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  2. Aristotle Philosophy | Simply Philosophy

    simplyphilosophy.org/topic/aristotle

    Aristotle Philosophy Aristotle was a classical Greek philosopher taught by Plato. He continued the same project of philosophy that Plato was doing, but believed that he was correcting many of Plato’s errors. He wrote on many subjects including science, logic, philosophy, politics and ethics.

  3. Aristotle (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

    plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle
    • Aristotle’s Life
    • The Aristotelian Corpus: Character and Primary Divisions
    • Phainomena and The Endoxic Method
    • Logic, Science, and Dialectic
    • Essentialism and Homonymy
    • Category Theory
    • The Four Causal Account of Explanatory Adequacy
    • Hylomorphism
    • Aristotelian Teleology
    • Substance

    Born in 384 B.C.E. in the Macedonian region of northeastern Greece in thesmall city of Stagira (whence the moniker ‘the Stagirite’),Aristotle was sent to Athens at about the age of seventeen to study inPlato’s Academy, then a pre-eminent place of learning in theGreek world. Once in Athens, Aristotle remained associated withthe Academy until Plato’s death in 347, at which time he left forAssos, in Asia Minor, on the northwest coast of present-dayTurkey. There he continued the philosophical activity he hadbegun in the Academy, but in all likelihood also began to expand hisresearches into marine biology. He remained at Assos forapproximately three years, when, evidently upon the death of his hostHermeias, a friend and former Academic who had been the ruler of Assos,Aristotle moved to the nearby coastal island of Lesbos. There hecontinued his philosophical and empirical researches for an additionaltwo years, working in conjunction with Theophrastus, a native of Lesboswho was also report...

    Aristotle’s writings tend to present formidable difficulties tohis novice readers. To begin, he makes heavy use of unexplainedtechnical terminology, and his sentence structure can at times provefrustrating. Further, on occasion a chapter or even a fulltreatise coming down to us under his name appears haphazardlyorganized, if organized at all; indeed, in several cases, scholarsdispute whether a continuous treatise currently arranged under a singletitle was ever intended by Aristotle to be published in its presentform or was rather stitched together by some later editor employingwhatever principles of organization he deemed suitable.[4]This helps explain whystudents who turn to Aristotle after first being introduced to thesupple and mellifluous prose on display in Plato’s dialoguesoften find the experience frustrating. Aristotle’s proserequires some acclimatization. All the more puzzling, then, is Cicero’s observation that ifPlato’s prose was silver, Aristotle’s was a flowing riverof...

    Aristotle’s basic approach to philosophy is best grasped initially byway of contrast. Whereas Descartes seeks to place philosophy andscience on firm foundations by subjecting all knowledge claims to asearing methodological doubt, Aristotle begins with the convictionthat our perceptual and cognitive faculties are basically dependable,that they for the most part put us into direct contact with thefeatures and divisions of our world, and that we need not dally withsceptical postures before engaging in substantive philosophy.Accordingly, he proceeds in all areas of inquiry in the manner of amodern-day natural scientist, who takes it for granted that progressfollows the assiduous application of a well-trained mind and so, whenpresented with a problem, simply goes to work. When he goes to work,Aristotle begins by considering how the world appears, reflecting onthe puzzles those appearances throw up, and reviewing what has beensaid about those puzzles to date. These methods comprise his tw...

    Aristotle’s reliance on endoxa takes on a still greatersignificance given the role such opinions play in dialectic,which he regards as an important form of non-scientificreasoning. Dialectic, like science(epistêmê), trades in logical inference; butscience requires premises of a sort beyond the scope of ordinarydialectical reasoning. Whereas science relies upon premises whichare necessary and known to be so, a dialectical discussion can proceedby relying on endoxa, and so can claim only to be as secure asthe endoxaupon which it relies. This is not a problem,suggests Aristotle, since we often reason fruitfully and well incircumstances where we cannot claim to have attained scientificunderstanding. Minimally, however, allreasoning—whether scientific or dialectical—must respectthe canons of logic and inference.

