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  1. Austronesian languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Austronesian_languages

    The Austronesian languages (/ ˌ ɒ s t r oʊ ˈ n iː ʒ ən /, / ˌ ɒ s t r ə /, / ˌ ɔː s t r oʊ-/, / ˌ ɔː s t r ə-/) are a language family, widely spoken throughout the Malay Peninsula, Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese aborigines).

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  2. Austronesian languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Austronesian_languages

    Places where Austronesian languages are spoken are colored pink. The Austronesian languages are a language family . They were originally spoken in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean .

  3. Austronesian languages — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Austronesian_languages
    • Structure
    • Lexicon
    • Classification
    • Comparison Chart
    • History
    • Hypothesized Relations
    • Writing Systems
    • See Also

    It is dif­fi­cult to make gen­er­al­iza­tions about the lan­guages that make up a fam­ily as di­verse as Aus­trone­sian. Very broadly, one can di­vide the Aus­trone­sian lan­guages into three groups: Philip­pine-type lan­guages, In­done­sian-type lan­guages and post-In­done­sian type lan­guages (Ross 2002): 1. The first group includes, besides the languages of the Philippines, the Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Sabah, North Sulawesi and Madagascar. It is primarily characterized by the retention of the original system of Philippine-type voice alternations, where typically three or four verb voices determine which semantic role the "subject"/"topic" expresses (it may express either the actor, the patient, the location and the beneficiary, or various other circumstantial roles such as instrument and concomitant). The phenomenon has frequently been referred to as focus (not to be confused with the usual sense of that term in linguistics). Furthermore, the choice of voice is influence...

    The Aus­trone­sian lan­guage fam­ily has been es­tab­lished by the lin­guis­tic com­par­a­tive method on the basis of cog­nate sets, sets of words sim­i­lar in sound and mean­ing which can be shown to be de­scended from the same an­ces­tral word in Proto-Aus­trone­sian ac­cord­ing to reg­u­lar rules. Some cog­nate sets are very sta­ble. The word for eye in many Aus­trone­sian lan­guages is mata (from the most northerly Aus­trone­sian lan­guages, For­mosan lan­guages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori). Other words are harder to re­con­struct. The word for two is also sta­ble, in that it ap­pears over the en­tire range of the Aus­trone­sian fam­ily, but the forms (e.g. Bunun dusa; Amis tusa; Māori rua) re­quire some lin­guis­tic ex­per­tise to recog­nise. The Aus­trone­sian Basic Vo­cab­u­lary Data­basegives word lists (coded for cog­nate­ness) for ap­prox­i­mately 1000 Aus­trone­sian lan­guages.

    The in­ter­nal struc­ture of the Aus­trone­sian lan­guages is com­plex. The fam­ily con­sists of many sim­i­lar and closely re­lated lan­guages with large num­bers of di­alect con­tinua, mak­ing it dif­fi­cult to rec­og­nize bound­aries be­tween branches. How­ever, it is clear that the great­est ge­nealog­i­cal di­ver­sity is found among the For­mosan lan­guages of Tai­wan, and the least di­ver­sity among the is­lands of the Pa­cific, sup­port­ing a dis­per­sal of the fam­ily from Tai­wan or China. The first com­pre­hen­sive clas­si­fi­ca­tion to re­flect this was Dyen (1965). The sem­i­nal ar­ti­cle in the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of For­mosan—and, by ex­ten­sion, the top-level struc­ture of Aus­trone­sian—is Blust (1999). Promi­nent For­mosanists (lin­guists who spe­cial­ize in For­mosan lan­guages) take issue with some of its de­tails, but it re­mains the point of ref­er­ence for cur­rent lin­guis­tic analy­ses, and is shown below. The Malayo-Poly­ne­sian lan­guages are fre­quently in­...

    Below is a chart com­par­ing list of num­bers of 1-10 and thir­teen words in Aus­trone­sian lan­guages; spo­ken in Tai­wan, the Philip­pines, the Mar­i­ana Is­lands, In­done­sia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thai­land, Cam­bo­dia, and Viet­nam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Mada­gas­car, Bor­neo and Tu­valu.

