Yahoo Web Search

  1. About 509,000 search results
  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AlamutAlamut - Wikipedia

    Alamut ( Persian: الموت ‎) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills ...

  2. Alamut (bahasa Persia: قلعه الموت atau hanya الموت yang dalam bahasa Arab dan Persia berarti istana kematian) adalah bekas benteng gunung yang terletak di tengah pegunungan Elburz, sebelah selatan Laut Kaspia, dekat dengan Gazor Khan, dekat Qazvin, sekitar 100 km dari ibu kota Iran, Tehran.

    • Overview
    • Origins
    • Expansion Into Syria
    • The Next Generation
    • Hassan II and Rashid ad-Din Sinan
    • 13th Century
    • Downfall and Aftermath
    • Etymology
    • Military Tactics
    • Legends and Folklore

    The Nizari Isma'ili State, later known as the Assassins, was founded by Hassan-i Sabbah. Sabbah called his disciples Asāsiyyūn (Arabic: "أساسِيّون", meaning "people who are faithful to the foundation [of the faith]"). The state was formed in 1090 after the capture of Alamut Castle in modern Iran, which served as the Assassins' headquarters. The Alamut and Lambsar castles became the foundation of a network of Isma'ili fortresses throughout Persia and Syria that formed the backbone of Assassin power, and included Syrian strongholds at Masyaf, Abu Qubays, al-Qadmus and al-Kahf. The Nizari Isma'ili State was ruled by Hassan-i Sabbath until his death in 1124. The Western world was introduced to the Assassins by the works of Marco Polo who understood the name as deriving from the term hashish. The rulers of the Nizari Isma'ili State were religious leaders, at first da'i and later Imams. Prominent Assassin leaders operating in Syria included al-Hakim al-Munajjim, the physician-astrologer (...

    Hassan-i Sabbah was born in Qom, ca. 1050, and did his religious studies in Cairo with the Fatimids. Sabbah's father was a Qahtanite Arab, said to be a descendant of Himyaritic kings, having emigrated to Qom from Kufa. His support of Nizar ibn al-Mustansir in the succession crisis resulted in his imprisonment and deportation. He made his way to Persia where through subterfuge, he and his followers captured Alamut Castle in 1090. This was the beginning of the Nizari Isma'ili State and the Assassins. Hassan-i Sabbah was not a direct descendant of Nizar and so a da'i rather than an Imam. It was Isma'ili doctrine that he kept Nizar's lineage intact through the so-called concealed Imams. Sabbah adapted the fortress to suit his needs not only for defense from hostile forces, but also for indoctrination of his followers. After laying claim to the fortress at Alamut, Sabbah began expanding his influence outwards to nearby towns and districts, using his agents to gain political favour and to...

    The first da'i Hassan-i dispatched to Syria was al-Hakim al-Munajjim, a Persian known as the physician-astrologer, establishing a cell in Aleppo in the early 12th century. Ridwan, the emir of Aleppo, was in search of allies and worked closely with al-Hakim leading to speculation that Ridwan himself was a Nizari. The alliance was first shown in the assassination in 1103 of Janah ad-Dawla, emir of Homs and a key opponent of Ridwan. He was murdered by three Assassins at the Great Mosque of al-Nuri in Homs. Al-Hakim died a few weeks later and was succeeded by Abu Tahir al-Sa’igh, a Persian known as the goldsmith. After the death of Barkiyaruq in 1105, his successor Muhammad I Tapar began his anti-Nizari campaign. While successful in cleaning the Assassins out of parts of Persia, they remained untouchable in their strongholds in the north. An eight-year war of attrition was initiated under the command of Ahmad ibn Nizam al-Mulk, the son of the first Assassin victim. The mission had some...

    In 1124, Hassan-i Sabbah died, leaving a legacy that reverberated throughout the Middle East for centuries. He was succeeded at Alamut by Kiya Buzurg Ummid. The appointment of a new da'i at Alamut may have led the Seljuks to believe the Assassins were in a weakened position, and Ahmad Sanjar launched an attack on them in 1126. Led by Sanjar's vizier Mu'in ad-Din Kashi, the Seljuks again struck at Quhistan and also Nishapur in the east, and at Rudbar to the north. In the east, the Seljuks had minor successes at a village near Sabzevar, where the population was destroyed, their leader leaping from the mosque's minaret, and at Turaythirth in Nishapur, where the attackers "killed many, took much booty, and then returned." At best, the results were not decisive, but superior to the routing the Seljuks received in the north, with one expedition driven back, losing their previous booty, and another having a Seljuk commander captured. In the end, the Isma'ili position was better than before...

