History of alcohol
- The Babylonians worshiped a wine goddess as early as 2700 B.C. In Greece, one of the first alcoholic beverages to gain popularity was mead, a fermented drink made from honey and water. Greek literature is full of warnings against excessive drinking.
People also ask
When was alcohol first created?
What is the oldest form of alcohol?
How was alcohol invented?
What is the history of alcohol in the United States?
Nov 04, 2019 · How Long Has Alcohol Been Around? Sumerians. Between 3,000 to 2,000 B.C., Sumerians in Mesopotamia made beer. Researchers have found over 20 different... Egyptians. Most Egyptians drank beer for its virtues and supposed nutritional benefits. An ancient medical text from... Greeks. Ancient Greece was ...
- Boca Raton, FL 33433
Alcohol History It’s likely that alcohol production started when early farmers noted the fermentation that took place in fallen fruit. They may have found the fizzy flavor and sharp aroma pleasing. Trial and error using different fruits and grains finally resulted in formulas that could be refined and repeated for a pleasant alcoholic drink.
In the sixteenth century, alcohol (called “spirits”) was used largely for medicinal purposes. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the British parliament passed a law encouraging the use of grain for distilling spirits. Cheap spirits flooded the market and reached a peak in the mid-eighteenth century.
- Alcohol Timeline: Consumption
- Alcohol as A Trade Good
- Widespread Commercial Production
The earliest possible moment that humans consumed alcohol is conjecture. The creation of alcohol is a natural process, and scholars have noted that primates, insects, and birds partake in (accidentally) fermented berries and fruit. While there is no direct evidence that our ancient ancestors also drank fermented liquids, it is a possibility we should consider. 100,000 years ago (theoretically):At some point, Paleolithic humans or their ancestors recognized that leaving fruit in the bottom of a container for an extended period of time leads naturally to alcohol-infused juices. 30,000 BCE: Some scholars interpret the abstract parts of Upper Paleolithic cave art as the work of shamans, religious specialists who were attempting to connect with natural forces and supernatural beings. Shamans work under altered states of consciousness (ASC), which can be created by chanting or fasting or aided by pyschotropic drugs, like alcohol.' Some of the earliest cave paintingssuggest activities of s...
Alcoholic substances have intoxicating, mind-altering properties that might have been restricted to elites and religious specialists, but they were also used in the maintenance of social cohesion in the context of feastingavailable to everyone in a community. Some herb-based beverages may have been used for medicinal purposes as well. 7000 BCE: The earliest evidence of wine production comes from jars at the Neolithic site of Jiahuin China, where residue analysis has identified a fermented concoction of rice, honey and fruit. 5400–5000 BCE: Based on the recovery of tartaric acid in ceramic vessels, people produced resinated wine, such as that on a fairly large scale at Hajji Firuz Tepe, Iran. 4400–4000 BCE:Grape pips, empty grape skins, and two-handled cups at the Greek site of Dikili Tash are the earliest evidence for wine production in the Aegean Sea region. 4000 BCE:A platform for crushing grapes and a process to move crushed grapes to storage jars are evidence of wine production...
It is difficult to draw the line globally for the production of wine and beer explicitly for trade. It seems clear that alcohol was both an elite substance and one with ritual significance, and the liquids as well as the technology of making them was shared and traded across cultures fairly early on. 3150 BCE: One of the rooms of the tomb of Scorpion I, the earliest of the dynastic kings of Egypt, was stuffed with 700 jars believed to have been made and filled with wine in the Levant and shipped to the king for his consumption. 3300–1200 BCE:Wine consumption is in evidence, used in ritual and elite contexts in Early Bronze Age sites in Greece, including both Minoan and Mycenaean cultures. 1600–722 BCE: Cereal based alcohol are stored in sealed bronze vessels of Shang (ca. 1600-1046 BCE), and Western Zhou(ca. 1046-722 BCE) dynasties in China. 2000–1400 BCE:Textual evidence demonstrates that barley and rice beers, and others made from a variety of grasses, fruits and other substances...
