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  1. Aluminium - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Aluminium

    Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air ...

    • Silicon

      Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic...

    • Passivation

      Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers...

  2. Aluminium alloy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Aluminium_alloy

    Aluminium alloy. Welded aluminium alloy bicycle frame, made in the 1990s. Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting ...

  3. Aluminium - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Aluminium
    • History
    • Properties
    • Occurrence and Preparation
    • Compounds
    • Uses
    • Recycling
    • Toxicity
    • Ways of Exposure
    • Treatment
    • Environmental Effects

    People have tried to produce aluminium since 1760. The first successful attempt, finished in 1824 by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted. He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam, yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin. He presented his results and showed a sample of the new metal in 1825. In 1827, German chemist Friedrich Wöhler repeated Ørsted's experiments but did not identify any aluminium. (The reason for this inconsistency was only discovered in 1921.) He conducted a similar experiment in the same year by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium and produced a powder of aluminium.In 1845, he was able to produce small pieces of the metal and described some physical properties of this metal. For many years thereafter, Wöhler was credited as personewho discovered of aluminium.

    Aluminium is a very good conductor of electricity and heat. It is light and strong. It can be hammered into sheets (malleable) or pulled out into wires (ductile). It is a highly reactive metal, although it is corrosionresistant. A fresh film of aluminium is a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation. Aluminium prevents corrosion by forming a small, thin layer of aluminium oxide on its surface. This layer protects the metal by preventing oxygen from reaching it. Corrosion can not occur without oxygen. Because of this thin layer, the reactivity of aluminium is not seen. As a powder it burns hot. Uses include fireworks displays and rocket fuel.

    Pure aluminium is made from bauxite, a kind of rock that has aluminium oxide and many impurities. The bauxite is crushed and reacted with sodium hydroxide. The aluminium oxide dissolves. Then the aluminium oxide is dissolved in liquid cryolite, a rare mineral. Cryolite is normally produced artificially though. The aluminium oxide is electrolyzed to make aluminium and oxygen. The largest producer of aluminium is China. China produces about 31,873 thousand tonnes of aluminium. Aluminium was once considered a precious metal that was even more valuable than gold. This is no longer true because, as technologyimproved, it became cheaper and easier to make pure metal.

    Aluminium forms chemical compounds in the +3 oxidation state. They are generally unreactive. Aluminium chloride and aluminium oxideexamples. Very rarely are compounds in the +1 or +2 oxidation state.

    Many things are made of aluminium. Much of it is used in overhead power lines. It is also widely used in window frames and aircraft bodies. It is found at home as kitchenware, soft drink cans, and cooking foil. Aluminium is also used to coat car headlamps and compact discs. It is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. It can be deposited on the surface of glass to make mirrors, where a thin layer of aluminum oxide quickly forms that acts as a protective coating. Aluminum oxide is also used to make synthetic rubies and sapphires for lasers. Aluminum can now be produced from clay, but the process is not economically feasible at today. Pure aluminium is very soft, so a harder metal is almost always added. The harder metal is usually copper. Copper/aluminium alloys are to make ships, because the aluminium prevents corrosion, and the copper prevents barnacles. Aluminium compounds are used in deodorants, water processing plants, food additives, and antacids. Li...

    Since aluminium needs to be made by electrolysis, it requires a very large amount of electrical power. Recycling aluminium would be much cheaper. That's why recycling plants were opened. The cost of recycling aluminium is much less than the cost of making it from bauxite. Recycling involves melting the scrap. This is a process that only needs 5% of the energy used to produce aluminium from ore. But, 15% of the input material part is lost as dross (ash-like oxide).An aluminium stack melter makes a lot less dross, about 1%. White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling processes still contains useful amounts of aluminium that can be extracted industrially. The process produces aluminium billets, together with a very complex waste. This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases (including, hydrogen, acetylene, and ammonia), which ignites on contact with air. Even with these difficulties, the waste is used as a filler i...

    Aluminium is not used in the human body, although it is very common. People debate whether its use in deodorants and water treatment is healthy. Aluminium ions slow down plant growth in acidic soils. Aluminium may be a factor in Alzheimer's disease (a disease when the brain stops working and the patient is confused). But the Alzheimer's Societysays overwhelming medical and scientific opinion is that studies have not convincingly demonstrated a causal relationship between aluminium and Alzheimer's disease. In most people, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals. Aluminium is classified as a non-carcinogen by United States Department of Health and Human Services. There is little proof that normal exposure to aluminium is a risk to healthy adult. There is proof of no toxicity if it is taken in amounts not greater than 40 mg/day per kg of body mass. Most aluminium taken will leave the body in feces. Most of the small part that enters the blood, will be excreted via urine. Aluminium ra...