    The fourteen known assassinations during the reign of Kiya Muhammad was a far cry from the tally of his predecessors, representing a significant decline in the power of the Isma'ilis. This was exemplified by the governors of Mazandaran and of Rayy who were said to have built towers out of Isma'ili skulls. That was to change with the ascension in 1162 of Kiya Muhammad's son Ḥasan ʿAlā Zikrihi's Salām, known as Hassan II, the first to be recognized as Imam. Hassan II shifted the focus of his followers from the exoteric to the esoteric (batin). He traced his genealogy to the Fatimid Imams and Imam Nizar, which the da'is of Alamut confirmed as they were the ones in contact with the Imam. He abrogated the exoteric practice of Sharia and stressed on the esoteric (batini) side of the laws. The impact of these changes on Isma'ili life and politics were vast and continued after Hassan II's death in 1166 by his son Nūr al-Dīn Muhammad, known as the Imam Muhammad II, who ruled from 1166 to 121...

    In 1210, Muhammad III died and his son Jalāl al-Din Hasan (known as Hassan III) became Imam of the Nizari Isma'ili State. His first actions included the return to the Islamic orthodoxy by practising Taqiyyah to ensure safety of the Ismailis in the hostile environment. He claimed allegiance to the Sunnis to protect himself and his followers from further persecution. He had a Sunni mother and four Sunni wives. Hassan III recognized the Abbasid caliph al-Nasir who in turn granted a diploma of investiture. The Alamuts had a previous history with al-Nasir, supplying Assassins to attack a Kwarezm representative of shah Ala ad-Din Tekish, but that more of an action of convenience than formal alliance. Maintaining ties to western Christian influences, the Alamuts became tributaries to the Knights Hospitaller beginning at the Isma'ili stronghold Abu Qubays, near Margat. The count of Tripoli in 1213 was Bohemond IV, the fourth prince of Antioch of that name. That year his 18-year-old son Raym...

    The Assassins suffered a significant blow at the hands of the Mongol Empire during the well-documented invasion of Khwarazm. A decree was handed over to the Mongol commander Kitbuqa who began to assault several Assassin fortresses in 1253 before Hulagu's advance in 1256, seizing Alamut late that year. Lambsar fell in 1257, Masyaf in 1260. The Assassins recaptured and held Alamut for a few months in 1275, but they were crushed and their political power was lost forever. Rukn al-Din Khurshahwas put to death shortly thereafter. Though the Mongol massacre at Alamut was widely interpreted to be the end of Isma'ili influence in the region, various sources say that the Isma'ilis' political influence continued. In 674/1275, a son of Imam Rukn al-Din Khurshah managed to recapture Alamut, though only for a few years. The Nizari Imam, known in the sources as Khudawand Muhammad, again managed to recapture the fort in the fourteenth century. It is uncertain whether "Khudawand Muhammad" refers to...

    The word "asas" in Arabic means principle. The "Asāsiyyūn" (plural, from literary Arabic) were, as defined in Arabic, people of principle. The term "assassin" likely has roots in "hashshāshīn" (hashish smokers or users), a mispronunciation of the original Asāsiyyūn, but not a mispronunciation of "Assasiyeen" (pronounced "Asāsiyyeen", the plural of Asasi). Originally referring to the methods of political control exercised by the Assasiyuun, one can see how it became "assassin" in several languages to describe similar activities anywhere. The Assassins were finally linked by the 19th-century orientalist Silvestre de Sacy to the Arabic word hashish using their variant names assassin and assissini in the 19th century. Citing the example of one of the first written applications of the Arabic term hashish to the Ismailis by 13th-century historian Abu Shama, de Sacy demonstrated its connection to the name given to the Ismailis throughout Western scholarship. The first known usage of the te...

    In pursuit of their religious and political goals, the Isma'ilis adopted various military strategies popular in the Middle Ages. One such method was that of assassination, the selective elimination of prominent rival figures. The murders of political adversaries were usually carried out in public spaces, creating resounding intimidation for other possible enemies. Throughout history, many groups have resorted to assassination as a means of achieving political ends. The assassinations were committed against those whose elimination would most greatly reduce aggression against the Ismailis and, in particular, against those who had perpetrated massacres against the community. A single assassination was usually employed in contrast with the widespread bloodshed which generally resulted from factional combat. Assassins are also said to be have been adept in furusiyya, or the Islamic warrior code, where they were trained in combat, disguises, and equestrianism.[citation needed]Codes of con...

