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  1. Vulgate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Vulgate

    The Vulgate (/ ˈ v ʌ l ɡ eɪ t,-ɡ ə t /; Biblia Vulgata, Latin: [ˈbɪbli.a wʊlˈɡaːta]) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible.It was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century as the Sixtine Vulgate then as the Clementine Vulgate; the Vulgate is still presently used in the Latin Church.

  2. Copts - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Coptic_Christians
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Demographics
    • Persecution and Discrimination in Egypt
    • Language
    • Calendar
    • Genetics
    • Prominent Copts
    • External Links

    The English language adopted the word Copt in the 17th century from New Latin Coptus, Cophtus, which derives from the Arabic collective qubṭ / qibṭ قبط‎ "the Copts" with nisba adjective qubṭī, qibṭī قبطى‎, plural aqbāṭ أقباط‎; Also quftī, qiftī (where the Arabic /f/ reflects the historical Coptic /p/) an Arabisation of the Coptic word ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ aiguption (Bohairic) or ⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ kuptaion (Sahidic). The Coptic word in turn represents an adaptation of the Greek term for the indigenous people of Egypt, Aigýptios (Αἰγύπτιος). The Greek term for Egypt, Aígyptos (Ancient Greek: Αἴγυπτος), itself derives from the Egyptian language, but dates to a much earlier period, being attested already in Mycenaean Greek as a3-ku-pi-ti-jo (lit. "Egyptian"; used here as a man's name). This Mycenaean form is likely from Middle Egyptian ḥwt kꜣ ptḥ (reconstructed pronunciation /ħawitˌkuʀpiˈtaħ/ → /ħajiʔˌkuʀpiˈtaħ/ → /ħəjˌkuʔpəˈtaħ/, Egyptological pronunciation Hut-ka-Ptah), literally "estate/palace of the kꜣ...

    The Copts are one of the oldest Christian communities in the Middle East. Although integrated in the larger Egyptian nation state, the Copts have survived as a distinct religious community forming around 5 to 20 percent of the population, though estimates vary. They pride themselves on the apostolicity of the Egyptian Church whose founder was the first in an unbroken chain of patriarchs. The main body for 16 centuries has been out of communion with both the Roman Catholic Church (in Rome) and the various Eastern orthodox churches.[citation needed]

    Living in countries with Muslim majorities (Egypt, Sudan, Libya), the size of the population of Copts is a continuously disputed matter, frequently for reasons of religious jealousy and animosity. The Coptic population in Egypt is difficult to estimate because researchers are forbidden by Egyptian authorities to ask a survey participant's religion, although official estimates state that Coptic Christians represent 10 to 15 percentwhile other independent and Christian sources estimate much higher numbers, up to 25 percent of the population. The Coptic population in Sudanis at about half a million or 1 percent of Sudanese population. The Coptic population in Libya is about over 60,000 or 1 percent of Libyan population.[failed verification]

    Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Coptic Christians, being the largest religious minority in Egypt, are also negatively affected. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup d'état led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Until recently, Christianswere required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles and restrictions in building new churches. These restrictions do not apply for building mosques. The Coptic community has been targeted by hate crimes by Islamic extremists. The most significant was the 2000–01 El Kosheh attacks, in which Muslims and Christians were involved in bloody inter-religious clashes following a dispute between a Muslim and a Christian. "Twenty Christians and one Muslim were killed after violence broke out in the town of...

    The Coptic language is the most recent stage of the Egyptian language. Coptic should more correctly be used to refer to the script rather than the language itself. Even though this script was introduced as far back as the 1st century BC, it has been applied to the writing of the Egyptian language from the 1st century AD to the present day. Coptic remained the spoken language of most Egyptians until it was slowly replaced by colloquial Egyptian Arabic in Lower Egypt and Sa'idi Arabic in Upper Egyptby the end of the 17th century, although it may have survived in isolated pockets for a little longer. Today, Coptic is the native language of only about 300 Copts around the world. It is also the liturgical language of the native Egyptian Churches (the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Coptic Catholic Church). It is taught worldwide in many prestigious institutions, but its teaching within Egypt remains limited. Dialects of the Coptic language: 1. Sahidic: Theban or Upper Egyptian. 2. Bohairi...

