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  1. Euphemia of Pomerania (d. 1330) | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias...

    Euphemia of Pomerania (d. 1330) Queen of Denmark. Name variations: Eufemia; Euphamia of Pommerania. Died on July 26, 1330; married Christopher II (1276–1332), king of Denmark (r. 1319–26, 1330–1332); children: Eric, king of Denmark (r. 1321–1326, 1330–1332); Waldemar IV Atterdag, king of Denmark (r. 1340–1375); Otto, duke of Loland and Estland; Agnes Christofsdottir (d. 1312 ...

  2. Person Page - 3717 - the peerage

    www.thepeerage.com/p3717.htm

    Oct 27, 2003 · He was educated at Harrow School, Harrow, London, England G. 1 He graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England G, with a Master of Arts (M.A.) 1 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) (Liberal) for Lincoln between 1895 and 1906. 1 He held the office of High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in ...

  3. Margaret (1395–1447) | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias...

    Margaret (1395–1447)Duchess of Bavaria . Name variations: Margarethe. Born on June 26, 1395, in Vienna; died on December 24, 1447, in Burghausen; daughter of Johanna of Bavaria (c. 1373–1410) and Albrecht also known as Albert IV (1377–1404), duke of Austria (r. 1395–1404); sister of Albert V (1397–1439), duke of Austria (r. 1404–1439), king of Hungary (r. 1437); king of Bohemia (r.

  4. Margaret de Foix (fl. 1280) | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../margaret-de-foix-fl-1280

    Margaret de Foix (fl. 1280)Queen of Navarre. Name variations: Marguerite de Foix; Margaret of Foix; Margaret of Bourbon. Died April 13, 1258; dau. of Archibald also known as Archimbaud or Archambaud VIII of Bourbon; became 3rd wife of Teobaldo or Theobald I (1201–1253), king of Navarre (r. 1234–1253, also known as Theobald IV of Champagne), in 1232; children: Theobald II (1237–1270 ...

  5. Margaret de Foix (d. 1258) | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../margaret-de-foix-d-1258

    Margaret de Foix (d. 1258)Queen of Navarre . Name variations: Marguerite de Foix; Margaret of Foix; Margaret of Bourbon. Died on April 13, 1258; daughter of Archibald also known as Archimbaud or Archambaud VIII of Bourbon; became third wife of Teobaldo or Theobald I (1201–1253), king of Navarre (r. 1234–1253, also known as Theobald IV of Champagne), in 1232; children: Theobald II (1237 ...

  6. Margaret Grace Bondfield | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../margaret-grace-bondfield
    • Began Union Career in London
    • Fought For Women's Suffrage
    • Led Women's Union Through Transition
    • Elected to Parliament
    • Further Reading

    In 1894, when she was 21, Bondfield moved to London, where her brother Frank lived. Frank had become a printer and a trade union activist, and through him she became acquainted with a number of people and organizations promoting unions and socialism. After meeting the socialists Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Bondfield joined their moderately leftist group known as the Fabian Society. She also became a member of the Independent Labour Party at this time, establishing friendships and political connections with future prime minister Ramsay MacDonaldand hiswife-to-be, Margaret Gladstone. A third area she entered at this time was the world of trade unionism, which she began to support after meeting James McPherson, the secretary of the Shop Assistants' Union. The Shop Assistants' Union admitted both male and female members, and it also worked in conjunction with the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL). Bondfield quickly moved into positions of authority in both organizations: she was elected t...

    During the same time period, Bondfield also expressed her feminist views by joining the suffrage movement, serving as president of the Adult Suffrage Society from 1906 to 1909. Her organization supported giving the right to vote to all adults and clashed with other groups who were willing to accept various limitations on voter eligibility. Ultimately, Bondfield gave her support to the restricted suffrage offered in the Suffrage Act of 1918, which only gave women the right to vote if they were the head of a household and over 30 years of age. In the 1920s, however, she renewed her fight for suffrage for all adult women. In addition to her many union and political activities in the first decade of the century, Bondfield conducted studies of labor issues in American industries in Chicago, Illinois, and Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1910. Back in England, she returned to her lecture tours until suffering from a physical collapse. In order to regain her health, she resigned from her office...

    During the years of World War I, Bondfield devoted most of her energy to serving as the organizing secretary of the NFWW. She also, however, served on a number of wartime committees devoted to working-class issues, particularly demands on labor by the government. In addition, she became a dedicated pacifist; her views did not find favor with the British government, which in 1917 denied her permission to travel to peace conferences in Stockholm and the Hague. After the war, Bondfield was caught up in a struggle to maintain her authority in the unions when the NFWW was merged with the National Union of General and Municipal Workers (NUGMW). In the years that followed, the NUGMW gradually reduced the number of posts available to women. When it became apparent in 1923 that Bondfield's position was being reduced to that of a powerless token female in the union hierarchy, she rebelled and declared she would quit. The leadership acceded to her demands and gave her the responsibility of ove...

    Bondfield increased the scope of her political work when she was elected to Parliament from Northampton in 1923. During her first year in the government, she became parliamentary secretary to the Labour party's minister of labour, Thomas Shaw. She was defeated for her seat in 1924, but returned to Parliament in 1926. At that time, she became the target of much criticism from the unions, extremists in the Labour party, and her local voters when she gave her approval to a government plan to lower some unemployment benefits. Bondfield survived this political crisis after appearing before the various groups and defending her position. After her reelection to Parliament in 1929, Bondfield became the first woman to hold a cabinet post in the British government when she was named minister of labour by Ramsay MacDonald. Her assumption of this duty came of the eve of the economic depression of the 1930s. When unemployment reached record numbers in the first half of 1930, Bondfield successful...

    For more information see Bondfield, Margaret, A Life's Work, Hutchinson, 1949; Clegg, H. A., General Union in a Changing Society: A Short History of the National Union of General and Municipal Workers, 1889-1964, Basil Blackwell, 1964; Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Margaret Bondfield, Leonard Parsons, 1924; and Soldon, Norbert C., Women in British Trade Unions, 1874-1976,Gill and Macmillan, 1978. □

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