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  1. The Arghun dynasty was a dynasty of either Mongol, Turkic or Turco-Mongol ethnicity, who ruled over the area between southern Afghanistan, and the Sindh province Pakistan from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. The Arghuns claimed their descent and name from Ilkhanid-Mongol Arghun Khan. Arghun rule can be divided into two branches ...

    • Arghun Governors of Kandahar
    • Wars with Babur
    • Arghun Dynasty of Sindh
    • References

    In the late 15th century the Timurid sultan of Herat, Husayn Bayqarah, appointed Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun as governor of Kandahar. Dhu'l-Nun Beg soon began to ignore the authority of the central government in Herat and in around 1479 he began expanding in the direction of Baluchistan, taking over Pishin, Shal and Mustang. In 1485 his sons Shah Beg and Muhammad Mukim Khan also seized Sibi from the Samma dynastyof Sindh, although this gain was only temporary. In 1497 Dhu'l-Nun Beg threw his support behind the revolt of Husayn Bayqarah's son Badi' al-Zaman against his father. Dhu'l-Nun Beg, who married off his daughter to Badi' al-Zaman, subsequently gained a prominent position in the latter's government when the Timurid succeeded Husayn Bayqarah in Herat in 1506. Unfortunately for them, the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani invaded Khorasanshortly after Badi' al-Zaman's ascension. In 1507 Dhu'l-Nun Beg was killed in battle against the Uzbeks and succeeded by his sons Shah Beg and Mukim.

    The Arghuns ultimately lost control of their portion of Afghanistan to the Timurid prince Babur, who had been expelled from Transoxiana by the Uzbeks and had made his way south to Husayn Bayqarah's kingdom. In 1501/1502 Mukim had peacefully gained the submission of Kabul, which was in chaos after the death of its ruler Ulugh Beg ibn Abu Sa'id.This was contested by Babur, who besieged and took the city in 1504; Mukim fell back to Kandahar. After Dhu'l-Nun Beg's death Babur decided that as long as Shah Beg and Mukim remained in Kandahar they would remain a threat to them. In 1507 or 1508 he attacked them, but the brothers saved their position by agreeing to submit to the Uzbek Muhammad Shaybani. In the following years Babur spent his time fighting against the Uzbeks in an attempt to regain Samarkand, giving Shah Beg and Mukim a degree of respite. Shah Beg, however, seems to have realized that in the long term it would be impossible to hold Kandahar against Babur. In 1520, in the hopes...

    Arghun branch

    In 1522 Babur took Kandahar after a drawn out siege and annexed it. Following this, Shah Beg made Bukkur(Lower Sindh) his official capital. He died in 1524 and his son Shah Husayn succeeded him. Shah Husayn had the khutba read in Babur's name and attacked Multan, probably at Babur's insistence. Multan, which was ruled by the Langah, fell in 1528 after an extended siege and Shah Husayn appointed a governor of the city. Shortly after Shah Husayn departed Multan for Thatta, however, the governor...

    Tarkhan branch

    During the civil war between Shah Husayn and Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan, the latter had sent a request for the help to the Portuguese at Bassein. A 700-man force under the command of Pedro Barreto Rolim sailed up to Thatta in 1555, only to find that Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan had already won the conflict and there was no need for their assistance. Furious at the governor of Thatta's refusal to pay them, the Portuguese sacked the defenseless city and killed several thousand people. Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan...

    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-231-10714-5
    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. "Kabul." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume IV. New ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978. ISBN 90-04-05745-5
    Davies, C. Collin. "Arghun." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. ISBN 90-04-08114-3
    Memoirs of Zehīr-ed-dīn Muhammed Bābur, Emperor of Hindustan.Trans. John Leyden & William Erskine. Annotated and edited by Lucas King. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1826.
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  3. The Arghun dynasty was a dynasty of either Mongol, [1] Turkic or Turco-Mongol ethnicity, [2] who ruled over the area between southern Afghanistan, and the Sindh province Pakistan from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. The Arghuns claimed their descent and name from Ilkhanid-Mongol Arghun Khan. [3]

    • Arghun Governors of Kandahar
    • Wars with Babur
    • Arghun Dynasty of Sindh
    • References

    In the late 15th century the Timurid sultan of Herat, Husayn Bayqarah, appointed Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun as governor of Kandahar. Dhu'l-Nun Beg soon began to ignore the authority of the central government in Herat and in around 1479 he began expanding in the direction of Baluchistan, taking over Pishin, Shal and Mastung. In 1485 his sons Shah Beg Arghun and Muhammad Mukim Khan also seized Sibi from the Samma dynastyof Sindh, although this gain was only temporary. In 1497 Dhu'l-Nun Beg threw his support behind the revolt of Husayn Bayqarah's son Badi' al-Zaman against his father. Dhu'l-Nun Beg, who married off his daughter to Badi' al-Zaman, subsequently gained a prominent position in the latter's government when the Timurid succeeded Husayn Bayqarah in Herat in 1506. Unfortunately for them, the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani invaded Khorasanshortly after Badi' al-Zaman's ascension. In 1507 Dhu'l-Nun Beg was killed in battle against the Uzbeks and succeeded by his sons Shah Beg and Mukim.