    The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and also by Ethiopia as its official calendar (with different names). This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. However, this reform was opposed by the Egyptian priests, and the idea was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus formally reformed the calendar of Egypt, keeping it forever synchronized with the newly introduced Julian calendar. To distinguish it from the Ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Coptic calendar. Its years and months coincide with those of the Ethiopian calendarbut have different numbers and names.

    According to Y-DNA analysis by Hassan et al. (2008), around 45% of Copts in Sudan carry the haplogroup J. The remainder mainly belong to the E1b1b clade (21%). Both paternal lineages are common among other local Afroasiatic-speaking populations (Beja, Ethiopians, Sudanese Arabs), as well as many Nubians. E1b1b/E3b reaches its highest frequencies among North Africans, Levantine Middle Easterners, and Ethiopid East Africans. The next most common haplogroups borne by Copts are the European-linked R1b clade (15%), as well as the archaic African Blineage (15%). Maternally, Hassan (2009) found that Copts in Sudan exclusively carry various descendants of the macrohaplogroup N. This mtDNA clade is likewise closely associated with local Afroasiatic-speaking populations, including Berbers and Ethiopid peoples. Of the N derivatives borne by Copts, U6 is most frequent (28%), followed by the haplogroup T(17%). A 2015 study by Dobon et al. identified an ancestral autosomal component of West Euras...

    Some famous Copts include: 1. Hani Azer, prominent civil engineer 2. Halim El-Dabh, Egyptian-American musician and academic 3. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations. 4. Rami Malek, an Egyptian-Americanactor of Coptic origins. 5. Mena Massoud, an Egyptian-Canadianactor. 6. Dina Powell, American Politician. 7. Fayez Sarofim, heir to the Sarofim family fortune. 8. Naguib Sawiris, the CEO of Orascom. 9. Magdi Yacoub, Egyptian-British cardiothoracic surgeon.

    • 5–20 million (estimates vary)
    • c. 500,000
    • 60,000
    • 5–20 million
  3. Secret Gospel of Mark - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Secret_Mark

    The Secret Gospel of Mark or the Mystic Gospel of Mark ( Greek: τοῦ Μάρκου τὸ μυστικὸν εὐαγγέλιον, tou Markou to mystikon euangelion ), also the Longer Gospel of Mark, is a putative longer and secret or mystic version of the Gospel of Mark. The gospel is mentioned exclusively in the Mar Saba letter, a document ...

  4. Augustine of Hippo - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › St

    Life Background. Augustine of Hippo (/ ɔː ˈ ɡ ʌ s t ɪ n /, / ə ˈ ɡ ʌ s t ɪ n /, or / ˈ ɔː ɡ ʌ s t ɪ n /; Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin, is known by various cognomens throughout the many denominations of the Christian world, including Blessed Augustine and the Doctor of Grace (Latin ...

  5. Cain and Abel - Wikipedia - GitHub Pages

    adjkjc.github.io › en › wiki
    • Genesis Narrative
    • Origins
    • Jewish and Christian Interpretations
    • Islamic Interpretation
    • Legacy and Symbolism
    • Cultural Portrayals and References
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The story of Cain's murder of Abel and its consequences is told in Genesis 4:1–18 (Translation and notes from Robert Alter, "The Five Books of Moses"):

    Cain and Abel are traditional English renderings of the Hebrew names. It has been proposed that the etymology of their names may be a direct pun on the roles they take in the Genesis narrative. Abel (hbl) is thought to derive from a reconstructed word meaning "herdsman", with the modern Arabic cognate ibil now specifically referring only to "camels". Cain (qyn) is thought to be cognate to the mid-1st millennium BCE South Arabian word qyn, meaning "metalsmith". This theory would make the names descriptive of their roles, where Abel works with livestock, and Cain with agriculture—and would parallel the names Adam ("man," אדם, ‘dm) and Eve ("life-giver," חוה ḥwh).[citation needed] The oldest known copy of the biblical narrative is from the Dead Sea Scrolls, and dates to the first century BCE. Cain and Abel also appear in a number of other texts, and the story is the subject of various interpretations. Abel, the first murder victim, is sometimes seen as the first martyr; while Cain, the...

    One question arising early in the story is why God rejected Cain's sacrifice, since Cain never received instructions about how to sacrifice correctly, nor had he done anything wrong, and why God then admonishes Cain with a warning about sin. The Midrashsuggest that although Abel brought the best meat from his flock, Cain did not set aside for God the best of his harvest.