    However we arrive at secure principles in philosophy and science,whether by some process leading to a rational grasping of necessarytruths, or by sustained dialectical investigation operating overjudiciously selected endoxa, it does turn out, according toAristotle, that we can uncover and come to know genuinely necessaryfeatures of reality. Such features, suggests Aristotle, are thosecaptured in the essence-specifying definitions used in science (againin the broad sense of epistêmê). Aristotle’s commitment to essentialism runs deep. Herelies upon a host of loosely related locutions when discussing theessences of things, and these give some clue to his generalorientation. Among the locutions one finds rendered asessence in contemporary translations of Aristotle into Englishare: (i) to ti esti (the what it is); (ii) to einai(being); (iii) ousia (being); (iv) hoper esti (preciselywhat something is) and, most importantly, (v) to ti êneinai (the what it was to be) (APo 83a7; Top.141b35;...

    In speaking of beings which depend upon substance for their existence,Aristotle implicitly appeals to a foundational philosophical commitmentwhich appears early in his thought and remains stable throughout hisentire philosophical career: his theory of categories. In what isusually regarded as an early work, The Categories, Aristotlerather abruptly announces: Aristotle does little to frame his theory of categories, offering noexplicit derivation of it, nor even specifying overtly what his theoryof categories categorizes. If librarians categorize books andbotanists categorize plants, then what does the philosophical categorytheorist categorize? Aristotle does not say explicitly, but his examples make reasonablyclear that he means to categorize the basic kinds of beings there maybe. If we again take some clues from linguistic data, withoutinferring that the ultimate objects of categorization are themselveslinguistic, we can contrast things said “withcombination”: 1. Man runs. with thin...

    Equally central to Aristotle’s thought is his four-causalexplanatory scheme. Judged in terms of its influence, thisdoctrine is surely one of his most significant philosophicalcontributions. Like other philosophers, Aristotle expects theexplanations he seeks in philosophy and science to meet certaincriteria of adequacy. Unlike some other philosophers, however, hetakes care to state his criteria for adequacy explicitly; then, havingdone so, he finds frequent fault with his predecessors for failing tomeet its terms. He states his scheme in a methodological passagein the second book of his Physics: Although some of Aristotle’s illustrations are not immediatelypellucid, his approach to explanation is reasonablystraightforward. Aristotle’s attitude towards explanation is best understoodfirst by considering a simple example he proposes in Physicsii 3. A bronze statue admits of various different dimensions ofexplanation. If we were to confront a statue without firstrecognizing what it was,...

    Central to Aristotle’s four-causal account of explanatoryadequacy are the notions of matter (hulê) andform (eidos or morphê). Together, theyconstitute one of his most fundamental philosophical commitments, tohylomorphism: 1. Hylomorphism =dfordinary objects are composites of matter and form. The appeal in this definition to ‘ordinary objects’requires reflection, but as a first approximation, it serves to rely onthe sorts of examples Aristotle himself employs when motivatinghylomorphism: statues and houses, horses and humans. In general,we may focus on artefacts and familiar living beings. Hylomorphism holds that no such object is metaphysically simple, butrather comprises two distinct metaphysical elements, one formal and onematerial. Aristotle’s hylomorphism was formulated originally to handlevarious puzzles about change. Among the endoxaconfronting Aristotle in his Physics are some strikingchallenges to the coherence of the very notion of change, owing to Parmenides and Zeno. Aris...

