Arghun Dynasty. The Arghun dynasty ruled from the late 15th century to the early 16th century the area between southern Afghanistan and Sindh Province of Pakistan. They claimed their descent and name from Arghun Khan of Persia, and were a dynasty of either Mongol, Turkish or Turko-Mongol ethnicity. The Arghuns can be divided into two branches ...
Thus, as early as 1252 attempts to establish marriage relations with the family of Arghun Aqa were started by Qutb al-Dīn Muḥammad, the then ruler of Kerman of the Islamic Qutlugh-Khanid dynasty. Footnote 83 Qutb al-Dīn hoped to marry the daughter of Arghun Aqa, Begi Khatun (Ilkuye Biji, according to Munish), using his “old friendship and ...
- Ishayahu Landa
The Ilkhanate Mongols remained nomadic in their way of life until the end of the dynasty. Their nomadic routes covered central Iraq , northwest Iran , Azerbaijan , and Armenia . The Mongols administered Iraq, the Caucasus , and western and southern Iran directly with the exception of Georgia , the Artuqid sultan of Mardin , and Kufa and Luristan .
- Kinship and Family Life
- Royal Family
- Geographic Distribution
Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper (also known as the Khalkha Mongols), Buryats, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohans, Baarins, Gorlos Mongols, Jalaids, Jaruud, Khishigten, Khuuchid, Muumyangan and Onnigud. The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau. However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederationhad weakened them. In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan.
In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog, and the Tungusic peoples. Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. The identity of the Xiongnu is still debated today. Although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more likely a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes. It has been suggested that the language of the Hunswas related to the Xiongnu. The Donghu, however, can be much more easily labeled proto-Mongol since the Chinese histories trace only Mongolic tribes and kingdoms (Xianbei and Wuhuan peoples) from them, although some historical texts claim a mixed Xiongnu-Donghu ancestry for some tribes (e.g. the Khitan).
Mongolian is the official national language of Mongolia, where it is spoken by nearly 2.8 million people (2010 estimate), and the official provincial language of China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols. Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate) However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012. However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas...
The original religion of the Mongolic peoples was Mongolian Shamanism. The Xianbei came in contact with Confucianism and Daoism but eventually adopted Buddhism. However, the Xianbeis and some other people in Mongolia and Rourans followed a form of shamanism (Tengrism). In the 5th century the Buddhist monk Dharmapriya was proclaimed State Teacher of the Rouran Khaganate and given 3000 families and some Rouran nobles became Buddhists. In 511 the Rouran Douluofubadoufa Khan sent Hong Xuan to the Tuoba court with a pearl-encrusted statue of the Buddha as a gift. The Tuoba Xianbei and Khitans were mostly Buddhists, although they still retained their original Shamanism. The Tuoba had a "sacrificial castle" to the west of their capital where ceremonies to spirits took place. Wooden statues of the spirits were erected on top of this sacrificial castle. One ritual involved seven princes with milk offerings who ascended the stairs with 20 female shamans and offered prayers, sprinkling the sta...
Mongols battled against the most powerful armies and warriors in Eurasia. The beating of the kettle and smoke signals were signals for the start of battle. One battle formation that they used consisted of five squadrons or units. The typical squadrons were divided by ranks. The first two ranks were in the front. These warriors had the heaviest armor and weapons. The back three ranks broke out between the front ranks and attacked first with their arrows. The forces kept their distance from the enemy and killed them with arrow fire, during which time "archers did not aim at a specific target, but shot their arrows at a high path into a set 'killing zone' or target area."Mongolics also acquired engineers from the defeated armies. They made engineers a permanent part of their army, so that their weapons and machinery were complex and efficient.
