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  1. Early Slavs - Wikipedia › wiki › Early_Slavs

    The Slavic languages share a number of features with the Baltic languages (including the use of genitive case for the objects of negative sentences, Proto-Indo-European kʷ and other labialized velars), which may indicate a common Proto-Balto-Slavic phase in the development of those two linguistic branches of Indo-European.

  2. Germanic languages - Wikipedia › wiki › Germanic_language_family

    (Contrast, for example, the Balto-Slavic languages, which have largely kept the Indo-European pitch accent and consequently preserved much of the inherited morphology.) Icelandic and to a lesser extent modern German best preserve the Proto–Germanic inflectional system, with four noun cases, three genders, and well-marked verbs.

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  4. Infinitive - Wikipedia › wiki › Infinitive

    Balto-Slavic languages The infinitive in Russian usually ends in -t’ (ть) preceded by a thematic vowel , or -ti (ти), if not preceded by one; some verbs have a stem ending in a consonant and change the t to č’ , like *mogt’ → moč’ (*могть → мочь) "can".

  5. Pro-drop language - Wikipedia › wiki › Pro-drop_language

    These null-subject languages include most Romance languages (French is an exception) as well as all the Balto-Slavic languages. Colloquial and dialectal German , unlike the standard language, are also partially pro-drop; they typically allow deletion of the subject pronoun in main clauses without inversion , but not otherwise.

  6. Lithuanian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Lithuanian
    • History
    • Classification
    • Geographic Distribution
    • Orthography
    • Phonology
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • Old Lithuanian
    • See Also
    • References

    Among Indo-European languages, Lithuanian is extraordinarily conservative, retaining many archaic features otherwise found only in ancient languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. For this reason, it is one of the most important sources in the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language despite its late attestation (with the earliest texts dating only to c. 1500 AD). The phonology and especially the nominal morphology of Lithuanian is almost certainly the most conservative of any living Indo-European language,[2][3] although its verbal morphology is less conservative and may be exceeded by the conservatism of Modern Greek verbs, which maintain a number of archaic features lacking in Lithuanian, such as the synthetic aorist and mediopassiveforms. The Proto-Balto-Slavic languages branched off directly from Proto-Indo-European, then branched into Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic. Proto-Baltic branched off into Proto-West Baltic and Proto-East Baltic.[4] Baltic languages passed...

    Lithuanian is one of two living Baltic languages, along with Latvian. An earlier Baltic language, Old Prussian, was extinct by the 18th century; the other Western Baltic languages, Curonian and Sudovian, became extinct earlier. Some theories, such as that of Jānis Endzelīns, considered that the Baltic languages form their own distinct branch of the family of Indo-European languages, but the most widely accepted opinion is the one that suggests the union of Baltic and Slavic languages into a distinct sub-family of Balto-Slavic languages amongst the Indo-European family of languages. Such an opinion was first represented by the likes of August Schleicher, and to a certain extent, Antoine Meillet. Endzelīns thought that the similarity between Baltic and Slavic was explicable through language contact while Schleicher, Meillet and others argued for a genetic kinship between the two families. An attempt to reconcile the opposing stances was made by Jan Michał Rozwadowski. He proposed that...

    Lithuanian is spoken mainly in Lithuania. It is also spoken by ethnic Lithuanians living in today's Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, as well as by sizable emigrant communities in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, and Spain. 2,955,200 people in Lithuania (including 3,460 Tatars), or about 80% of the 1998 population, are native Lithuanian speakers; most Lithuanian inhabitants of other nationalities also speak Lithuanian to some extent. The total worldwide Lithuanian-speaking population is about 3,200,000.

    Template:IPA notice Lithuanian uses the Latin script supplemented with diacritics. It has 32 letters. In the collation order, y follows immediately after į (called i nosinė), because both y and į represent the same long vowel Template:IPAblink: In addition, the following digraphs are used, but are treated as sequences of two letters for collation purposes. The digraph ch represents a single sound, the velar fricative Template:IPAblink, while dz and džare pronounced like straightforward combinations of their component letters (sounds): Dz dz Template:IPAblink (dzė), Dž dž Template:IPAblink (džė), Ch ch Template:IPAblink(cha). The Lithuanian writing system is largely phonemic, i.e., one letter usually corresponds to a single phoneme (sound). There are a few exceptions: for example, the letter i represents either the vowel Template:IPAblink, as in the English sit, or is silent and merely indicates that the preceding consonant is palatalized. The latter is largely the case when i occurs...