    Food is the main source of aluminium. Drinking water has more aluminium than solid foods. Aluminium in food may be absorbed more than aluminium from water. Major sources of human exposure by mouth to aluminium include food (because of its use in food additives, food and beverage packaging, and cooking utensils), drinking water (because of its use in water treatment), and medicines that have aluminium in it.Very high exposure of aluminium are mostly limited to miners, aluminium production workers, and dialysis patients. Taking of antacids, antiperspirants, vaccines, and cosmetics give possible ways of exposure.Eating acidic foods or liquids with aluminium increases aluminium absorption. Maltol has been shown to increase the build up of aluminium in nerve and bone tissues.

    In case of suspected sudden consumption of a large amount of aluminium, the only treatment is deferoxamine mesylate. It may be given to help remove aluminium from the body by chelation. But, this should be applied with caution as it not only reduce aluminium in the body, but can also reduce those of other metals such as copper or iron.

    High levels of aluminium occur near mining sites. Small amounts of aluminium are released to the environment at the coal-fired power plants or incinerators. Aluminium in the air is washed out by the rain or normally settles down. But, small particles of aluminium remain in the air for a long time. Acid rain is the main natural factor to move aluminium from natural sources. It is also the main reason for the effects of aluminium on the environment. The main factor for the presence of aluminium in salt and freshwater are the industrial processes that also release aluminium into air. In water, aluminium acts as a toxiс agent on animals that with gills like fish by causing loss of plasma- and hemolymph ions leading to osmoregulatoryfailure. Aluminium is one of the primary factors that reduce the growth of plants on acidic soils. In acid soils the concentration of toxic Al3+ cations increases and disturbs the growth and function of the root. It is generally harmless to plant growth in pH...

    • aluminum (U.S., Canada)
    • silvery gray metallic
  4. aluminum - Wiktionary

    en.wiktionary.org › wiki › aluminum
    • Etymology
    • Pronunciation
    • Noun

    Coined by British chemist Humphry Davy in 1812, after the earlier 1807 New Latin form alumium. Latin alumen +‎ -um

    (General American, Canada) enPR: ə-lo͞o'-mĭ-nəm, IPA(key): /ə.ˈluː.mɪ.nəm/
    (UK, General Australian, General New Zealand) enPR: ˌæl.(j)ʊˈmɪn.i.əm, IPA(key): /ˌæl.(j)ʊˈmɪn.jəm/

    aluminum (countable and uncountable, plural aluminums) 1. US and Canadian standard spelling of aluminium.

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  6. aluminium - Wiktionary

    en.wiktionary.org › wiki › aluminium
    • English
    • Afrikaans
    • Danish
    • Dutch
    • Latin
    • Malay
    • Norwegian Bokmål
    • Polish
    • Romanian
    • Swedish

    Alternative forms

    1. aluminum (US, Canada, Philippines) (see #Usage notesbelow)

    Etymology

    First used in 1812 as an alternative form of aluminum which was coined in the same year. From Latin alūmen +‎ -ium.

    Pronunciation

    1. (Received Pronunciation) enPR: ăl"yo͝omĭn'ēəm, ăl"yo͝omĭn'yəm, IPA(key): /ˌæl.(j)ʊˈmɪn.i.əm/, /ˌæl.(j)ʊˈmɪn.jəm/ 2. (US) enPR: ăl"(y)o͞omĭn'ēəm, ăl"(y)o͞omĭn'yəm, IPA(key): /ˌæl.(j)uˈmɪn.i.əm/, /ˌæl.(j)uˈmɪn.jəm/ (or like aluminum) 3. (Canada) enPR: əlo͞om'ĭnəm, IPA(key): /əˈluːmɪnəm/ 4. (General New Zealand) enPR: ăl"(y)əmĭn'yəm, IPA(key): /ˌɛl.(j)ɘˈmɘn.jɘm/

    Noun

    aluminium (uncountable) 1. aluminium

    Etymology

    Created in 1812, from Latin alūmen (“alum”).

    Pronunciation

    1. IPA(key): /aluminjɔm/, [a.luˈmiˀ.njɔm] 2. Rhymes: -ɔm

    Noun

    aluminium n (singular definite aluminiummet, not used in plural form) 1. aluminum

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English aluminium.

