Bogislaw II, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (1187–1220) Miroslava of Pomerelia, Regent (1220–1226) Barnim I the Good, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (1220–1264), of Pomerania (1264–1278) Bogislaw IV, co-Duke of Pomerania (1278–c.1295) Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast (c.1295–1309) Matilda of Brandenburg, Regent of Pomerania (1278–1294)
Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania In the 1230s, the Margraviate of Brandenburg was ruled in common by two brothers of the House of Ascania, John I and Otto III, while the Duchy of Pomerania was partially divided and ruled by two cousins of the House of Pomerania, Wartislaw III of Pomerania-Demmin and Barnim I of Pomerania-Stettin.
Barnim VI: Son. 1405 - 1457: Wartislaw IX: Son. In Wolgast. 1405 - 1449: Barnim VII: Son of Barnim VI. In Gützkow. 1447 - 1449: Pommern-Wolgast absorbs the defunct Pommern-Stargard. Just two years later, in 1449, Pommern-Stolp is also absorbed. 1454 - 1466
1569 -- Pomeranian Duke Barnim IX resigns from his office and transfers his duchy to his nephew, Duke John Frederick. 1572 -- The Stettin trading house of the Loitz's goes bankrupt. 1573-1618 -- Life-span of Duke Phillip II, the throne's greatest promoter of arts and science.
The first written trace of the Pomeranian monarch is the 1046 mention of Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Siemomysl, duke of Pomeranians). The Chronicle of the Polish dukes written in 1113 by so called Gallus Anomynous mentions several dukes of Pomerania: Swantibor, Gniewomir, and an unnamed duke besieged in Kolobrzeg.
But Pomerania, which was populated by a Slavic tribe, had been independent for a long period before. About 995 was Pomerania conquered by Poland for the first time and it was thereafter struggling to retain as much of its autonomy as possible against Poland, Denmark and German states.
- German Settlement
- Pomerania-Demmin and Pomerania-Stettin
- Territorial Changes in The 13th Century
- Pomerania-Wolgast and -Stettin After The Partition of 1295
- Partition of Pomerania-Wolgast (1368–72): Pomerania-Wolgast and Pomerania-Stolp
- Between The Partition of 1368 and The Reunfication in 1478
- Bogislaw X Becomes Sole Ruler of The Duchy of Pomerania
- Protestant Reformation
- Partition of 1532: Pomerania-Stettin and Pomerania-Wolgast
In the 12th century, Poland, the Holy Roman Empire's Duchy of Saxony and Denmark conquered Pomerania, ending the tribal era.
Starting in the 12th century, Pomerania was settled with Germans in a process termed Ostsiedlung, that affected all medieval East Central and Eastern Europe. Except for the Pomerelian Kashubians and the Slovincians, the Wends were assimilated. Most towns and villages are dating back to this period.
In 1155, the duchy was partitioned in Pomerania-Demmin and Pomerania-Stettin.With short interruptions, this division lasted until 1264. Wartislaw I was murdered between 1134 and 1148 in Stolpe. His brother, Ratibor I of Schlawe-Stolp, founded Stolpe Abbey near this site and ruled Wartislaw's realm in place of his minor nephews, Bogislaw I and Casimir I. Ratibor died in 1155, and Wartislaw's sons agreed to co-rule the duchy from their residences Demmin (Casimir) and Stettin (Bogislaw). Except for the terra Kolberg, which was ruled as a co-dominion, they partitioned the duchy with Pomerania-Demmin comprising the upper Peene, Tollense, Dievenow and Rega areas, and Pomerania-Stettin comprising the Oder, Ihna and lower Peene areas. When Casimir I died in 1180, Bogislaw became the sole duke. Bogislaw I took his duchy as a fief from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) in 1181, and from the Danish king Canute VIin 1185. When he died in 1187, his two sons Casimir II and Bogislaw...
War with Brandenburg
During the reign of Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg and son of Albert I of Brandenburg (1100–1170), Brandenburg claimed sovereignty over Pomerania. Yet, in 1181, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I invested Duke Bogislaw I of the Griffin House of Pomerania with the Duchy of Slavia (Pomerania). This was not accepted by the Margraviate of Brandenburgand triggered several military conflicts. Between 1185 and 1227, Pomerania along with most of the southern Baltic coast remained under sovereignty of De...
War with Silesia
In 1234 and 1241, Silesian dukes Henry I and Henry II expanded their realm to the North, and even took control of areas north of the Warthe (Warta) river previously held by the Dukes of Pomerania. The Griffin dukes, Silesian Piasts, Dukes of Greater Poland, the bishops of Lebus and the bishops of Kammin all competed for the Warthe/Netze (Notec) area, centered around the burgh of Zantoch. Until 1250, Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania had recovered most of the previous Pomeranian territory and sought...