    The story appears in the Quran, in Surah 5, verses 27 to 31: The story of Cain and Abel has always been used as a deterrent from murder in Islamic tradition. Abdullah ibn Mas'ud reported that Muhammadsaid in a hadith: Muslim scholars were divided on the motives behind Cain's murder of Abel, and further why the two brothers were obliged to offer sacrifices to God. Some scholars believed that Cain's motives were plain jealousy and lust. Both Cain and Abel desired to marry Adam's beautiful daughter, Aclima (Aqlimia'in Arabic). Seeking to end the dispute between them, Adam suggested that each present an offering before God. The one whose offering God accepted would marry Aclima. Abel, a generous shepherd, offered the fattest of his sheep as an oblation to God. But Cain, a miserly farmer, offered only a bunch of grass and some worthless seeds to him. God accepted Abel's offering and rejected Cain's—an indication that Abel was more righteous than Cain, and thus worthier of Aclima. As a re...

    Allusions to Cain and Abel as an archetype of fratricide appear in numerous references and retellings, through medieval art and Shakespearean works up to present day fiction. A millennia-old explanation for Cain being capable of murder is that he may have been the offspring of a fallen angel or Satanhimself, rather than being from Adam. A medieval legend has Cain arriving at the Moon, where he eternally settled with a bundle of twigs. This was originated by the popular fantasy of interpreting the shadows on the Moon as a face. An example of this belief can be found in Dante Alighieri's Inferno (XX, 126) where the expression "Cain and the twigs" is used as a kenningfor "moon". A treatise on Christian Hermeticism, Meditations on the Tarot: A Journey into Christian Hermeticism, describes the biblical account of Cain and Abel as a myth, i.e. it expresses, in a form narrated for a particular case, an "eternal" idea. It shows us how brothers can become mortal enemies through the very fact...

    Like other prominent biblical figures, Cain and Abel appear in many works of art, including works by Titian, Peter Paul Rubens and William Blake.
    In the classic poem Beowulf, c. 1000 CE, the monstrous Grendel and his motherare said to be descended from Cain.
    In William Shakespeare's Hamlet, the characters King Claudius and King Hamlet are parallels of Cain and Abel. The expression "Cain-coloured beard" (Cain and Judas were traditionally considered to h...
    Lord Byron rewrote and dramatized the story in the play Cain (1821), viewing Cain as symbolic of a sanguine temperament, provoked by Abel's hypocrisy and sanctimony.

    Bibliography

    1. Alter, Robert (2008). The Five Books of Moses: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton & Compan. ISBN 9780393070248.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) 2. BDB, Francis Brown; Samuel Rolles Driver; Charles Augustus Briggs (1997) [1906]. The Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: with an appendix containing the biblical Aramaic; coded with the numbering system from "Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible" (7. print. ed.). Peabody: Hendrickson. ISBN 978-1565632066.CS1 maint: ref=har...

    Aptowitzer, Victor (1922). Kain und Abel in der agada: den Apokryphen, der hellenistischen, christlichen und muhammedanischen literatur(Vol. 1 ed.). R. Löwit.
    Glenthøj, Johannes Bartholdy (1997). Cain and Abel in Syriac and Greek writers: (4th – 6th centuries). Lovanii: Peeters. ISBN 978-9068319095.
    Media related to Cain and Abelat Wikimedia Commons
    Texts on Wikisource:
    Story of Cain and Abel in Sura The Table (Al Ma'ida)
  6. Vulgate - Wikipedia

    adjkjc.github.io › en › wiki

    May 13, 2020 · The Vulgate (/ ˈ v ʌ l ɡ eɪ t,-ɡ ə t /) is a late-4th century Latin translation of the Bible.It was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century and is still used in the Latin Church alongside the Hebrew and Greek sources.

  7. Vulgate wiki | TheReaderWiki

    thereaderwiki.com › en › Vulgate
    • Terminology
    • Authorship
    • Jerome's Work of Translation
    • Relation with The Vetus Latina Bible
    • Council of Trent and Opinion of The Catholic Church
    • Influence on Western Christianity
    • Critical Value
    • Manuscripts and editions

    The term "Vulgate" is used to designate the Latin Bible only since the 16th century. An example of the use of this word in this sense at the time is the title of the 1538 edition of the Latin Bible by Erasmus: Biblia utriusque testamenti juxta vulgatam translationem.