    Pronunciation

    1. IPA(key): /ˌaː.lyˈmi.ni.ʏm/ 2. Hyphenation: alu‧mi‧ni‧um

    Noun

    aluminium n (uncountable) 1. aluminium

    Etymology

    Derived from alūmen, alūminis (“alum”) +‎ -ium (chemical element suffix)

    Pronunciation

    1. (Classical) IPA(key): /a.luːˈmi.ni.um/, [äɫ̪uːˈmɪniʊ̃ˑ] 2. (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /a.luˈmi.ni.um/, [ɑluˈmiːnium]

    Noun

    alūminium n (genitive alūminiī); second declension 1. (New Latin) aluminium

    Alternative forms

    1. الومينيوم‎

    Etymology

    From English aluminium.

    Pronunciation

    1. IPA(key): /aluminiom/ 2. Rhymes: -iom, -jom, -om

    Etymology

    From Latin alumen

    Noun

    aluminium m or n (definite singular aluminiumen or aluminiumet) (uncountable) 1. aluminium (UK), or aluminum (US) (chemical element and metal, symbol Al)

    References

    1. “aluminium” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

    Pronunciation

    1. IPA(key): /a.luˈmʲi.ɲum/

    Noun

    aluminium n 1. aluminum

    Further reading

    1. aluminiumin Polish dictionaries at PWN

    Noun

    aluminium n (uncountable) 1. Alternative form of aluminiu

    Pronunciation

    1. IPA(key): /alɵˈmiːnɪɵm/

    Noun

    aluminium n (uncountable) 1. aluminium

    References

    1. aluminium in Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL)

  7. Aluminum | Al - PubChem

    pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › compound › aluminum

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. It is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals.

  8. Aluminium - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Aluminium
    • Sejarah
    • Proses Pemurnian
    • Sifat Mekanik Aluminium
    • Kelebihan Aluminium Dibanding Logam Lain
    • Daur Ulang Aluminium
    • Berbagai Penggunaan Aluminium
    • Referensi

    Pada abad ke-19, sebelum ditemukannya proses elektrolisis, aluminium hanya bisa didapatkan dari bauksit dengan proses kimia Wöhler. Dibandingkan dengan elektrolisis, proses ini sangat tidak ekonomis, dan harga aluminium dulunya jauh melebihi harga emas. Karena dulu dianggap sebagai logam berharga, Napoleon III dari Prancis (1808-1873) pernah melayani tamunya yang pertama dengan piring aluminium dan tamunya yang kedua dengan piring emas dan perak. Pada tahun 1886, Charles Martin Hall dari Amerika Serikat (1863-1914) dan Paul L.T. Héroultdari Prancis (1863-1914) menemukan proses elektrolisis yang sampai sekarang membuat produksi aluminium ekonomis.

    Orang pertama yang berhasil memisahkan aluminium dari senyawanya adalah Orsted pada tahun 1825 dengan cara mereduksi aluminium klorida, tetapi belum dalam keadaan murni. Aluminium murni ditemukan oleh Wohler dalam bentuk serbuk berwarna abu-abu pada tahun 1827 dengan memodifikasi proses Orsted. Kini proses yang digunakan untuk memperoleh aluminum secara besar-besaran digunakan proses Hall-Heroult. Cara ini ditemukan oleh dua orang yang umurnya sama (23 tahun) namun ditempat yang berbeda yakni Charles Martin Hall di Amerika dan Heroult di Parispada tahun 1886. Proses ini menjadikan kedua orang ini kaya dalam waktu singkat dan meninggal dunia pada tahun yang sama pula (1914). Setelah ditemukan cara ini harga aluminium yang awalnya sangat mahal turun secara drastis. Pemurnian aluminium dilakukan dalam dua tahap: 1. Proses Bayer merupakan proses pemurnian bijih bauksituntuk memperoleh aluminium oksida (alumina), dan 2. Proses Hall-Heroultmerupakan proses peleburan aluminium oksida untuk...