The traditional Mongol family was patriarchal, patrilineal and patrilocal. Wives were brought for each of the sons, while daughters were married off to other clans. Wife-taking clans stood in a relation of inferiority to wife-giving clans. Thus wife-giving clans were considered "elder" or "bigger" in relation to wife-taking clans, who were considered "younger" or "smaller".This distinction, symbolized in terms of "elder" and "younger" or "bigger" and "smaller", was carried into the clan and family as well, and all members of a lineage were terminologically distinguished by generation and age, with senior superior to junior. In the traditional Mongolian family, each son received a part of the family herd as he married, with the elder son receiving more than the younger son. The youngest son would remain in the parental tent caring for his parents, and after their death he would inherit the parental tent in addition to his own part of the herd. This inheritance system was mandated by...
The royal clan of the Mongols is the Borjigin clan descended from Bodonchar Munkhag (c.850-900). This clan produced Khans and princes for Mongolia and surrounding regions until the early 20th century. All the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire, including its founder Genghis Khan, were of the Borjigin clan. The royal family of Mongolia was called the Altan Urag (Golden Lineage) and is synonymous with Genghisid. After the fall of the Northern Yuan Dynasty in 1635 the Dayan Khanid aristocracy continued the Genghisid legacy in Mongolia until 1937 when most were killed during the Stalinist purges. The four hereditary Khans of the Khalkha (Tüsheet Khan, Setsen Khan, Zasagt Khan and Sain Noyan Khan) were all descended from Dayan Khan (1464-1543) through Abtai Sain Khan, Sholoi Khan, Laikhur Khan and Tumenkhen Sain Noyan respectively. Dayan Khan was himself raised to power by Queen Mandukhai the Wise(c.1449-1510) during the crisis of the late 15th century when the line of Kublai Khan, the gra...
Today, the majority of Mongols live in the modern states of Mongolia, China (mainly Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang), Russia, Kyrgyzstanand Afghanistan. The differentiation between tribes and peoples (ethnic groups) is handled differently depending on the country. The Tumed, Chahar, Ordos, Barga, Altai Uriankhai, Buryats, Dörböd (Dörvöd, Dörbed), Torguud, Dariganga, Üzemchin (or Üzümchin), Bayads, Khoton, Myangad (Mingad), Eljigin, Zakhchin, Darkhad, and Olots(or Öölds or Ölöts) are all considered as tribes of the Mongols.Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan(1281–1311)Genghis' son Tolui with Queen SorgaqtaniHulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archerBalogh, Matyas (2010). "Contemporary shamanisms in Mongolia". Asian Ethnicity. 11 (2): 229–38. doi:10.1080/14631361003779489. S2CID 145595446.Bira, Shagdaryn (2011). Монголын тэнгэрийн үзэл: түүвэр зохиол, баримт бичгүүд [Mongolian Tenggerism: selected papers and documents] (in Mongolian). Улаанбаатар: Содпресс. ISBN 9789992955932.Bumochir, D. (2014). "Institutionalization of Mongolian shamanism: from primitivism to civilization". Asian Ethnicity. 15 (4): 473–91. doi:10.1080/14631369.2014.939331. S2CID 145329835.Garcia, Chad D. (2012). A New Kind of Northerner.
Tarkhan Dynasty or Turkhan (Urdu: سلسله ترخان) was established by Turkic Tarkhan and they ruled Sindh, Pakistan, from 1554 to 1591 AD. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan Dynasty in Sindh after the death of Shah Husayn Arghun of the Arghun Dynasty. Mughal emperor Akbar annexed Sindh after defeating the last Tarkhan ruler.
The Yuan dynasty started passing anti-Muslim and anti-Semu laws and getting rid of Semu Muslim privileges towards the end of the Yuan dynasty, in 1340 forcing them to follow Confucian principles in marriage regulations, in 1329 all foreign holy men including Muslims had tax exemptions revoked, in 1328 the position of Muslim Qadi was abolished ...
- Early Mongol Rule in Persia
- First Ilkhan
- Conversion to Islam
- Ilkhan as A Tribal Title in 19Th/20Th Century Iran
- See Also
According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu (Hülegü) the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term il-Khan means "subordinate khan" and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire. The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260.