    We may mainly pass over as uncontroversial the suggestion that thereare efficient causes in favor of the most controversial and difficultof Aristotle four causes, the final cause.[19]We should note before doing so, however, that Aristotle’s commitmentto efficient causation does receive a defense in Aristotle’s preferredterminology; he thus does more than many other philosophers who takeit as given that causes of an efficient sort are operative. Partly byway of criticizing Plato’s theory of Forms, which he regards asinadequate because of its inability to account for change andgeneration, Aristotle observes that nothing potential can bring itselfinto actuality without the agency of an actually operative efficientcause. Since what is potential is always in potentiality relative tosome range of actualities, and nothing becomes actual of its ownaccord—no pile of bricks, for instance, spontaneously organizesitself into a house or a wall—an actually operative agent isrequired for every ins...

    Once Aristotle has his four-causal explanatory schema fully on thescene, he relies upon it in virtually all of his most advancedphilosophical investigation. As he deploys it in variousframeworks, we find him augmenting and refining the schema even as heapplies it, sometimes with surprising results. One importantquestion concerns how his hylomorphism intersects with the theory ofsubstance advanced in the context of his theory of categories. As we have seen, Aristotle insists upon the primacy of primarysubstance in his Categories. According to that work, however,star instances of primary substance are familiar living beings likeSocrates or an individual horse (Cat. 2a11014). Yet with theadvent of hylomorphism, these primary substances are revealed to bemetaphysical complexes: Socrates is a compound of matter and form. So,now we have not one but three potential candidates for primarysubstance: form, matter, and the compound of matter and form. Thequestion thus arises: which among them...

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  4. Aristotle - Philosophy & Life - HISTORY

    www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/aristotle
    • Aristotle’s Early Life. Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in Stagira in northern Greece. Both of his parents were members of traditional medical families, and his father, Nicomachus, served as court physician to King Amyntus III of Macedonia.
    • Aristotle and the Lyceum. Aristotle returned to Athens in 335 B.C. As an alien, he couldn’t own property, so he rented space in the Lyceum, a former wrestling school outside the city.
    • Aristotle’s Works. It was at the Lyceum that Aristotle probably composed most of his approximately 200 works, of which only 31 survive. In style, his known works are dense and almost jumbled, suggesting that they were lecture notes for internal use at his school.
    • The Organon. “The Organon” (Latin for “instrument”) is a series of Aristotle’s works on logic (what he himself would call analytics) put together around 40 B.C.
  5. Aristotle's Philosophy (Summary)

    www.the-philosophy.com/aristotles-philosophy-summary

    Apr 12, 2012 · Aristotle is one of the most famous Greek philosophers. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato and was first reverent to him then very critical, about Plato’s theory of ideas for example. His own work lies mainly in. Physics, Metaphysics, Ethics, Rhetoric, Poetics. Researcher and professor at the time, Aristotle has systematized all knowledge of his time.

    • Life
    • Writings
    • Logic
    • Metaphysics
    • Philosophy of Nature
    • The Soul and Psychology
    • Ethics
    • Politics
    • Art and Poetics

    Aristotle was born in 384 BCE at Stagirus, a now extinct Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace. His father Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia, and from this began Aristotle's long association with the Macedonian Court, which considerably influenced his life. While he was still a boy his father died. At age 17 his guardian, Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the intellectual center of the world, to complete his education. He joined the Academy and studied under P...

    It is reported that Aristotle's writings were held by his student Theophrastus, who had succeeded Aristotle in leadership of the Peripatetic School. Theophrastus's library passed to his pupil Neleus. To protect the books from theft, Neleus's heirs concealed them in a vault, where they were damaged somewhat by dampness, moths and worms. In this hiding place they were discovered about 100 BCE by Apellicon, a rich book lover, and brought to Athens. They were later taken to Rome after the capture...

    Aristotle's writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon, or instrument. From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term \\"logic\\" as equivalent to verbal reasoning. The Categories of Aristotle are classifications of individual words (as opposed to sentences or propositions), and include the following ten: substance, quantity, quality,...

    Aristotle's editors gave the name \\"Metaphysics\\" to his works on first philosophy, either because they went beyond or followed after his physical investigations. Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy. For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction. The earliest speculators (i.e. Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander) were philosophers of n...