The empires of Greece and Rome are largely responsible for the international commercialization of the trade in many different goods, and specifically in the production of alcoholic beverages. 1st–2nd centuries BCE:The Mediterranean wine trade explodes, bolstered by the Roman empire. 150 BCE–350 CE: Distillation of alcohol is a common practice in northwest Pakistan. 92 CE: Domitian forbids the planting of new vineyards in the provinces because the competition is killing the Italian market. 2nd century CE: Romans begin cultivating grapes and producing wine in Mosel valley of Germany and France becomes a major wine-producing region. 4th century CE: The process of distillation is (possibly re-)developed in Egypt and Arabia. 150 BCE–650 CE: Pulque, made from fermented agave, is used as a dietary supplement at the Mexican capital city of Teotihuacan. 300–800 CE: At Classic period Maya feasts, participants consume balche (made from honey and bark) and chicha (maize-based beer). 500–1000 CE...Anderson, Peter. "Global Use of Alcohol, Drugs ." Drug 25.6 (2006): 489–502. Print.and andTobaccoAlcohol ReviewDietler, Michael. "Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspectives." Annual Review of Anthropology35.1 (2006): 229–49. Print.McGovern, Patrick E. "Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Beer, Wine and Other Alcoholic Beverages." Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009. Print.McGovern, Patrick E., Stuart J. Fleming, and Solomon H. Katz, eds. "The Origins and Ancient History of Wine." Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 20...
- I. Ancient Period
- II. Early Christian Period
- III. Middle Ages
- IV. Early Modern Period
- v. Summary: History of Alcohol and Drinking
- VI. Resources on History of Alcohol and Drinking
No one knows when beverage alcohol was first made. However, it was presumably the result of an accident that occurred at least tens of thousands of years ago. Late Stone Age beer jugs prove that beer was made at least as early as the Neolithic period.1 That was about 10,000 B.C. In fact, beer may have preceded bread as a staple.2 Wine appeared in Egyptian pictographs around 4,000 B.C.3 The earliest alcoholic beverages might have been made from berries or honey.4 Winemaking may have originated in the wild grape regions of the Middle East. Oral tradition recorded in the Old Testament (Genesis 9:20) asserts that Noah planted a vineyard. It says he did so on Mt. Ararat in what is now eastern Turkey. In Sumeria, beer and wine were used for medicinally as early as 2,000 B.C.5
Christianity gradulally began displacing the previously dominant religions. As this occurred, European drinking attitudes and behaviors began to change. The New Testament was influencing people.50 The earliest biblical writings after the death of Jesus (cir. A.D. 30) contain few references to alcohol. This may be because drunkenness was largely an upper-status vice with which Jesus had little contact.51Jesus used wine (Matthew 15:11; Luke 7:33-35) and approved of its moderate consumption (Matthew 15:11). On the other hand, Jesus strongly attacked drunkenness (Luke 21:34,12:42; Matthew 24:45-51). The writings of St. Paul (d. 64?) deal with alcohol. He considered wine to be a creation of God and therefore inherently good (1 Timothy 4:4). St. Paul also recommended its use for medicinal purposes (1 Timothy 5:23). But he consistently condemned drunkenness (1 Corinthians 3:16-17,5:11,6:10; Galatians 5:19-21; Romans 13:3). As a result, he recommended abstinence for those who could not cont...
The Middle Ages lasted about one thousand years. It existed between the fall of Rome and the beginning of the High Renaissance (cir. 1500). It saw numerous developments in life in general and in drinking in particular. In the early Middle Ages, mead, rustic beers, and wild fruit wines became increasingly popular. This was especially among Celts, Anglo-Saxons, Germans, and Scandinavians. However, wines remained the favorite beverage in the Romance countries. Especially in what is now Italy, Spain and France.64
The early modern period was characterized by increasing prosperity and wealth. Towns and cities grew in size and number, foreign lands were discovered and colonized, and trade expanded. Perhaps more important, there developed a new view of the world. The medieval period emphasized other-worldliness. This is the belief that life in this world is only a preparation for heaven. That view slowly declined, especially among the wealthy and well educated. It was largely replaced by an interest in life here and now.83
Peoples throughout history have valued and used alcohol. Reflecting its vital role, consumption of alcohol in moderation has rarely been questioned throughout most of recorded time. To the contrary. “Fermented dietary beverage… was so common an element in the various cultures that it was taken for granted as one of the basic elements of survival and self-preservation.”114 Indicative of its value is the fact that people have frequently used it as a medium of exchange. For example, in Medieval England, people often used ale to pay tolls, rent or debts.115 From the earliest times alcohol has played an important role in religion. Religious rejection of alcohol is rare. When it does occur, such rejection may be unrelated to alcohol per se but reflect other considerations.
