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A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them.
- Types of Automobiles
The word "automobile" comes from the Greek prefix "αυτό" (self) and the Latin word "mobilis" (moving). This name means "self-moving", as cars run on their own power and do not need horsesor other power from outside to move.
Automobiles are made in different shapes and sizes, for people with different needs. Here are some common types. 1. A convertible is an automobile with a roof that can be opened or taken off for an open-air drive. Sportier convertibles are called roadsters. 2. A hatchback is a smaller automobile with a cargo area that uses the same space as the cabin (instead of a separate trunk like in a sedan or coupé). They combine the sportiness of coupés and sedans with the storage space of SUVs. 2.1. A station wagon (estate car in British English) is a hatchback-like automobile that has a less sloped rear window and more space for passengers and luggage. 3. A pickup truck is a truck with a separate cabin and cargo area on a ladder frame. The cargo area is called the "bed". 4. A sedan (saloon in British English) is an automobile with a sloped rear window and separate trunk that has four doors. 4.1. A coupé (coupe in American English) is like a sedan, but usually only has two doors and is seen a...
To make an automobile move, it must have energy to turn the wheels. This energy might be chemical energy in gasoline or electrical energy in a battery. How quickly the engine or motor can send the energy to the wheels, and how much energy is sent, is called the power of the motor. The power of an automobile is usually measured in kilowatts or horsepower.
The earliest recorded automobiles were actually steam engines attached to wagons in the late 18th century. The steam engines were heavy, making these wagons slow and hard to control. Better and faster steam automobiles became common late in the 19th century. Some automobiles in the early 20th century were powered by electricity. They were slow and heavy and went out of use until the idea came back later in the century. The internal combustion engine changed the way many automobiles were powered. The engine used either gasoline, diesel, or kerosene to work. When the fuel is exploded in a cylinder it pushes the piston down and turns the wheels. Although many people tried to make a good automobile that would work and sell well, people say that Karl Benz invented the modern automobile. He used a four-stroke type of internal combustion engine to power his Benz Patent-Motorwagenin 1886. He began to make many automobiles in a factory and sell them in Germany in 1888. In North America, the...
Buying and running a automobile needs a lot of money, especially for newer good-quality automobiles. There are things to pay for — the automobile itself, fuel, parts (for example, tyres), maintenance, repairs, insurance to cover the cost of crashes or theft, parking charges, and toll roads and any taxes or licensing fees charged by the government. When automobiles crash, they can become damaged and hurt people, and the life of a person is more important than keeping a automobile from damage. When too many automobiles try to go the same way, traffic congestion slows them all. Automobiles can cause air pollution if too many are used in a small area like a city, and the combined pollution of the world's automobiles is partly to blame for climate change. Many places where people live close together have public transportation such as buses, trains, trams and subways. These can help people go more quickly and cheaply than by automobile when traffic jams are a problem. Some of these proble...
History of the automobile. Development started as early as the 17th century with the invention of the first steam-powered vehicle, which led to the creation of the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation, built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769.
- Early Pioneers
- Evolution of The Automobile
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In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of transporting people was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.
This is the period starts with the car made by Karl Benz in 1885. There were earlier inventions that used mainly steam-power to move the vehicles but the Benz car was the first to use a gasoline powered internal combustion engine in what could be called an automobile. The period goes up to the start of the production of Henry Ford's Model T.
This period dates from 1908 to 1914 and the beginning of World War I. While earlier designs were more ornamental, vehicles from this period are simpler and more affordable. It is the time when hundreds of smaller automobile manufacturers were trying to compete for attention and sales. A number of improvements were developed during this time. These include the electric ignition system, four-wheel brakes and the independent suspension. Transmissions were adopted. Along with throttlecontrols, th...
From about 1920 to 1930, car manufacturers began creating a closed body on the vehicle. This protected the driver and passengers from the weather. Vehicles began using curved glass and the new enclosed bodies gave a sense of privacy. Heaters were added for comfort. Many of the features of modern cars came from this period. These include four-wheel drive, front-wheel drive, and hybrid electric vehicles. Safety glass protected those inside the car from sharp glass in cases of an accident.By the...
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- Size categories
- Body style categories
- Crossover-styled cars
A crossover, crossover SUV, or crossover utility vehicle is a type of sport utility vehicle-like vehicle built with unibody frame construction. Crossovers are often based on a platform shared with a passenger car, as opposed to a platform shared with a pickup truck. Because of that, crossovers may also be referred as "car-based SUVs". Compared to truck-based SUVs, they typically have better interior comfort, a more comfortable ride, superior fuel economy, and lower manufacturing costs, but also
The difference between crossover SUVs and other SUVs is generally defined by journalists and manufacturers as a crossover being built using a unibody platform, while an SUV is built using a body-on-frame platform. However, these definitions are often blurred in practice, since unibody vehicles are also often referred to as SUVs. "Crossover" is a relatively recent term, and early unibody SUVs are rarely called crossovers. Due to these inconsistencies, the term "SUV" is often used as an umbrella t
Introduced in 1979, the AMC Eagle is retroactively considered to be the first dedicated crossover automobile that made its debut prior to the terms "SUV" or "crossover" being coined. The mass-market Eagle model line was based on a unibody passenger car platform, with fully automatic four-wheel drive and a raised ride height.