    The term assassin, which appeared in European languages in a variety of forms (e.g., assassini, assissini, and heyssisini), was evidently based on variants of the Arabic word hashishi (pl. hashishiyya, hashishin). The latter was applied by other Muslims to Nizaris in the pejorative sense of “low-class rabble” or “people of lax morality,” without any derivative explanation reflecting any special connection between the Nizaris and hashish, a product of hemp. This term of abuse was picked up locally in Syria by the Crusaders and European travelers and adopted as the designation of the Nizari Ismailis. Subsequently, after the etymology of the term had been forgotten, it came to be used in Europe as a noun meaning “murderer.” Thus, a misnomer rooted in abuse eventually resulted in a new word, assassin, in European languages. Medieval Europeans—and especially the Crusaders—who remained ignorant of Islam as a religion and of its internal divisions were also responsible for fabricating and...

    • Etimologi
    • Sejarah
    • Taktik: Pembunuhan, Intimidasi Dan Intrik
    • Mitos Dan Legenda
    • Pranala Luar

    Sekte ini menyebut dirinya al-Da'wa al-Jadīda, dari bahasa Arab yang artinya panggilan baru, kebalikan dari slogan kelompok Fatimiyah panggilan lama.Nama Hasyasyin oleh beberapa orang diartikan sebagai pengikut Hassan (pemimpin kelompok persia ini yang bernama Hassan-i Sabah). Istilah Hasysyin secara luas juga dianggap berasal dari kata bahasa arab Hasysyasy yang artinya pemakai candu (hashish), meskipun ini masih diperdebatkan. Variasi terkini tentang teori ini, dijelaskan oleh Edward Burman, bahwa julukan tersebut diberikan oleh para pengkritik kelompok Nizariyang mencurigai kelompok rahasia ini, serta pelaksanaan konsep filosofi dan teologi mereka yang heterodoks. Penggunaan zat-zat psikoaktif (terutama Cannabis) oleh para cendekiawan saat ini dianggap sebagai mitos, tetapi harus diingat bahwa mitos tersebut sangat populer pada zaman itu. Julukan itu bisa juga berasal dari kata "mereka yang menghasilkan hashish", meski etimologi ini juga diperdebatkan. Kata hashish (kemungkinan b...

    Meskipun menjadi minoritas di dalam minoritas, sekte Ismailiyah, di bawah pimpinan para imamnya, telah berhasil membangun gerakan rahasia bawah tanah yang berkelanjutan terhadap kekhalifahan Abbasiyah. Mereka bermaksud merealisasikan gagasan-gagasan revolusioner mereka dengan cara membangun negara Shiah pertama, kerajaan Fatimiah, di sepanjang Mediterania dan Levant, dengan ibu kotanya Kairo. Kerajaan ini bertujuan untuk melakukan terobosan ilmiah dan sosial terhadap masyarakatnya, termasuk kebebasan beragama, dan memang, kelompok Fatimiah berjasa dalam beberapa kemajuan besar pada masa kejayaan Islam. Pada tahun 1904, ketika Khalifah Fatimiah VIII dan imam kelompok Ismailiyah Maad al-Mustansir Billah sakit di Kairo, Wazirnya yang berpengaruh, Al-Afdal, mengambil alih kekuasaan negara dan menunjuk anak bungsu khalifah, Al- Musta'i (ipar sang wazir) sebagai khalifah, dalam sebuah kudeta di istana. Nizar, sang pewaris kekuasaan yang sebenarnya, pergi ke Alexandria, di saat dia mendapa...

    Karena tidak mampu membentuk satuan tentara konvensional, kaum Nizariyya membentuk peperangan asimetris yang mengubah tindakan pembunuhan politis menjadi suatu sistem untuk bertahan hidup dan pertahanan terhadap musuh-musuhnya. Mereka melatih pasukan komando tersamar yang sangat terlatih (ahli dalam bahasa, ilmu pengetahuan, perdagangan dan lain-lain, yang dikenal sebagai Fedayeen, yang secara diam-diam akan menginfiltrasi posisi musuh dan selalu menyamar. Jika warga Nizari menghadapi ancaman pembunuhan atau benteng mereka akan diserang, Fedayeen diaktifkan untuk menghadapi serangan tersebut. Fedayeen menggunakan ketrampilan mereka yang termasyhur untuk tujuan-tujuan politiktanpa harus membunuh; misalnya seorang korban, biasanya berpangkat tinggi, di suatu pagi akan mendapati belati Fedayeen di atas bantalnya di saat bangun pagi. Ini petunjuk yang jelas bagi orang tersebut bahwa dia tidak lagi aman dimanapun, bahwa lingkaran dalam para pelayannya telah diinfiltrasi oleh kelompok pem...