    The Vulgate has a compound text that is not entirely Jerome's work. Jerome's translation of the four Gospels are revisions of Vetus Latinatranslations he did while having the Greek as reference. The Latin translations of the rest of the New Testament are revisions to the Vetus Latina, considered as being made by Pelagian circles or by Rufinus the Syrian, or by Rufinus of Aquileia. Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina Old Testament also commonly became included in the Vulgate. These are: 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah. Having separately translated the book of Psalms from the Greek Hexapla Septuagint, Jerome translated all of the books of the Jewish Bible - the Hebrew book of Psalms included - from Hebrew himself. He also translated the books of Tobit and Judith from Aramaic versions, the additions to the Book of Esther from the Common Septuagint and the additions to the Book of Daniel from the Greek of Theodotion.

    Jerome did not embark on the work with the intention of creating a new version of the whole Bible, but the changing nature of his program can be tracked in his voluminous correspondence. He had been commissioned by Damasus I in 382 to revise the Vetus Latina text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts. By the time of Damasus' death in 384, Jerome had completed this task, together with a more cursory revision from the Greek Common Septuagint of the Vetus Latina text of the Psalms in the Roman Psalter, a version which he later disowned and is now lost. How much of the rest of the New Testament he then revised is difficult to judge, but none of his work survived in the Vulgate text of these books. The revised text of the New Testament outside the Gospels is the work of other scholars. Rufinus of Aquileia has been suggested, as has Rufinus the Syrian (an associate of Pelagius) and Pelagius himself, though without specific evidence for any of them; Pelagian groups have also been s...

    The Latin biblical texts in use before Jerome's Vulgate are usually referred to collectively as the Vetus Latina, or "Vetus Latina Bible". "Vetus Latina" means that they are older than the Vulgate and written in Latin, not that they are written in Old Latin. Jerome himself uses the term "Latin Vulgate" for the Vetus Latina text, so intending to denote this version as the common Latin rendering of the Greek Vulgate or Common Septuagint (which Jerome otherwise terms the "Seventy interpreters"). This remained the usual use of the term "Latin Vulgate" in the West for centuries. On occasion Jerome applies the term "Septuagint" (Septuaginta) to refer to the Hexaplar Septuagint, where he wishes to distinguish this from the Vulgata or Common Septuagint. The earliest known use of the term Vulgata to describe the "new" Latin translation was made by Roger Bacon in the 13th century. The translations in the Vetus Latina had accumulated piecemeal over a century or more. They were not translated b...

    The Vulgate was given an official capacity by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) as the touchstone of the biblical canon concerning which parts of books are canonical.The Vulgate was declared to "be held as authentic" by the Catholic Church by the Council of Trent. The council of Trent cited sacred tradition in support of the Vulgate's magisterial authority: The qualifier "Latin editions, now in circulation" and the use of "authentic" (not "inerrant") show the limits of this statement. When the council listed the books included in the canon, it qualified the books as being "entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the Vetus Latina vulgate edition". The fourth session of the Council specified 72 canonical books in the Bible: 45 in the Old Testament, 27 in the New Testament with Lamentations not being counted as separate from Jeremiah. On 2 June 1927, Pope Pius XI clarified this decree, allowing that the Comma Jo...

    For over a thousand years (c. AD 400–1530), the Vulgate was the most commonly used edition of the most influential text in Western European society. Indeed, for most medieval Western Christians, it was the only version of the Bible ever encountered.[citation needed] In about 1455, the first Vulgate published by the moveable type process was produced in Mainz by a partnership between Johannes Gutenberg and banker John Fust (or Faust). At the time, a manuscript of the Vulgate was selling for approximately 500guilders. Gutenberg's works appear to have been a commercial failure, and Fust sued for recovery of his 2026 guilder investment and was awarded complete possession of the Gutenberg plant. Arguably, the Reformationcould not have been possible without the diaspora of biblical knowledge that was permitted by the development of moveable type. Aside from its use in prayer, liturgy, and private study, the Vulgate served as inspiration for ecclesiastical art and architecture, hymns, coun...

    In translating the 38 books of the Hebrew Bible (Ezra-Nehemiah being counted as one book), Jerome was relatively free in rendering their text into Latin, but it is possible to determine that the oldest surviving complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text which date from nearly 600 years after Jerome, nevertheless transmit a consonantal Hebrew text very close to that used by Jerome.