Depending on the market, crossovers are divided into several size categories. Since there is an absence of any official distinction, often times the size category might be ambiguous for some crossover models. Several aspects needed to determine the size category of a vehicle may include length/width dimensions, positioning in its respective brand line-up, platform, and interior space.
While a three-door body-on-frame SUV are not uncommon, crossover SUVs with three doors are more rare in contrast. The decline of two or three-door vehicles in general have led to the disappearance of this category.
Crossover SUVs with a sloping rear roofline may be marketed as a "coupé crossover SUV" or "coupé SUV". Although coupé itself supposed to mean a passenger car with a sloping or truncated rear roofline and two or three doors, every coupé crossover SUV is equipped with five ...
There are several notable convertible crossover SUVs entering mass production, including the first of its kind which is the Toyota RAV4 soft top convertible. Released in North America for the 1998 model year, it was only offered up to 1999 model year. Other examples include the N
Some manufacturers have been capitalizing the SUV boom by offering a version of station wagons, hatchbacks or MPVs with a raised ride height and the addition of rugged-looking accessories such as black plastic wheel arch extension kit, body cladding, skid plates and roof rails. Due to its raised ground clearance, it may be marketed as more capable off-road. Some of them may also equipped with all-wheel-drive. This strategy has been used by manufacturers to move models upmarket, or to help fillin
GMC (formerly the General Motors Truck Company, or the GMC Truck & Coach Division (of General Motors Corporation), is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles. GMC currently makes SUVs, pickup trucks, vans, and light-duty trucks, catered to a premium-based market.
1240 – The Disputation of Paris, in which four rabbis defended the Talmud against Nicholas Donin's accusations of blasphemy, began in the court of King Louis IX.; 1775 – Thomas Gage, the governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, offered a general pardon to colonists who remained loyal to Britain.
Scion is a discontinued marque of Toyota that debuted in 2003. Intended to appeal to younger customers, the Scion brand emphasized inexpensive, stylish, and distinctive sport compact vehicles, and used a simplified "pure price" sales concept that eschewed traditional trim levels and dealer haggling; each vehicle was offered in a single trim with a non-negotiable base price, while a range of ...
- Mercury in Canada
- Brand Identity
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During the mid-1930s, Ford Motor Company was again in danger of being left at a competitive disadvantage to both of its largest competitors (despite the continuing success of its new V8-powered product line). In contrast to the comprehensive line of brands from General Motors (seven) and Chrysler Corporation (four), in 1935, Ford offered only its namesake brand and the cars of Lincoln Motor Company. One of the most expensive vehicles built and sold in the United States, the Lincoln Model K was rivaled in price by the Cadillac V-16, the Packard Eight and Duesenberg Model J. As a solution, Ford launched its own version of the 1920s General Motors Companion Make Program, leading the company to expand from two nameplates to five by the end of the decade. For 1936, Ford introduced the Lincoln-Zephyr sub-marque of Lincoln, giving the line a V12 car to compete against the LaSalle, Chrysler Airstream, and Packard One-Twenty. For 1938, Ford gained a sub-marque of its own with the higher-pric...
During the middle of the 20th century, the small dealership network of Ford Motor Company in Canadanecessitated some branding changes to attract buyers into showrooms. This was especially the case in smaller, rural communities in need of trucks, as these areas were served by either a Ford or a Lincoln-Mercury dealer, but rarely both. Mirroring General Motors in Canada, Monarch competed against Oldsmobile while Meteor competed against Pontiac; Mercury trucks competed against GMC. Following the demise of Edsel and its effects on the Lincoln-Mercury division, Ford largely integrated its model lines across the United States and Canada by the end of the 1960s.
The first logo of the Mercury brand was its namesake, the Roman god Mercury. Towards the early years of the brand, Mercury used its Roman namesake in a silhouette profile (with signature bowl hat with wings, as shown in the image). This logo was briefly revived for 2003–2004, used in the alloy wheel centers of the Mercury Marauder. In the mid-1950s, Mercury introduced "The Big M", the namesake letter with horizontal extensions at its bottom; at the time, Mercury was a prime sponsor of The Ed...
The Mercury styling of the brand is most commonly associated with a waterfall-style grille. First making an appearance in the 1946 Mercury Eight, the design was revived in the 1961–1964 Monterey/Colony Park. The design would reappear in the debut of the Mercury Cougar, as designers sought to differentiate the model from the Ford Mustang. During the 1970s, the vertical waterfall grille design was adapted by nearly all Mercury vehicles (except for the Capri and Comet). In 1986, as part of the i...
In 1957, Mercury introduced the Mercury Turnpike Cruiser, featuring a roofline with a retractable rear window. From 1958 to 1960, the feature made its return on the Continental Mark-series line, with a reverse-slant rear window (on both hardtops and convertibles). For 1963, Mercury reintroduced the feature as an option for the Monterey; to streamline production, elements of the window design were shared with Ford station wagons. From 1963 to 1966, the optional reverse-slant roofline with retr...
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