    Perpustakaan Alamut telah dihancurkan, bersama dengan basis kekuatan Persia mereka, mengakibatkan hilangnya sebagian besar catatan mereka. Kebanyakan kisah mereka berasal dari cerita orang arab dan cerita dari Marco Polo. Mayoritas muslim sekarang memusuhi kaum Nizari, mereka disebut dengan istilah Batini. Istilah ini biasa digunakan untuk ejekan bagi mereka, khusunya kaum Ismailiyah, yang memahami makna tingkat esoterik dalam al-Qur'an. Pengucilan keagaman yang terus menerus ini yang akhirnya membuat mereka sampai membuat bersekutu dengan orang-orang kristen melawan kaum muslim di sejumlah kejadian bila itu sesuai dengan kepentingan mereka. Kebanyakan kisah saat ini mengenai Assassin berasal dari Marco Polo, yang menyatakan telah mengunjungi Alamut pada tahun 1273 dalam pengembaraannya ke timur (kunjungan yang secara luas dianggap fiktif karena basis pertahanan tersebut telah dihancurkan oleh tentara Mongol pada tahun 1256). Polo menulis bahwa calon assassin diharuskan mengikuti ri...

    (Inggris) Secret Doctrines of AssassinsThe Assassins as an Initiatic School
    (Inggris) The Crusades Wiki
    • Origen
    • Estat Ismaïlita
    • Dais de Daylam A Alamut
    • Enllaços Externs

    Alamut és al cim conegut com a Alah Amut. Entre les etimologies s'assenyala "Puig de l'Àliga", "Niu de l'Àliga" o "Senyal de l'Àliga". Segons la llegenda una àliga va ensenyar el lloc a un rei daylamita, que hi va fer construir una fortalesa al lloc on l'àliga (aluh) va fer el senyal (amukht). Sembla que fou vers l'any 860 quan l'alidaal-Hasan al-Dai ila al-Hakk va acabar de reconstruir la fortalesa, en un cim a 2100 metres, amb un únic accés artificial per la pedra del penya-segat frontal i com a única manera d'acostar-s'hi un pendent escarpat i perillós que en feia molt difícil la conquesta. La fortalesa, que tenia el seu propi sistema de proveïment d'aigua, feia 400 metres de llargària i només 30 d'amplada. Al-Hasan al-Sabbah, el fundador de la secta dels ismaïlites nizarites (coneguda com els Hashshashins i a Europa com "els assassins"), se'n va apoderar el 1090 i va convertir el castell en quarter general de la secta. Era quasi impossible de conquerir i va resistir tots els ata...

    Entre el 1090 i el 1257 fou la capital d'un estat ismaïlita (després ismaïlita nizarita) format per territoris dispersos a l'Iran i Síria. Els ismaïlites (xiïtes) s'havien revoltat a favor dels fatimites (també xiïtes) en els darrers anys del regnat de Màlik-Xah I, soldà seljúcida sunnita. L'intent dels seljúcides de recuperar-la el 1092 va fracassar. La revolta va agafar volada sobretot en el regnat del sultà Barkiyaruk. Fortaleses al Kohistan, Kumis, Fars i al-Jazira de Síria foren ocupades pels rebels.Entre els caps rebels Attash Ahmad ibn Abd al-Malik que era el daï (missioner, en aquest cas en sentit de cap) d'Esfahan, el seu fill Ahmad ibn Attash, que va conquerir Shahidz o Shahdez (prop d'Esfahan) el 1100, i el ja esmentat Al-Hasan al-Sabbah que dominava Alamut des del 1090. A la mort de l'imam o califa fatimita al-Mustansir Abu Temim Moad d'Egipte (1035–1094) els ismaïlites iranians van donar suport al seu fill Nizar i derrotat aquest, no van voler reconèixer a al-Mustali Ab...