    Sifat teknik bahan aluminium murni dan aluminium paduan dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi bahan dan perlakuan yang diberikan terhadap bahan tersebut. Aluminium terkenal sebagai bahan yang tahan terhadap korosi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh fenomena pasivasi, yaitu proses pembentukan lapisan aluminium oksidadi permukaan logam aluminium segera setelah logam terpapar oleh udara bebas. Lapisan aluminium oksida ini mencegah terjadinya oksidasi lebih jauh. Namun, pasivasi dapat terjadi lebih lambat jika dipadukan dengan logam yang bersifat lebih katodik, karena dapat mencegah oksidasi aluminium. Kekuatan tensil Kekuatan tensil adalah besar teganganyang didapatkan ketika dilakukan pengujian tensil. Kekuatan tensil ditunjukkan oleh nilai tertinggi dari tegangan pada kurva tegangan-regangan hasil pengujian, dan biasanya terjadi ketika terjadinya necking. Kekuatan tensil bukanlah ukuran kekuatan yang sebenarnya dapat terjadi di lapangan, tetapi dapat dijadikan sebagai suatu acuan terhadap kekuatan baha...

    Penghantar listrik dan panas yang baik walaupun tidak sebaik tembaga. Karena memiliki daya hantar listrik yang baik ini aluminium digunakan pada kabellistrik menggantikan tembaga yang harganya lebi...
    Mempunyai warna yang stabil seolah-olah tidak berkarat. Hal ini disebabkan aluminium sangat cepat bereaksi dengan dengan oksigen yang terdapat di udara menghasilkan aluminium oksida. Oksida yang te...
    Permukaannya tidak perlu di cat karena sudah cukup bagus dan menarik.
    Serbuk aluminium yang sangat halus tampak mengkilat seperti logam aslinya sehingga sering dicampur pada minyak cat (vernis) menghasilkan cat metalikyang harganya relatif labih mahal dibanding cat b...

    Secara teori 100% aluminium bisa didaur ulang tanpa kehilangan beratnya. Namun dalam praktik, proses daur-ulang menyebabkan susutnya berat yang signifikan. Daur ulang melibatkan proses pencairan aluminium, sebuah proses yang membutuhkan hanya 5% dari energi yang digunakan untuk memproduksi aluminium dari bijih. Dalam proses ini aluminium mengalami kehilangan berat hingga 15% dari berat bahan baku. Hilangnya berat disebabkan terjadinya oksidasi oleh udara selama berlangsungnya proses pelelehan, menjadi oksida aluminium (Al2O3). Persentase penurunan berat juga disebabkan jenis aluminium yang di daur ulang. Aluminium plat tipis memiliki tingkat risiko kehilangan berat yang jauh lebih besar dibanding aluminium yang lebih plat tebal. Meskipun aluminium hasil daur ulang memiliki kadar yang lebih rendah dibanding aluminium hasil produksi, tetapi Aluminium hasil daur ulang masih mempertahankan sifat fisik yang sama dengan aluminium hasil pabrikasi. Hasil aluminium daur ulang disebut dengan...

    Logam aluminium digunakan di hampir semua aspek kehidupan. Logam-logam aluminium digunakan di dunia fisik dan kimia. Di fisik, aluminium digunakan dalam struktur pesawat terbang, rangka-rangka etalase, rangka pintu dan jendela, peralatan-peralatan dapur, sebagai pembungkus (aluminium foil), dan sebagainya. Di dunia kimia, logam aluminium digunakan sebagai reduktordalam berbagai ekstraksi ion logam dari larutannya. Sama halnya dengan zinc, aluminium juga bisa digunakan sebagai reduktor emas dalam proses sianidasi. Dalam proses ekstraksi emas thiosulfat, aluminium mampu mereduksi ion emas lebih cepat dibanding zinc. Aluminium juga bisa digunakan dalam proses reduksi ion tembaga dan merkuridari larutannya. Karena proses produksi aluminium menggunakan panas tinggi, maka pada dasarnya logam aluminium menyimpan potensi kalor tersembunyi yang sangat besar. Kalor ini disebut dengan istilah “kalor laten”, yang sewaktu-waktu bisa dilepaskan pada kondisi yang tepat. Kalor laten ini bisa dimanf...

    Aluminium at The Periodic Table of Videos(University of Nottingham)
    Toxic Substances Portal - Aluminum – from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, United States Department of Health and Human Services
    • aluminium, Al
    • abu-abu perak metalik
  9. Wikipedia

    www.wikipedia.org

    Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

  10. The Aluminum Association

    www.aluminum.org

    Jun 24, 2021 · Infinitely recyclable and highly durable, nearly 75 percent of all aluminum ever produced is still in use today. Aluminum is 100 percent recyclable and retains its properties indefinitely. Aluminum is one of the only materials in the consumer disposal stream that more than pays for the cost of its own collection. More Facts and Statistics.

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