    The pro­to­his­tory of the Aus­trone­sian peo­ple can be traced far­ther back through time than can that of the Proto-Aus­trone­sian lan­guage. From the stand­point of his­tor­i­cal lin­guis­tics, the home (in lin­guis­tic ter­mi­nol­ogy, Urheimat) of the Aus­trone­sian lan­guages is the main is­land of Tai­wan, also known as For­mosa; on this is­land the deep­est di­vi­sions in Aus­trone­sian are found, among the fam­i­lies of the na­tive For­mosan lan­guages. Ac­cord­ing to Robert Blust, the For­mosan lan­guages form nine of the ten pri­mary branches of the Aus­trone­sian lan­guage fam­ily (Blust 1999). Com­rie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote: At least since Sapir (1968), lin­guists have gen­er­ally ac­cepted that the chronol­ogy of the dis­per­sal of lan­guages within a given lan­guage fam­ily can be traced from the area of great­est lin­guis­tic va­ri­ety to that of the least. For ex­am­ple, Eng­lish in North Amer­ica has large num­bers of speak­ers, but rel­a­tively low di­a...

    Ge­nealog­i­cal links have been pro­posed be­tween Aus­trone­sian and var­i­ous fam­i­lies of East and South­east Asia.

    Most Aus­trone­sian lan­guages have Latin-based writ­ing sys­tems today. Some non-Latin-based writ­ing sys­tems are listed below. 1. Brahmi script 1.1. Kawi script 1.1.1. Balinese alphabet - used to write Balinese and Sasak. 1.1.2. Batak alphabet - used to write several Batak languages. 1.1.3. Baybayin - used to write Tagalog and several Philippine languages. 1.1.4. Bima alphabet - once used to write the Bima language. 1.1.5. Buhid alphabet - used to write Buhid language. 1.1.6. Hanunó'o alphabet - used to write Hanuno'o language. 1.1.7. Javanese alphabet - used to write the Javanese language and several neighbouring languages like Madurese. 1.1.8. Kerinci alphabet (Kaganga) - used to write the Kerinci language. 1.1.9. Kulitan alphabet - used to write the Kapampangan language. 1.1.10. Lampung alphabet - used to write Lampung and Komering. 1.1.11. Lontara alphabet - used to write the Buginese, Makassarese and several languages of Sulawesi. 1.1.12. Sundanese alphabet - used to write t...

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  5. Austronesian peoples - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Austronesian_peoples

    Austronesian peoples is a term referring to people that live in Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar, who are speakers of the Austronesian languages. They are thought to have originally come from the indigenous peoples of Taiwan .

  6. Sino-Austronesian languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Sino-Austronesian_languages

    Sino-Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian is a proposed language family suggested by Laurent Sagart in 1990. Using reconstructions of Old Chinese, Sagart argued that the Austronesian languages are related to the Sinitic languages phonologically, lexically and morphologically.

  7. Austronesian peoples - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Austronesian_peoples

    The term "Austronesian", or more accurately "Austronesian-speaking peoples", came to refer the people who speak the languages of the Austronesian language family.Some authors, however, object to the use of the term to refer to people, as they question whether there really is any biological or cultural shared ancestry between all Austronesian-speaking groups.

    • c. 260.6 million (2016)
    • c. 855,000 (2006)
    • c. 24 million (2016)
    • c. 100.9 million (2015)
  8. Austronesian languages From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with Austroasiatic languages. Austronesian Ethnicity Austronesian peoples Geographic distribution Malay Peninsula, Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, parts of Mainland Southeast Asia, Oceania, Easter Island, Taiwan and Hainan ...

  9. Austronesian languages | Origin, History, Language Map ...

    www.britannica.com › topic › Austronesian-languages

    Austronesian languages, formerly Malayo-Polynesian languages, family of languages spoken in most of the Indonesian archipelago; all of the Philippines, Madagascar, and the island groups of the Central and South Pacific (except for Australia and much of New Guinea); much of Malaysia; and scattered areas of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Taiwan.

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