    The Vulgate exists in many forms. The Codex Amiatinus is the oldest surviving complete manuscript from the 8th century. The Gutenberg Bible is a notable printed edition of the Vulgate by Johann Gutenberg in 1455. The Sixtine Vulgate (1590) is the first official Bible of the Catholic Church. The Clementine Vulgate (1592) is a standardized edition of the medieval Vulgate, and the second official Bible of the Catholic Church. The Stuttgart Vulgate is a 1969 critical edition of the Vulgate. The Nova Vulgata is the third and latest official Bible of the Catholic Church; it was published in 1979, and is a translation in Classical Latinfrom modern critical editions of original language texts of the Bible.

  8. Cain and Abel — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Cain_and_Abel
    • Genesis Narrative
    • Origins
    • Jewish and Christian Interpretations
    • Muslim Interpretation
    • Legacy and Symbolism
    • Cultural Portrayals and References
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The story of Cain's mur­der of Abel and its con­se­quences is told in Gen­e­sis 4:1-18 (Trans­la­tion and notes from Robert Alter, "The Five Books of Moses"):

    Cain and Abel are tra­di­tional Eng­lish ren­der­ings of the He­brew names. It has been pro­posed that the et­y­mol­ogy of their names may be a di­rect pun on the roles they take in the Gen­e­sis nar­ra­tive. Abel is thought to de­rive from a re­con­structed word mean­ing "herds­man", with the mod­ern Ara­bic cog­nate ibil now specif­i­cally re­fer­ring only to "camels". Cain is thought to be cog­nate to the mid-1st mil­len­nium BC South Ara­bian word qyn, mean­ing "met­al­smith". This the­ory would make the names de­scrip­tive of their roles, where Abel works with live­stock, and Cain with agri­cul­ture—and would par­al­lel the names Adam ("man," Tem­plate:He­brew) and Eve ("life-giver," Tem­plate:He­brew Chavah). The old­est known copy of the bib­li­cal nar­ra­tive is from the Dead Sea Scrolls, and dates to the first cen­tury BC. Cain and Abel also ap­pear in a num­ber of other texts, and the story is the sub­ject of var­i­ous in­ter­pre­ta­tions. Abel, the first mur­der vic­tim,...

    One ques­tion aris­ing early in the story is why God re­jects Cain's sac­ri­fice, since Cain never re­ceived in­struc­tions about how to sac­ri­fice cor­rectly, nor had he done any­thing wrong, and why God then ad­mon­ishes Cain with a warn­ing about sin. The Midrash sug­gest that al­though Abel brought the best meat from his flock, Cain did not set aside for God the best of his harvest.

    The story ap­pears in the Quran, in Surah 5, verses 27 to 31: The story of Cain and Abel has al­ways been used as a de­ter­rent from mur­der in Is­lamic tra­di­tion. Ab­dul­lah ibn Mas'ud re­ported that Muham­madsaid in a ha­dith: Mus­lim schol­ars were di­vided on the mo­tives be­hind Cain's mur­der of Abel, and fur­ther why the two broth­ers were obliged to offer sac­ri­fices to God. Some schol­ars be­lieved that Cain's mo­tives were plain jeal­ousy and lust. Both Cain and Abel de­sired to marry Adam's beau­ti­ful daugh­ter, Aclima (Aqlimia'in Ara­bic). Seek­ing to end the dis­pute be­tween them, Adam sug­gested that each pre­sent an of­fer­ing be­fore God. The one whose of­fer­ing God ac­cepted would marry Aclima. Abel, a gen­er­ous shep­herd, of­fered the fat­test of his sheep as an obla­tion to God. But Cain, a miserly farmer, of­fered only a bunch of grass and some worth­less seeds to him. God ac­cepted Abel's of­fer­ing and re­jected Cain's—an in­di­ca­tion that Abel was more...