    Aristotle sees the universe as a scale lying between the two extremes: form without matter is on one end, and matter without form is on the other end. The passage of matter into form must be shown in its various stages in the world of nature. To do this is the object of Aristotle's physics, or philosophy of nature. It is important to keep in mind that the passage from form to matter within nature is a movement towards ends or purposes. Everything in nature has its end and function, and nothin...

    Soul is defined by Aristotle as the perfect expression or realization of a natural body. From this definition it follows that there is a close connection between psychological states, and physiological processes. Body and soul are unified in the same way that wax and an impression stamped on it are unified. Metaphysicians before Aristotle discussed the soul abstractly without any regard to the bodily environment; this, Aristotle believes, was a mistake. At the same time, Aristotle regards the...

    Ethics, as viewed by Aristotle, is an attempt to find out our chief end or highest good: an end which he maintains is really final. Though many ends of life are only means to further ends, our aspirations and desires must have some final object or pursuit. Such a chief end is universally called happiness. But people mean such different things by the expression that he finds it necessary to discuss the nature of it for himself. For starters, happiness must be based on human nature, and must be...

    Aristotle does not regard politics as a separate science from ethics, but as the completion, and almost a verification of it. The moral ideal in political administration is only a different aspect of that which also applies to individual happiness. Humans are by nature social beings, and the possession of rational speech (logos) in itself leads us to social union. The state is a development from the family through the village community, an offshoot of the family. Formed originally for the sat...

    Art is defined by Aristotle as the realization in external form of a true idea, and is traced back to that natural love of imitation which characterizes humans, and to the pleasure which we feel in recognizing likenesses. Art however is not limited to mere copying. It idealizes nature and completes its deficiencies: it seeks to grasp the universal type in the individual phenomenon. The distinction therefore between poetic art and history is not that the one uses meter, and the other does not....

  6. Aristotle | Life, Works, Doctrines, & Facts | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Aristotle

    Aristotle’s thought was original, profound, wide-ranging, and systematic. It eventually became the intellectual framework of Western Scholasticism, the system of philosophical assumptions and problems characteristic of philosophy in western Europe during the Middle Ages.

    • What did Aristotle do?
      Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived and the first genuine scientist in history. He made pioneering contributions to all f...
    • Where did Aristotle live?
      After his father died about 367 BCE, Aristotle journeyed to Athens, where he joined the Academy of Plato. He left the Academy upon Plato’s death ab...
    • Who were Aristotle’s teachers and students?
      Aristotle’s most famous teacher was Plato (c. 428–c. 348 BCE), who himself had been a student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE). Socrates, Plato, and Ar...
    • How many works did Aristotle write?
      Aristotle wrote as many as 200 treatises and other works covering all areas of philosophy and science. Of those, none survives in finished form. Th...
    • How did Aristotle influence subsequent philosophy and science?
      Aristotle’s thought was original, profound, wide-ranging, and systematic. It eventually became the intellectual framework of Western Scholasticism,...
  7. Aristotle - Philosophy

    www.allaboutphilosophy.org/aristotle.htm

    Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was the notable philosopher whose writings greatly influenced the entire course of ancient and medieval philosophy. Indeed, his words are avidly discussed and studied by students of philosophy today. He was born in Stagira of Macedonia in 384 BC.

  8. Aristotle - Philosophy of mind | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/.../Aristotle/Philosophy-of-mind

    Philosophy of mind Aristotle regarded psychology as a part of natural philosophy, and he wrote much about the philosophy of mind. This material appears in his ethical writings, in a systematic treatise on the nature of the soul (De anima), and in a number of minor monographs on topics such as sense-perception, memory, sleep, and dreams.

  9. Aristotle - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle

    Aristotle's "natural philosophy" spans a wide range of natural phenomena including those now covered by physics, biology and other natural sciences. In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and ...

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