    All Lithuanian consonants except /j/ have two variants: the non-palatalized one represented by the IPA symbols in the chart, and the palatalized one (i.e., /b/ – /bʲ/, /d/ – /dʲ/, /ɡ/ – /ɡʲ/, and so on). The consonants /f/, /x/, /ɣ/ and their palatalized variants are only found in loanwords. Consonants preceding the front vowels /ɪ/, /iː/, /ɛ/, /æː/ and /eː/, as well as any palatalized consonant or /j/ are always moderately palatalized (a feature Lithuanian has in common with the Polish, Bela...


    Lithuanian has six long vowels and five short ones (not including a disputed phoneme marked in brackets). Length has traditionally been considered the distinctive feature, though short vowels are also more centralized and long vowels more peripheral: The presence of a short mid front unrounded vowel [e̞] is disputed and this sound is not pronounced by many, if not most, speakers in favour of [ɛ]. In standard Lithuanian vowels [äː] and [ɐ] generally cannot be pronounced after any palatalized c...


    Lithuanian is traditionally described as having nine diphthongs, ai,au,ei,eu,oi,ou,ui,ie, anduo.However, some approaches (i.e., Schmalstieg 1982) treat them as vowel sequences rather than diphthongs; indeed, the longer component depends on the type of stress, whereas in diphthongs, the longer segment is fixed. Lithuanian long stressed syllables can have either a rising or a falling tone. In specialized literature, they are marked with a tilde [ ̃] or an acute accent [ ́] respectively. The ton...

    The Lithuanian language is a highly inflected languagein which the relationships between parts of speech and their roles in a sentence are expressed by numerous inflections. In Lithuanian, there are two grammatical genders for nouns – masculine and feminine, and there are three genders for adjectives, pronouns, numerals and participles: masculine, feminine and neuter. Every attribute has to follow the gender and the number of the noun. The neuter forms of other parts of speech are used with a subjectof an undefined gender (a pronoun, an infinitive etc.). There are twelve noun, five adjective, and one (masculine and feminine) participle declensions.[12] Nouns and other parts of nominal morphology are declined in seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. In older Lithuanian texts three additional varieties of the locative case are found: illative, adessive and allative. The most common are the illative, which still is used, mostly in...

    Indo-European vocabulary

    Lithuanian retains cognates to many words found in classical languages, such as Sanskrit and Latin. These words are descended from Proto-Indo-European. A few examples are the following: 1. Lith. and Skt. sūnus(son) 2. Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis(sheep) 3. Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhūmas and Lat. fumus(fumes, smoke) 4. Lith. antras and Skt. antaras(second, the other) 5. Lith. vilkas and Skt. vṛkas(wolf) 6. Lith. ratas and Lat. rota (wheel) and Skt. rathas(carriage). 7. Lith. senis and Lat. s...


    In a 1934 book entitled Die Germanismen des Litauischen. Teil I: Die deutschen Lehnwörter im Litauischen, K. Alminauskis found 2,770 loanwords, of which about 130 were of uncertain origin. The majority of the loanwords were found to have been derived from the Polish, Belarusian, and German languages, with some evidence that these languages all acquired the words from contacts and trade with Prussia during the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[13] Loanwords comprised about 20% of the vocabu...

    The language of the earliest Lithuanian writings, in the 16th and 17th centuries, is known as Old Lithuanianand differs in some significant respects from the Lithuanian of today. Besides the specific differences given below, it should be noted that nouns, verbs and adjectives still had separate endings for the dual number. The dual persists today in some dialects. Example:

  7. Bulgarian language - Wikipedia › wiki › Bulgarian_language

    Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts initially referred to this language as ѧзꙑкъ словѣньскъ, "the Slavic language".

  8. Proto-Indo-European language - Wikipedia › wiki › Proto-Indo-European_language

    Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages.

  9. Pitch-accent language - Wikipedia › wiki › Pitch_accent

    A pitch-accent language is a language that has word accents in which one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a contrasting pitch (linguistic tone) rather than by loudness, as in a stress-accent language.

  10. Small clause - Wikipedia › wiki › Small_clause

    Here, examples 1 and 2 show that adjectival small clauses are allowed to be raised to the matrix subject position (example 1 is in situ, and example 2 has been raised) but the same cannot be done to a verbal small clause in examples 3 and 4, where the * marks ungrammaticality. From this evidence, some linguists have theorized that the subjects ...

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