    The Arghuns ultimately lost control of their portion of Afghanistan to the Timurid prince Babur, who had been expelled from Transoxiana by the Uzbeks and had made his way south to Husayn Bayqarah's kingdom. In 1501/1502 Mukim had peacefully gained the submission of Kabul, which was in chaos after the death of its ruler Ulugh Beg II.This was contested by Babur, who besieged and took the city in 1504; Mukim fell back to Kandahar. After Dhu'l-Nun Beg's death Babur decided that as long as Shah Beg and Mukim remained in Kandahar they would remain a threat to them. In 1507 or 1508 he attacked them, but the brothers saved their position by agreeing to submit to the Uzbek Muhammad Shaybani. In the following years Babur spent his time fighting against the Uzbeks in an attempt to regain Samarkand, giving Shah Beg and Mukim a degree of respite. Shah Beg Arghun, however, seems to have realized that in the long term it would be impossible to hold Kandahar against Babur. In 1520, in the hopes of...

    Arghun branch

    In 1522 Babur took Kandahar after a drawn-out siege and annexed it. Following this, Shah Beg Arghun made Bukkur (Lower Sindh) his official capital. He died in 1524 and his son Shah Husayn succeeded him. Shah Husayn had the Khutba read in Babur's name and attacked Multan, probably at Babur's insistence. Multan, which was ruled by the Langah, fell in 1528 after an extended siege and Shah Husayn appointed a governor of the city. Shortly after Shah Husayn departed Multan for Thatta, however, the...

    Tarkhan branch

    During the civil war between Shah Husayn and Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan, the latter had sent a request for the help to the Portuguese at Bassein. A 700-man force under the command of Pedro Barreto Rolim sailed up to Thatta in 1555, only to find that Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan had already won the conflict and there was no need for their assistance. Furious at the governor of Thatta's refusal to pay them, the Portuguese sacked the defenseless city and killed several thousand people. Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan...

    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-231-10714-5
    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. "Kabul." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume IV. New ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978. ISBN 90-04-05745-5
    Davies, C. Collin. "Arghun." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. ISBN 90-04-08114-3
    Memoirs of Zehīr-ed-dīn Muhammed Bābur, Emperor of Hindustan.Trans. John Leyden & William Erskine. Annotated and edited by Lucas King. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1826.
  4. Arghun was a Jat King in Afghanistan in late thirteenth century A D. History. Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that as mentioned above this dynasty was of the Oghlan clan of the Jats who were Buddhists at that time. It should be mentioned that Khan is not a Muslim title, it is a pre-Muslim Central Asian title adopted by many Buddhist kings.

    • Arghun Governors of Kandahar
    • Wars with Babur
    • Arghun Dynasty of Sindh
    • References

    In the late 15th century the Timurid sultan of Herat, Husayn Bayqarah, appointed Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun as governor of Kandahar. Dhu'l-Nun Beg soon began to ignore the authority of the central government in Herat and in around 1479 he began expanding in the direction of Baluchistan, taking over Pishin, Shal and Mustang. In 1485 his sons Shah Beg and Muhammad Mukim Khan also seized Sibi from the Samma Dynasty of Sindh, although this gain was only temporary.[2] In 1497 Dhu'l-Nun Beg threw his support behind the revolt of Husayn Bayqarah's son Badi' al-Zaman against his father. Dhu'l-Nun Beg, who married off his daughter to Badi' al-Zaman, subsequently gained a prominent position in the latter's government when the Timurid succeeded Husayn Bayqarah in Herat in 1506.[4] Unfortunately for them, the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani invaded Khorasan shortly after Badi' al-Zaman's ascension. In 1507 Dhu'l-Nun Beg was killed in battle against the Uzbeks and succeeded by his sons Shah Beg and Muk...

    The Arghuns ultimately lost control of their portion of Afghanistan to the Timurid prince Babur, who had been expelled from Transoxiana by the Uzbeks and had made his way south to Husayn Bayqarah's kingdom. In 1501/1502 Mukim had peacefully gained the submission of Kabul, which was in chaos after the death of its ruler Ulugh Beg ibn Abu Sa'id.[5] This was contested by Babur, who besieged and took the city in 1504; Mukim fell back to Kandahar.[6] After Dhu'l-Nun Beg's death Babur decided that as long as Shah Beg and Mukim remained in Kandahar they would remain a threat to them. In 1507 or 1508 he attacked them, but the brothers saved their position by agreeing to submit to the Uzbek Muhammad Shaybani. In the following years Babur spent his time fighting against the Uzbeks in an attempt to regain Samarkand, giving Shah Beg and Mukim a degree of respite.[2] Shah Beg, however, seems to have realized that in the long term it would be impossible to hold Kandahar against Babur. In 1520, in...

    Arghun Branch

    In 1522 Babur took Kandahar after a drawn out siege and annexed it.[7] Following this, Shah Beg made Bhakkar his official capital. He died in 1524 and his son Shah Husayn succeeded him. Shah Husayn had the khutba read in Babur's name and attacked Multan, probably at Babur's insistence. Multan, which was ruled by the Langah, fell in 1528 after an extended siege and Shah Husayn appointed a governor of the city. Shortly after Shah Husayn departed Multan for Thatta, however, the governor was thro...

    Tarkhan Branch

    During the civil war between Shah Husayn and Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan, the latter had sent a request for the help to the Portuguese at Bassein. A 700 man force under the command of Pedro Barreto Rolim sailed up to Thatta in 1555, only to find that Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan had already won the conflict and there was no need for their assistance. Furious at the governor of Thatta's refusal to pay them, the Portuguese sacked the defenseless city and killed several thousand people.[10] Muhammad 'Isa Tar...

    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Great Britain: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-231-10714-5
    Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. "Kabul." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume IV." New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978. ISBN 90-04-05745-5
    Davies, C. Collin. "Arghun." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I." New. Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. ISBN 90-04-08114-3
    Memoirs of Zehīr-ed-dīn Muhammed Bābur, Emperor of Hindustan.Trans. John Leyden & William Erskine. Annotated and edited by Lucas King. London: 1826.
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