1963). It is the only one that extends outside of Africa, via the Semitic branch.There are no generally accepted relations between Afroasiatic and any other language family. However, several proposals grouping Afroasiatic with one or more other language families have been made. The best-known of these are the following: 1. Hermann Möller (1906) argued for a relation b...
The earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an Ancient Egyptian inscription of c. 3400 BC (5,400 years ago). Symbols on Gerzean pottery resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting a still earlier possible date. This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic. However, Ancient Egyptian is highly divergent from Proto-Afroasiatic (Trombetti 1905: 1–2), and considerable time must have elapsed in between them. Estimates of the date at which the Proto...
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat (Urheimat meaning \\"original homeland\\" in German) refers to the 'hypothetical' place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. Afroasiatic languages are today primarily spoken in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel. Their distribution seems to have been influenced by the Saharan...
Widespread (though not universal) features of the Afroasiatic languages include: 1. A set of emphatic consonants, variously realized as glottalized, pharyngealized, or implosive. 2. VSO typology with SVO tendencies. 3. A two-gender system in the singular, with the feminine marked by the sound /t/. 4. All Afroasiatic subfamilies show evidence of a causative affix s. 5. Semitic, Berber, Cushitic (including Beja), and Chadic support possessive suffixes. 6. Morphology in which words inflect by ch...
The following are some examples of Afroasiatic cognates, including ten pronouns, three nouns, and three verbs.There are two etymological dictionaries of Afroasiatic, one by Christopher Ehret, and one by Vladimir Orel and Olga Stolbova. The two dictionaries disagree on almost everything. The following table contains the thirty roots or so (out of thousands) that represent a fragile consensus of present research:
1. Borean languages 2. Indo-European languages 3. Indo-Semitic languages 4. Languages of Africa 5. Languages of Asia 6. Languages of Europe 7. Nostratic languages 8. Proto-Afroasiatic language
1. Anthony, David. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2. Barnett, William and John Hoopes (editors). 1995. The Emergence of Pottery. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-517-8 3. Bender, Lionel et al. 2003. Selected Comparative-Historical Afro-Asiatic Studies in Memory of Igor M. Diakonoff. LINCOM. 4. Bomhard, Alan R. 1996. Indo-European and the Nostra...
1. Afro-Asiatic at the Linguist List MultiTree Project (not functional as of 2014): Genealogical trees attributed to Delafosse 1914, Greenberg 1950–1955, Greenberg 1963, Fleming 1976, Hodge 1976, Orel & Stolbova 1995, Diakonoff 1996–1998, Ehret 1995–2000, Hayward 2000, Militarev 2005, Blench 2006, and Fleming 2006 2. Afro-Asiatic and Semitic genealogical trees, presented by Alexander Militarev at his talk \\"Genealogical classification of Afro-Asiatic languages according to the latest data\\" at...