    Articles principals: Daï, Ismaïlites, Ismaïlites, Nizarites, i Fortalesa d'Alamut
    Hasan-i Sabbah(1090–1124)
    Buzurg-Ummid(1124–1138)
    Muhàmmad ibn Kiya Buzrug-Ummid (1138–1162) Muhàmmad I d'Alamut
    Hassan II d'Alamut(1162–1166)
    Muhammad II d'Alamut(1166–1210)
    "Manuscrit de Chinghiz-nama: Hulagu Khan destrueix el Fort d'Alamut" Arxivat 2005-02-16 a Wayback Machine. (trobat el 23 de febrer de 2005)
    • Istoric
    • Controverse
    • Decădere
    • Note
    • Bibliografie
    • Legături Externe

    Secta islamică șiită nizară (Nizariiun) provine de la Califul-Imam al-Mustansir Billah din Califatul Fatimid din Egipt, care l-a numit oficial pe primul său fiu, Nizar, ca Imam-Calif moștenitor. Hasan Ibn Sabbah (1050-1124) (persană حسن صباح), supranumit și „Bătrânul (Înțeleptul) de la Munte” (din arabă „Șeik-al-Jabal”) urmașul lui Rukn-ud-Dīn Khurshāh, (arabă ركن الدين خورشاه, persană رکن‌الدین خورشاه ), fiul lui Ala a-Din Maḥomed al III-lea și al 27-lea imam șiit nizarit, folosind relațiile pe care le avea cu viitorul sultan al Sultanatului medieval Turko-Persan Seliuk Regele Nizam (Nizam el Mulk) și-a organizat prin anul 1094, împreună cu simpatizanți persani, o armată de teroriști, fadaiun, sau arabă فداء fidaiiun, luptători sinucigași întru islam, „cei care sunt gata să renunțe la viața pământească și să se sacrifice prin luptă pentru a se purifica, pentru a deveni șahid”B, cu care a pornit să cucerească fortărețe și localități situate pe dealuri și la răscruci de drumuri în ve...

    Cruzimea, folosirea de hașiș și raidurile de asasinate în numele islamului au fost negate cu vehemență de autori precum istoricul iranian Farhad Daftary Conform cu istoricul mason Albert MacKey, în calitatea sa de Mare Maestru masonic, Hassan a creat un sistem de ucenici, calfe și maeștri în ale meseriei, sistem ce a fost comparat mai târziu cu gradele masonice. Acesta mai susține că: „...asasinii, a căror legătură cu Templieriia fost dovedită pe baza documentelor istorice existente, s-ar putea să fi exercitat o oarecare influență asupra acestora servindu-le ca model sau cel puțin sugerându-le unele dintre dogmele și ceremoniile lor esoterice (...) în diverse etape ale istoriei lor, Templierii au încheiat diverse tratate și acorduri de prietenie cu Asasinii; putem crede că în acele perioade în care războiul nu se dezlânțuia cu maximă intensitate, este posibil ca între cele două Ordine să se fi desfășurat schimburi reciproce de vizite și conferințe”.

    „Bătrânul de pe Munte”, Hasan, a fost ucis de fiul său, Mohamed care, la rândul lui, a fost otrăvit de către fiul său, care aflase de planul pus la cale de Mohamed pentru a-l ucide. Prin 1250, hoardele invadatorilor mongoliau capturat și ultima fortăreață a Asasinilor, eliminând practic Ordinul de pe scena istoriei dar, grupe de Asasini și Fidaiun există și azi în Orientul Mijlociu.

    en Hodgson, Marshall: The Order of Assassins. The Struggle of the Early Nizārī Ismā'īlī Against the Islamic World, The Hague: Mouton, 1955.
    en Hodgson, Marshall: The Ismā'īlī State - The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, ed. J.A. Boyle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
    en Madelung, Wilferd: Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran. Albany: Bibliotheca Persica, 1988.
    en Mandelbaum, Michael: Central Asia and the World, Council on Foreign Relations, May 1994.
    en Daftary, Farhad & Ali-de-Unzaga, Omar: Hasan Sabbah, extras on-line din originalul publicat în The Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp. 34– 37, Vol. XII, Columbia University, New York, 1996.The life of Ha...
    en Daraul, Arkon: The Old Man of the Mountains From "A History of Secret Societies", Citadel Press 1961/1989, Arkon Daraul on Hassan-i-Sabbah.Accesat: 1 iulie 2016.
    en Kjeilen, Tore: Assassins, în "Looklex Ecyclopaedia", Assassins entry in the Encyclopedia of the Orient.Accesat: 1 iulie 2016.
    en McCandless, David (edit.): Islamic Sects: Major Schools, Notable Branches, 2014 Accesat: 9 iulie 2016.
  3. Dec 10, 2020 · Percakapan Tentang Alamat, Komplek Perumahan Dalam Bahasa Arab Dengan Kosakatanya – Hallo sahabat yang semoga selalu dirahmati oleh Allah SWT.Teman – teman, pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan membahas makalah tentang bahasa Arab yakni tentang Percakapan bahasa Arab tentang Alamat.

  1. People also search for