The Austronesian languages (/ ˌ ɒ s t r oʊ ˈ n iː ʒ ən /, / ˌ ɒ s t r ə /, / ˌ ɔː s t r oʊ-/, / ˌ ɔː s t r ə-/) are a language family, widely spoken throughout the Malay Peninsula, Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese aborigines).
- List of Major and Official Austronesian Languages
This is a list of major and official Austronesian languages,...
- Proto-Austronesian Language
Proto-Austronesian (commonly abbreviated as PAN or PAn) is a...
- List of Major and Official Austronesian Languages
Places where Austronesian languages are spoken are colored pink. The Austronesian languages are a language family . They were originally spoken in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean .
- Comparison Chart
- Hypothesized Relations
- Writing Systems
- See Also
It is difficult to make generalizations about the languages that make up a family as diverse as Austronesian. Very broadly, one can divide the Austronesian languages into three groups: Philippine-type languages, Indonesian-type languages and post-Indonesian type languages (Ross 2002): 1. The first group includes, besides the languages of the Philippines, the Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Sabah, North Sulawesi and Madagascar. It is primarily characterized by the retention of the original system of Philippine-type voice alternations, where typically three or four verb voices determine which semantic role the "subject"/"topic" expresses (it may express either the actor, the patient, the location and the beneficiary, or various other circumstantial roles such as instrument and concomitant). The phenomenon has frequently been referred to as focus (not to be confused with the usual sense of that term in linguistics). Furthermore, the choice of voice is influence...
The Austronesian language family has been established by the linguistic comparative method on the basis of cognate sets, sets of words similar in sound and meaning which can be shown to be descended from the same ancestral word in Proto-Austronesian according to regular rules. Some cognate sets are very stable. The word for eye in many Austronesian languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori). Other words are harder to reconstruct. The word for two is also stable, in that it appears over the entire range of the Austronesian family, but the forms (e.g. Bunun dusa; Amis tusa; Māori rua) require some linguistic expertise to recognise. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Databasegives word lists (coded for cognateness) for approximately 1000 Austronesian languages.
The internal structure of the Austronesian languages is complex. The family consists of many similar and closely related languages with large numbers of dialect continua, making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. However, it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found among the Formosan languages of Taiwan, and the least diversity among the islands of the Pacific, supporting a dispersal of the family from Taiwan or China. The first comprehensive classification to reflect this was Dyen (1965). The seminal article in the classification of Formosan—and, by extension, the top-level structure of Austronesian—is Blust (1999). Prominent Formosanists (linguists who specialize in Formosan languages) take issue with some of its details, but it remains the point of reference for current linguistic analyses, and is shown below. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are frequently in...
Below is a chart comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu.
The protohistory of the Austronesian people can be traced farther back through time than can that of the Proto-Austronesian language. From the standpoint of historical linguistics, the home (in linguistic terminology, Urheimat) of the Austronesian languages is the main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa; on this island the deepest divisions in Austronesian are found, among the families of the native Formosan languages. According to Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten primary branches of the Austronesian language family (Blust 1999). Comrie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote: At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have generally accepted that the chronology of the dispersal of languages within a given language family can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least. For example, English in North America has large numbers of speakers, but relatively low dia...
Genealogical links have been proposed between Austronesian and various families of East and Southeast Asia.
Most Austronesian languages have Latin-based writing systems today. Some non-Latin-based writing systems are listed below. 1. Brahmi script 1.1. Kawi script 1.1.1. Balinese alphabet - used to write Balinese and Sasak. 1.1.2. Batak alphabet - used to write several Batak languages. 1.1.3. Baybayin - used to write Tagalog and several Philippine languages. 1.1.4. Bima alphabet - once used to write the Bima language. 1.1.5. Buhid alphabet - used to write Buhid language. 1.1.6. Hanunó'o alphabet - used to write Hanuno'o language. 1.1.7. Javanese alphabet - used to write the Javanese language and several neighbouring languages like Madurese. 1.1.8. Kerinci alphabet (Kaganga) - used to write the Kerinci language. 1.1.9. Kulitan alphabet - used to write the Kapampangan language. 1.1.10. Lampung alphabet - used to write Lampung and Komering. 1.1.11. Lontara alphabet - used to write the Buginese, Makassarese and several languages of Sulawesi. 1.1.12. Sundanese alphabet - used to write t...
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Austronesian peoples is a term referring to people that live in Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar, who are speakers of the Austronesian languages. They are thought to have originally come from the indigenous peoples of Taiwan .
Sino-Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian is a proposed language family suggested by Laurent Sagart in 1990. Using reconstructions of Old Chinese, Sagart argued that the Austronesian languages are related to the Sinitic languages phonologically, lexically and morphologically.
The term "Austronesian", or more accurately "Austronesian-speaking peoples", came to refer the people who speak the languages of the Austronesian language family.Some authors, however, object to the use of the term to refer to people, as they question whether there really is any biological or cultural shared ancestry between all Austronesian-speaking groups.
- c. 260.6 million (2016)
- c. 855,000 (2006)
- c. 24 million (2016)
- c. 100.9 million (2015)
Austronesian languages From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with Austroasiatic languages. Austronesian Ethnicity Austronesian peoples Geographic distribution Malay Peninsula, Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, parts of Mainland Southeast Asia, Oceania, Easter Island, Taiwan and Hainan ...
Austronesian languages, formerly Malayo-Polynesian languages, family of languages spoken in most of the Indonesian archipelago; all of the Philippines, Madagascar, and the island groups of the Central and South Pacific (except for Australia and much of New Guinea); much of Malaysia; and scattered areas of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Taiwan.