The Polish People's Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989, and the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland. With a population of approximately 37.9 million inhabitants near the end of its existence, it was the most populous communist and Eastern Bloc country in ...
In the north Mazovia borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland and in the west on Greater Poland (subregions of Łęczyca Land, Kujawy and Dobrzyń Land). The area of Mazovia is 33,500 km 2. It has population of 5 million (3 million of them inhabit the metropolis of Warsaw).
- The Demographics of Aging in Poland
- Gerontological Research in Poland
- Key Public Policy Issues Related to Aging
- Emerging Issues on Aging
According to estimates produced by the Polish Central Statistical Office, at the end of 2013 Poland had a population of 38.5 million individuals, of whom 48% were men and 52% were women ( Polish Central Statistical Office, 2011 ). However, it is projected that the population will decrease to 32 million by 2050. One of the two main reasons for this population decrease is emigration. Since Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004, significant numbers have emigrated, mainly to the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, in search of greater financial security. Another reason for Poland’s population decline is a low birth rate ( Table 1). Before the transformation from a communist to a capitalist economy, Poland witnessed relatively high fertility. Total fertility rates have declined from 3.7 children per woman in the 1950s to an estimated 1.32 children per woman in 2014, well under the population replacement rate of 2 children per woman. These demographic trends suggest maj...
In Poland, interest in gerontological research began later than in other Western countries, perhaps due to the political and economic challenges that the country was facing shortly after World War II. The first Polish publication in gerontology was written by Józef Mruk (1946), which was entitled Zmiany nadnerczy w wieku starczym ( Changes in the adrenal glands in old age ) and the first national gerontological study of a representative sample of 2,714 people was conducted between 1966 and 1967 by a team from the School of Planning and Statistics in Warsaw under the direction of Jerzy Piotrowski (1973). Currently three Polish-language scientific journals publish research on aging and old age: Gerontolgia Polska ( Polish Gerontology , established in 1993), Polish Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (established in 1998), and Geriatria ( Geriatrics, established in 2007). Although interest in gerontological research has been steadily increasing with the establishment of these journals, the...
Health and Long-Term Care
In contrast to the United States, Poland provides free healthcare to all of its citizens through the National Health Fund (NFZ), the publicly funded healthcare system. Currently, 98% of the population is covered by a health insurance provided by the government ( Sagan et al., 2011). All health policies and regulations are determined by the Ministry of Health. Health insurance contributions are collected by two social insurance institutions, namely the Social Insurance Institution and the Agri...
Older people in Poland are dependent mainly on pensions. There are several different pension systems in Poland that operate in parallel and are applicable depending on age (date of birth) and employment history. Retirement reform introduced in 1999 is the basis for the current pension system in Poland. Prior to this reform, there was a defined benefit (DB) pay-as-you-go system. Since the reform in 1999, pensions in Poland have been based on a three pillar system. The first pillar is a defined...
Aging of the population, emigration of young people, and declining birthrates create challenges that affect Poland’s economy, healthcare and retirement-income systems. Currently, the dependency ratio of those aged 65 and above to working population between 15 and 64 years is 20.1 aged individuals for every 100 workers, but it is anticipated that by 2050 the ratio will be about 52 aged individuals per 100 workers. European Commission researchers project that Poland’s potential growth in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita will decline from 4.7% of GDP to 3% of GDP after 2021, owing to the aging of the population ( Devictor, 2012). Such a significant change in GDP may have substantial effect on investments, unemployment rates, and individuals’ well-being by inducing fears of economic instability. In light of the steady increase of the older population and declining fertility rates, concerns about the increasing strain on the health care and retirement systems brought about a natio...
Similar to other countries, Poland is currently facing challenges of rapidly aging population. Increasing life expectancy and growing in size elderly population in Poland has begun to have a significant economic and social impact. In order to balance economic growth and provide an adequate care for older adults, public institutions, and nongovernmental organizations need to respond to those challenges. First of all, there is an increased need for specialized health care workers, increased number of long-term care facilities, and prevention programs aiming at improvement of the health status of older adults. Secondly, the gender imbalance at older ages, as demonstrated in Poland’s current age pyramid, results in significant implications for older women. Similar to Turkey, France, or Rumania, older women in Poland make up a greater proportion of the aging population. Many older women live without their spousal support what may negatively affect their economic status and lead to low ps...
- Magdalena Leszko, Ludmila Zając-Lamparska, Janusz Trempala
Mar 26, 2019 · Downtown in the central city of Lodz. After Poland joined the European Union, providing a chance for people to leave more easily, Lodz saw its population decline to less than 690,000, from more ...
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Poznań is the fifth-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.The city's population is 538,633 (2011 census), while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by almost 1.1 million people.
- 10th century
- city county
- Greater Poland Voivodeship
The Province of Posen (German: Provinz Posen, Polish: Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 to 1919. Posen was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1848 after the Greater Poland Uprising, converted from the Grand Duchy of Posen annexed by Prussia in the Polish partitions of 1815, and became part of the German Empire in 1871.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; German: Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Posen or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
The History of Szczecin (German: Stettin) dates back to the 8th century.Throughout its history the city has been part of Poland, Denmark, Sweden and Germany.From the Late Middle Ages until 1945, the city had a predominantly German population.
While in 1824 a Provincial Parliament was invoked in Greater Poland, the representation was based on wealth census, meaning that the end result gave most of the power to German minority in the area. Even when Poles managed to issue calls asking for enforcing of the guarantees formulated in treaties of Congress of Vienna and proclamations of ...