- related to: applied ethics
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1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics. One way of categorizing the field of ethics (as a... 2. Business Ethics. Some people might think that business ethics is an oxymoron. How can business, with all of its shady... 3. Bioethics. Bioethics is a very exciting field of ...
Sep 25, 2019 · Applied ethics is a branch of ethics devoted to the treatment of moral problems, practices, and policies in personal life, professions, technology, and government. In contrast to traditional ethical theory—concerned with purely theoretical problems such as, for example, the development of a general criterion of rightness—applied ethics takes its point of departure in practical normative challenges.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethical knowledge. Regardless of the solution of the problem of rank attribution of ethics as such (is it considered as an organic part of philosophy – as a “practical philosophy”, either as a private scientific knowledge that has been spun off from it.
Applied ethics is one of the three divisions of the philosophy of ethics. Normative ethics attempts to develop a framework by which actions can be judged ethical or not. Metaethics is a discussion about ethics; it attempts to define terms, determine the authority of right and wrong, and investigate why people feel the inclination to be ethical.
Apr 26, 2021 · Applied ethics is the most practical of the three divisions of the philosophy of ethics. The most esoteric is metaethics, which is the study of the terms and basis of ethics. The next is normative ethics, which is the attempt to develop a comprehensive framework against which actions can be judged. Applied ethics is the actual application of ethical theory for the purpose of choosing an ethical action in a given issue.
- Definitional Problems
- Models of Application, Reasoning, and Justification
- Method and Content: Departures from Traditional Ethical Theory
- Competing Theories and Problems of Specificity
"Applied ethics" has proved difficult to define, but the following is a widely accepted account: Applied ethics is the application of general ethical theories to moral problems with the objective of solving the problems. However, this definition is so narrow that many will not recognize is as reflecting their understanding of either the appropriate method or content. "Applied ethics" is also used more broadly to refer to any use of philosophical methods critically to examine practical moral decisions and to treat moral problems, practices, and policies in the professions, technology, government, and the like. This broader usage permits a range of philosophical methods (including conceptual analysis, reflective equilibrium, phenomenology, etc.) and does not insist on problem solving as the objective. Biomedical ethics, political ethics, journalistic ethics, legal ethics, environmental ethics, and business ethics are fertile areas for such philosophical investigation. However, "applie...
Philosophers from Socrates to the present have been attracted to topics in applied ethics such as civil disobedience, suicide, and free speech; and philosophers have written in detail about practical reasoning. Nonetheless, it is arguably the case that there never has been a genuine practical program of applied philosophy in the history of philosophy (the casuists possibly qualifying as an exception). Philosophers have traditionally tried to account for and justify morality, to clarify concepts, to examine how moral judgments and arguments are made, and to array basic principles—not to use either morality or theories to solve practical problems. This traditional set of commitments began to undergo modification about the time the Encyclopedia of Philosophy was first published in 1967. Many hypotheses can be invoked to explain why. The most plausible explanation is that law, ethics, and many of the professions—including medicine, business, engineering, and scientific research—were pro...
When applied ethics began to receive acceptance in philosophy, it was widely presumed that the "applied" part involves the application of basic moral principles or theories to particular moral problems or cases. This vision suggests that ethical theory develops general principles, rules, and the like, whereas applied ethics treats particular contexts through less general, derived principles, rules, judgments, and the like. From this perspective applied ethics is old morality or old ethical theory applied to new areas. New, derived precepts emerge, but they receive their moral content from the old precepts. Applied work need not, then, generate novel ethical content. Applied ethics requires only a detailed knowledge of the areas to which the ethical theory is being applied (medicine, engineering, journalism, business, public policy, court cases, etc.). Many philosophers reject this account because it reduces applied ethics to a form of deductivism in which justified moral judgments m...
In light of the differences in the models just explored and the enormously diverse literature in applied philosophy it is questionable whether applied ethics has a special philosophical method. Applied philosophers appear to do what philosophers have always done: They analyze concepts, examine the hidden presuppositions of moral opinions and theories, offer criticism and constructive accounts of the moral phenomena in question, and criticize strategies that are used to justify beliefs, policies, and actions. They seek a reasoned defense of a moral viewpoint, and they use proposed moral frameworks to distinguish justified moral claims from unjustified ones. They try to stimulate the moral imagination, promote analytical skills, and weed out prejudice, emotion, misappropriated data, false authority, and the like. Differences between ethical theory and applied ethics are as apparent over content as over method. Instead of analyzing general terms such as "good", "rationality", "ideals",...
One reason theory and application are merged in the literature is that several different types of ethical theories have been employed in attempts to address practical problems. At least the following types of theories have been explicitly invoked: (1) utilitarianism, (2) Kantianism, (3) rights theory, (4) contract theory, (5) virtue theory, (6) communitarianism, (7) casuistry, and (8) pragmatism. Many proponents of these theories would agree that specific policy and practical guidelines cannot be squeezed from appeals to these philosophical ethical theories and that some additional content is always necessary. Ethical theories have rarely been able to raise or answer the social and policy questions commonplace in applied ethics. General theories are ill suited for this work, because they address philosophical problems and are not by their nature practical or policy oriented. The content of a philosophical theory, as traditionally understood, is not of the right sort. Philosophical t...
Beauchamp, T. L. "On Eliminating the Distinction between Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory." The Monist 67 (1984): 514–31. Brock, D. W. "Truth or Consequences: The Role of Philosophers in Policy-Making." Ethics 97 (1987): 786–791. Caplan, A. L. "Ethical Engineers Need Not Apply: The State of Applied Ethics Today." Science, Technology, and Human Values 6 (Fall 1980): 24–32. DeGrazia, D. "Moving Forward in Bioethical Theory: Theories, Cases, and Specified Principlism." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (1992): 511–539. Feinberg, J. The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984–1987. Fullinwider, R. K. "Against Theory, or: Applied Philosophy—A Cautionary Tale." Metaphilosophy 20 (1989): 222–234. Gert, B. "Licensing Professions." Business and Professional Ethics Journal 1 (1982): 51–60. Gert, B. "Moral Theory and Applied Ethics." The Monist 67 (1984): 532–548. Jonsen, A., and S. Toulmin. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Be...
practical ethicsthe attempt to work out the implications of general theories for specific forms of conduct and moral judgment; formerly called applied ethics. professional ethicsthe ethical norms, values, and principles that guide a profession and the ethics of decisions made within the profession.
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