    Al­lu­sions to Cain and Abel as an ar­che­type of frat­ri­cide ap­pear in nu­mer­ous ref­er­ences and retellings, through me­dieval art and Shake­spearean works up to pre­sent day fiction. A mil­len­nia-old ex­pla­na­tion for Cain being ca­pa­ble of mur­der is that he may have been the off­spring of a fallen angel or Satanhim­self, rather than being from Adam. A me­dieval leg­end has Cain ar­riv­ing at the Moon, where he eter­nally set­tled with a bun­dle of twigs. This was orig­i­nated by the pop­u­lar fan­tasy of in­ter­pret­ing the shad­ows on the Moon as a face. An ex­am­ple of this be­lief can be found in Dante Alighieri's In­ferno (XX, 126) where the ex­pres­sion "Cain and the twigs" is used as a ken­ningfor "moon". A trea­tise on Chris­t­ian Her­meti­cism, Med­i­ta­tions on the Tarot: A Jour­ney into Chris­t­ian Her­meti­cism, de­scribes the bib­li­cal ac­count of Cain and Abel as a myth, i.e. it ex­presses, in a form nar­rated for a par­tic­u­lar case, an "eter­nal" idea. It...

    Like other prominent biblical figures, Cain and Abel appear in many works of art, including works by Titian, Peter Paul Rubens and William Blake.
    In the classic poem Beowulf, c. 1000 CE, the monstrous Grendel and his motherare said to be descended from Cain.
    In William Shakespeare's Hamlet, the characters King Claudius and King Hamlet are parallels of Cain and Abel. The expression "Cain-coloured beard" (Cain and Judas were traditionally considered to h...
    Lord Byron rewrote and dramatized the story in the play Cain (1821), viewing Cain as symbolic of a sanguine temperament, provoked by Abel's hypocrisy and sanctimony.

    Bibliography

    1. Alter, Robert (2008). The Five Books of Moses: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton & Compan. ISBN 9780393070248.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) 2. BDB, Francis Brown; Samuel Rolles Driver; Charles Augustus Briggs (1997) [1906]. The Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: with an appendix containing the biblical Aramaic; coded with the numbering system from "Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible" (7. print. ed.). Peabody: Hendrickson. ISBN 978-1565632066.CS1 maint: ref=har...

    Aptowitzer, Victor (1922). Kain und Abel in der agada: den Apokryphen, der hellenistischen, christlichen und muhammedanischen literatur(Vol. 1 ed.). R. Löwit.
    Glenthøj, Johannes Bartholdy (1997). Cain and Abel in Syriac and Greek writers: (4th - 6th centuries). Lovanii: Peeters. ISBN 978-9068319095.
    Media related to Cain and Abelat Wikimedia Commons
    Texts on Wikisource:
    Story of Cain and Abel in Sura The Table (Al Ma'ida)
  9. Cain and Abel - en.LinkFang.org

    en.linkfang.org › wiki › Cain_and_Abel

    Sep 30, 2020 · The Alexandrian Rite commemorates him with a feast day on December 28. [51] According to the Coptic Book of Adam and Eve (at 2:1–15), and the Syriac Cave of Treasures , Abel's body, after many days of mourning, was placed in the Cave of Treasures , before which Adam and Eve, and descendants, offered their prayers.

  10. Copts wiki | TheReaderWiki

    thereaderwiki.com › en › Copt
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Demographics
    • Persecution and Discrimination in Egypt
    • Language
    • Calendar
    • Genetics
    • Prominent Copts
    • External Links

    The English language adopted the word Copt in the 17th century from New Latin Coptus, Cophtus, which derives from the Arabic collective qubṭ / qibṭ قبط‎ "the Copts" with nisba adjective qubṭī, qibṭī قبطى‎, plural aqbāṭ أقباط‎; Also quftī, qiftī (where the Arabic /f/ reflects the historical Coptic /p/) an Arabisation of the Coptic word kubti (Bohairic) or kuptaion (Sahidic). The Coptic word in turn represents an adaptation of the Greek term for the indigenous people of Egypt, Aigýptios (Αἰγύπτιος). The Greek term for Egypt, Aígyptos (Ancient Greek: Αἴγυπτος), itself derives from the Egyptian language, but dates to a much earlier period, being attested already in Mycenaean Greek as a3-ku-pi-ti-jo (lit. "Egyptian"; used here as a man's name). This Mycenaean form is likely from Middle Egyptian ḥwt kꜣ ptḥ (reconstructed pronunciation /ħawitˌkuʀpiˈtaħ/ → /ħajiʔˌkuʀpiˈtaħ/ → /ħəjˌkuʔpəˈtaħ/, Egyptological pronunciation Hut-ka-Ptah), literally "estate/palace of the kꜣ ("double" spirit) of P...