When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219. The Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family.> Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region. Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia. However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by C...
The founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished. Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt." This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian tribes. He established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria. He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza, briefly conquering Ayyubid Syria. The death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khuriltai (the selection of a new leader). He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol...
In the period after Hulagu, the Ilkhans increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism. Christian powers were encouraged by what appeared to be an inclination towards Nestorian Christianity by Ilkhanate rulers, but this was probably nothing more than the Mongols' traditional even-handedness towards competing religions. The Ilkhans were thus markedly out of step with the Muslim majority they ruled. Ghazan, shortly before he overthrew Baydu, converted to Islam, and his official favoring of Islam as a state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non-Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the poll tax. Buddhists had the starker choice of conversion or expulsion. In foreign relations, the Ilkhanate's conversion to Islam had little to no effect on its hostility towards other Muslim states, and Ghazan continued to fight the Mamluks for control of Syria. The Battle of Wadi...
In the 1330s, outbreaks of the Black Death ravaged the Ilkhanate empire. The last il-khan Abu Sa'id and his sons were killed by the plague.In 1330, the annexation of Abkhazia resulted in the reunification of the Kingdom of Georgia. However, tribute received by the Il-Khans from Georgia sank by about three-quarters between 1336 and 1350 because of wars and famines. Also Anatolian Beylikswere freed from Ilkhanate suzerenaity. After Abu Sa'id's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several rival successor states, most prominently the Jalayirids. Hasar's descendant Togha Temür, who was the last of the obscure Ilkhan pretenders, was assassinated by Sarbadars in 1353. Timur later carved a state from the Jalayirids, ostensibly to restore the old khanate. Historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani wrote a universal history of the khans around 1315 that provides much material about them. In 1357, the Golden Horde conquered the Chobanid-held Tabriz for a year, put...
The emergence of the Ilkhanate had an important historical impact in the Middle Eastern region. The establishment of the unified Mongol Empire had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia. The communications between the Ilkhanate and the Yuan Dynastyheadquartered in China encouraged this development. The Ilkhanate also helped to pave the way for the later Persian Safaviddynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests had also opened Iran to Chinese influence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. Under the Ilkhans, Iranian historians also moved from writing in Arabic to writing in their native Persian tongue. The rudiments of double-entry accounting were practiced in the Ilkhanate; merdiban was then adopted by the Ottoman Empire. These developments were independent from the accounting practices used in Europe.> This accounting system was adopted primarily a...
House of Hulagu
1. Hulagu Khan(1256–1265) 2. Abaqa Khan(1265–1282) 3. Ahmad Tegüder(1282–1284) 4. Arghun(1284–1291) 5. Gaykhatu(1291–1295) 6. Baydu(1295) 7. Mahmud Ghazan(1295–1304) 8. Muhammad Khodabandeh (Oljeitu or Öljaitü)(1304–1316) 9. Abu Sa'id Bahadur(1316–1335) After the Ilkhanate, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.
House of Ariq Böke
1. Arpa Ke'ün(1335–1336)
House of Hasar
Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan): 1. Togha Temür (c. 1338–1353) (recognized by the Kartids1338–1349; by the Jalayirids 1338–1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338–1341, 1344, 1353) 2. Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür and the protege of Timur)
The title Ilkhan resurfaced among the Qashqai nomads of Southern Iran in the 19th century. Jan Mohammad Khan started using it from 1818/19 and this was continued by all the following Qashqai leaders. The last Ilkhan was Naser Khan, who in 1954 was pushed into exile after his support of Mossadeq. When he returned during the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he could not regain his previous position and died in 1984 as the last Ilkhan of the Qashqai.Division of the Mongol EmpireList of Mongol statesList of medieval Mongol tribes and clansFull list of Iranian Kingdoms