Alcohol: A History. Phillips, R. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2014. Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. Gately, I. NY: Gotham, 2008. Alcohol in World History. Hames, G. NY: Routledge, 2012. Alcohol: A Social and Cultural History. Holt, M. NY: Berg, 2006. Alcoholica Esoterica. Lendler, I.NY: Penguin, 2005. Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer, and Other Alcoholic Beverages.McGovern, P. Berkeley: U California Press, 2009. A History of the World in Six Glasses. Standage, T. and Runnette, S....
Alcohol distillation likely originated in India. Alcoholic beverages in the Indus Valley Civilization appeared in the Chalcolithic Era. These beverages were in use between 3000 BC and 2000 BC. Sura, a beverage brewed from rice meal, wheat, sugar cane, grapes, and other fruits, was popular among the Kshatriya warriors and the peasant population.
- Opening The Consultation
- Screening Tools
- Impact of Alcohol
- Psychological Assessment
- Past Medical History
- Drug History
- Closing The Consultation
Wash your hands and don PPEif appropriate. Introduce yourself to the patient including your name and role. Confirm the patient’s name and date of birth. Explain the purpose of the consultation and gain consent: 1. “I’ve been asked to come and speak to you today regarding your alcohol intake. Is that okay with you?” 2. “I appreciate that some of these questions may be difficult, but it is important that you are honest. If you would like to stop at any time, let me know.”
There are two major brief screening tools used in practice to identify signs of hazardous drinking and dependence: 1. CAGE questionnaire: a brief, easy to use screening test consisting of only four questions. 2. AUDIT-C: a shortened version of the AUDIT screening tool, consisting of three questions.
Screen for evidence of alcohol dependence including biological and psychologicalsigns.
Perform a brief assessment of the patient’s current moodto identify signs of depression: 1. “During the past month have you felt low, depressed or hopeless?” 2. “Have you recently had little interest or pleasure in doing things?” Screen for thoughts of self-harm or suicide: 1. “Have you had any thoughts of hurting yourself?” 2. “Have you ever thought of ending your life?” Screen for thoughts of harming others: 1. “Do you ever have thoughts of harming others?”
Ask if the patient has any medical conditions: 1. “Do you have any medical conditions?” 2. “Are you currently seeing a doctor or specialist regularly?” If the patient does have a medical condition, you should gather more details to assess how well controlled the disease is and what treatment(s) the patient is receiving. It is also important to ask about any complications associated with the condition including hospital admissions. Ask if the patient has previously undergone any surgery or procedures (e.g. banding of oesophageal varices): 1. “Have you ever previously undergone any operations or procedures?” 2. “When was the operation/procedure and why was it performed?”
Ask if the patient is currently taking any prescribed medications or over-the-counter remedies: 1. “Are you currently taking any prescribed medications or over-the-counter treatments?” If the patient is taking prescribed or over the counter medications, document the medication name, dose, frequency, form and route. Identify medications whose side effects are potentiated by alcohol(e.g. benzodiazepines). Ask the patient if they’re currently experiencing any side effectsfrom their medication: 1. “Have you noticed any side effects from the medication you currently take?”
Thank the patientfor their time. Offer leafletsabout alcohol dependence and the negative health impact of alcohol. Offer referralto an alcohol rehabilitation service if appropriate. Dispose of PPE appropriately and wash your hands.Ewing, JA (1984), Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire, JAMA, 1984 Oct 12;252(14):1905-7. Available from: [LINK].Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG; The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Guidelines for Use in Primary Care, Second Edition, Department of Mental Health and Substance D...
Apr 05, 2021 · The history of alcohol seems to begin with mead, and it is a general consensus that it is in fact the grandfather of all fermented alcohols. Crafted from yeast, honey, and water this simple alcoholic drink has been consumed by royalty, made appearances in classic literature, and said to be “a gift from the heavens.”.