    The Copts are one of the oldest Christian communities in the Middle East. Although integrated in the larger Egyptian nation state, the Copts have survived as a distinct religious community forming around 5 to 20 percent of the population, though estimates vary. They pride themselves on the apostolicity of the Egyptian Church whose founder was the first in an unbroken chain of patriarchs. The main body for 16 centuries has been out of communion with both the Roman Catholic Church (in Rome) and the various Eastern orthodox churches.[citation needed]

    Living in countries with Muslim majorities (Egypt, Sudan, Libya), the size of the population of Copts is a continuously disputed matter, frequently for reasons of religious jealousy and animosity. The Coptic population in Egypt is difficult to estimate because researchers are forbidden by Egyptian authorities to ask a survey participant's religion, although official estimates state that Coptic Christians represent 10 to 15 percentwhile other independent and Christian sources estimate much higher numbers, up to 25 percent of the population. The Coptic population in Sudanis at about half a million or 1 percent of Sudanese population. The Coptic population in Libya is about over 60,000 or 1 percent of Libyan population.[failed verification]

    Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Coptic Christians, being the largest religious minority in Egypt, are also negatively affected. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup d'état led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Until recently, Christianswere required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles and restrictions in building new churches. These restrictions do not apply for building mosques. The Coptic community has been targeted by hate crimes by Islamic extremists. The most significant was the 2000–01 El Kosheh attacks, in which Muslims and Christians were involved in bloody inter-religious clashes following a dispute between a Muslim and a Christian. "Twenty Christians and one Muslim were killed after violence broke out in the town of...

    The Coptic language is the most recent stage of the Egyptian language. Coptic should more correctly be used to refer to the script rather than the language itself. Even though this script was introduced as far back as the 1st century BC, it has been applied to the writing of the Egyptian language from the 1st century AD to the present day. Coptic remained the spoken language of most Egyptians until it was slowly replaced by colloquial Egyptian Arabic in Lower Egypt and Sa'idi Arabic in Upper Egyptby the end of the 17th century, although it may have survived in isolated pockets for a little longer. Today, Coptic is the native language of only about 300 Copts around the world. It is also the liturgical language of the native Egyptian Churches (the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Coptic Catholic Church). It is taught worldwide in many prestigious institutions, but its teaching within Egypt remains limited. Dialects of the Coptic language: 1. Sahidic: Theban or Upper Egyptian. 2. Bohairi...

    The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and also by Ethiopia as its official calendar (with different names). This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. However, this reform was opposed by the Egyptian priests, and the idea was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus formally reformed the calendar of Egypt, keeping it forever synchronized with the newly introduced Julian calendar. To distinguish it from the Ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Coptic calendar. Its years and months coincide with those of the Ethiopian calendarbut have different numbers and names.

    According to Y-DNA analysis by Hassan et al. (2008), around 45% of Copts in Sudan carry the haplogroup J. The remainder mainly belong to the E1b1b clade (21%). Both paternal lineages are common among other local Afroasiatic-speaking populations (Beja, Ethiopians, Sudanese Arabs), as well as many Nubians. E1b1b/E3b reaches its highest frequencies among North Africans, Levantine Middle Easterners, and Ethiopid East Africans. The next most common haplogroups borne by Copts are the European-linked R1b clade (15%), as well as the archaic African Blineage (15%). Maternally, Hassan (2009) found that Copts in Sudan exclusively carry various descendants of the macrohaplogroup N. This mtDNA clade is likewise closely associated with local Afroasiatic-speaking populations, including Berbers and Ethiopid peoples. Of the N derivatives borne by Copts, U6 is most frequent (28%), followed by the haplogroup T(17%). A 2015 study by Dobon et al. identified an ancestral autosomal component of West Euras...

    Some famous Copts include: 1. Hani Azer, prominent civil engineer 2. Halim El-Dabh, Egyptian-American musician and academic 3. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations. 4. Rami Malek, an Egyptian-Americanactor of Coptic origins. 5. Mena Massoud, an Egyptian-Canadianactor. 6. Dina Powell, American Politician. 7. Fayez Sarofim, heir to the Sarofim family fortune. 8. Naguib Sawiris, the CEO of Orascom. 9. Magdi Yacoub, Egyptian-British cardiothoracic surgeon.