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  1. Jun 17, 2016 · Cost Wave Energy Tidal Energy Current cost (in ¢/kWh) 10-30 8-12 Future cost (in ¢/kWh) 5-6 4-6 It is evident from this table that future costs will come down by around 50%, mainly due to technological improvement.

  2. May 01, 2017 · Abstract. Ocean tidal currents, water waves and thermal gradients are a great source of renewable energy. Ocean tidal, osmotic, wave and thermal sources have annual potentials of 800, 2,000, 8000–80,000 and 10,000–87,600 TWh, which are more than global 16,000 TWh/y electricity demand.

    • N. Khan, A. Kalair, N. Abas, A. Haider
    • 7.50
    • 2017
    • 5.08
    • Introduction
    • Study Area
    • Data and Methodology
    • Results and Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Data Availability Statement
    • Author Contributions
    • Conflict of Interest
    • Acknowledgments
    • Supplementary Material

    COVID-19 has had an impact the entire world, and India has also felt this impact. The spread of COVID-19 has been so vast that the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a pandemic and has designated it as medical emergency. To overcome the rapid and far-reaching spread of the disease, in the absence of proven medications, social distancing measures were put in place as the only way to minimize the human interaction. Inevitably, the country was put under lockdown. In this regard, the Indian Government took a strong stand against social life around the entire country starting in mid-March 2020. The prevalence of the pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) named by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), continued to spread around the world and by mid-June 2020, around 213 countries has been affected. To date, more than 10 million cases of the virus infection have been reported worldwide, with the majority of fatalities...

    Chennai (“The Detroit of India”), the metropolis of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal (BoB), and has two major ports (Chennai and Ennore) and numerous coastal Industries. The study area is situated in between 80.25°E–80.50°E and 13°N–13.35°N, as shown in Figure 1. Littoral regions are of great concern, due to the fact that they are not only the most productive areas but also hot spots of pollution. Massive populations and the congregation of industries in Chennai are impairing the rivers of Kosasthalaiyar, Cooum, and Adyar by ceaseless depositing of treated/untreated sewage. These rivers ultimately discharge into BoB. Dumping of dredged material is a major threat to Ennore Creek (EC), which further leads to the blockage of water flow. This creek receives wastewater, which includes treated effluents and untreated wastewater from industrial sources in Ennore-Manali areas. The two power plants in Chennai (Kalpakkam and Ennore) eman...

    Data

    Landsat-8/OLI has spectral bands with central wavelengths close to that of dedicated ocean color sensors. The resolution of current ocean color sensors is one of the key limiting factors for water quality applications in near-shore regions, as they are unable to accurately resolve coastal ocean characteristics (Mouw et al., 2015). Optical sensor OLI has native spatial resolution of 30 m and is therefore better suited to resolve detailed features of SPM in the near-shore region compared to con...

    Pre-processing

    Landsat-8/OLI, L1TP scenes were subjected to radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction to derive surface reflectance values from raw digital numbers using the ACOLITE package, developed by the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (Vanhellemont and Ruddick, 2018). It is an image-based Atmospheric Correction algorithm that estimates radiance by correcting for molecular and aerosol scattering in the atmosphere using the Gordon and Wang (1994)approach. Molecular reflectance correc...

    SPM Retrieval

    SPM plays a vital role in Primary production, pollutant transport, and other biogeochemical processes in coastal marine environments (Kravchishina et al., 2018). Curran et al. (1987) and Novo et al. (1989) investigated the form of the relationship between SPM and water-leaving reflectance in coastal waters and showed that single band algorithms may be adopted where SPM increases with increasing reflectance. Ahn et al. (2001) pointed out that single bands at longer wavelengths in visible porti...

    The long-term mean was calculated using L8 scenes of April (2013–20) and April-2020 (2nd & 18th, April-2020) scenes were used to compute mean values for the stringent lockdown period. Negative anomalies were observed in the majority of locations/pixels in all prominent regions of the study area. Mean, percentage, and root mean square differences (RMSD) were computed. The entire region was considered while computing mean differences and their percentages, whereas pixels with negative anomalies were isolated and computed RMSDs for those pixels.

    The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on coastal water quality across the Chennai region was studied by analyzing the suspended particulate matter concentration (SPM). Anthropogenic activities’ contribution to SPM levels was assessed for all five prominent regions in the study area. A decrease in SPM concentration (15.48, 37.50%) was clearly observed due to minimal vessel movement and cargo handling at the Chennai and Ennore ports. SPM levels over Ennore creek/estuary were reduced by 28.05%, and can be attributed to limited industrial activities in Ennore-Manali area and the decreased fly ash emissions from thermal power plants. As industrial and commercial activities subsided during the lockdown period, the city’s water bodies, Adyar and Cooum, were clearer than the pre-lockdown period, with no industrial effluents flowing in from closed factories. The suspended matter over these estuaries was reduced by 22.26 and 33.97%. A decrease in Kd(490) showed an in-phase/positive relationship...

    Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. This data can be found here: https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/; https://app.cpcbccr.com/; https://tnpcb.gov.in/air-quality.php.

    KV, CG, and TP were research scholars working under the guidance of PN (Head and Scientist-F, Biological Oceanography Division, National Remote Sensing Centre-ISRO, Hyderabad). CJ (Scientist-E, RRSC East, NRSC-ISRO, Kolkata) and CL (Asst. Professor, JNTU, Kakinada) are co-guides for this research work. KV, CG, and TP were involved in literature survey, data downloading, outputs preparation and basic drafting. PN, CJ, and CL have supervised and guided the whole work and finalized manuscript drafting. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

    The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

    We thank and acknowledge USGS for distributing Landsat-8 data freely. The pollution control boards of Tamil Nadu state (TNPCB, Chennai) and the Central Government (CPCB, New Delhi) are thanked for providing PM2.5 and PM10 data. We thank and acknowledge NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSL for distributing CPC Global Unified Precipitation data. We thank the National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad (ISRO) for providing the infrastructure to carry out this work.

    The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.659686/full#supplementary-material

    • K. Vijay Prakash, Ch. S. Geetha Vimala, T. Preethi Latha, Chiranjivi Jayaram, P. V. Nagamani, Ch. N....
    • 1
    • 2021
  3. maximum values are located at the upper Gulf (opposite the Gulf of Santa Clara) where water. depths are less than 30 m and energy density values are around 0.1 kWh/m 2. Moreover, power density is ...

  4. Tide Times are PDT (UTC -7.0hrs). Last Spring High Tide at Dana Point was on Thu 24 Jun (height: 2.56m 8.4ft) The dates for the next winter season are: November 5-7, 2021; December 3-5, 2021; and January 1-3, 2022. The following submissions received the most votes and are hereby declared the winners of the King Tide Photo Contest.

  5. Modelling the Sea Level in the Upper Bay of Fundy / 43 Fig. 9 True colour Landsat-7 image of the Wolfville vicinity at 14:52:00 ( GMT ) on 13 July 2000. The image was taken near high tide.

  6. Sep 24, 2011 · Tides, the daily rise and fall of ocean levels relative to coastlines, are a result of the gravitational force of the moon, the gravitational force of the sun, and the revolution of the Earth. The tides produce the electricity for tidal power by flowing in and out of turbines.

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