Competition for Schlawe-Stolp
The last member of the Ratiborides branch of the Griffins, Ratibor II, died in 1223. This led to a competition between the Griffins and the Pomerelian Samborides for inheritance of Schlawe-Stolp. Because Ratibor died during the Danish period, Denmark administered the area until she had to withdraw after the lost Battle of Bornhöved in 1227. Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania, took control of the lands immediately after the Danish withdrawal, but had to yield Pomerelian duke Swantopolk's rights, whos...
The last duke of Demminhad died in 1264, and the 1236 territorial losses left Demmin at the westernmost edge of the Duchy of Pomerania. When Barmin I, for a short period sole ruler of the duchy, died in 1278, his oldest son Bogislaw IV took his father's seat. When his half-brothers Otto I and Barnim II reached adulthood in 1294, the brothers ruled in common until Barnim's death in 1295. Bogislaw and Otto now agreed on a partition of the duchy, that would last until 1464: Bogislaw's share was the area where the towns were under Lübeck law, that was Vorpommern north of the Peene river (though including Anklam and Demmin on its southern bank) and Farther Pomerania north of the Ihna and Stepenitz rivers, both areas were connected by the islands of Usedom and Wollin. Bogislaw made Wolgast his residence, thus the partition became known as Pomerania-Wolgast. Otto's share was the remainder between Peene and Ihna centered around Stettin, where the towns were under Magdeburg law. This partiti...
After the death of Barnim IV of Pomerania-Wolgast in 1366, an armed conflict arose when Barnim's brother Bogislaw V refused to share his power with Barnim's sons, Wartislaw VI and Bogislaw VI, and his other brother, Wartislaw V, who in turn allied with Mecklenburg to enforce their claims. On May 25, 1368, a compromise was negotiated in Anklam, which was made a formal treaty on June 8, 1372 in Stargard,and resulted in a partition of Pomerania-Wolgast. Bogislaw V received most of the Farther Pomeranian parts. Excepted was the land of Neustettin, which was to be ruled by his brother Wartislaw V, and was integrated into Bogislaw's part-duchy only after his death in 1390. This eastern part duchy became known as Pomerania-Stolp.
Further partition of Pomerania-Wolgast (1376–1425): Pomerania-Wolgast and Pomerania-Barth
The western remainder of Pomerania-Wolgast was further partitioned between Bogislaw IV and Wartislaw VI on December 6, 1376. Wartislaw VI received Pomerania-(Wolgast)-Barth, the former principality of Rügen, and Bogislaw IV's Pomerania-Wolgast was reduced to an area between Greifswald and the Swine river. When Bogislaw VI died in 1393 and Wartislaw VI in 1394, the latter's sons Barnim VI and Wartislaw VIIIruled in common. On December 6, 1425, the western part of Pomerania-Wolgast (without Pom...
The situation of the descendants of Bogislaw V, who ruled Pomerania-Stolp, differed somewhat from the situation of their western counterparts. The area was more sparsely settled and dominated by powerful noble families, so not much income could be derived by the dukes. On the other hand, the Stolpian branch of the House of Pomerania had relatives among the royal houses of Denmark and Poland. Casimir IV and Elisabeth, the children of Bogislaw V and his first wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Cas...
Casimir V of Pomerania-Stettin at the same time allied with the Teutonic Knights and took part in the Battle of Grunwald, where he was caught by the Poles and bailed out by the Knights after the First Peace of Thorn. The main concern of the Stettin dukes however was Brandenburg, namely the Neumark and Uckermark regions. Casimir III died in 1372 during a siege of Königsberg (Neumark), after he had managed to receive an empirial approval of his Uckermark possessions in 1370. On May 17, 1373, al...
Pomerania-Wolgast was reunited following the death of both Barnim VII and Barnim VIII in 1451. Both dukes died of the . The same disease caused the death of Joachim of Pomerania-Stettin (also in 1451), Ertmar and Swantibor, children of Wartislaw X, and Otto III of Pomerania-Stettin (all in 1464).Thus, the line of Pomerania-Stettin had died out. The extinction of the House of Pomerania-Stettin triggered a conflict about inheritance with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In the Treaty of Soldin of 1466, a compromise was negotiated: Wartislaw X and Eric II, the dukes of Pomerania, took over Pomerania-Stettin as a Brandenburgian fief. This was disputed already during the same year by the emperor, who intervened against the Brandenburgian overlordship of Pomerania. This led to a series of further warfare and truces, that were ended by the Treaty of Prenzlau of 1472, basically confirming the ruling of the Soldin treaty, but settling on a border north of Gartz (Oder)resembling Brandenburg's...
The Protestant Reformation reached Pomerania in the early 16th century. Bogislaw X in 1518 sent his son, Barnim IX, to study in Wittenberg. In 1521, he personally attended a mass of Martin Luther in Wittenberg, and also of other reformed preachers in the following years. Also in 1521, Johannes Bugenhagen, the most important person in the following conversion of Pomerania to Protestantism, left Belbuck Abbey to study in Wittenberg, close to Luther. In Belbuck, a circle had formed before, comprising not only Bugenhagen, but also Johann Boldewan, Christian Ketelhut, Andreas Knöpke and Johannes Kureke. These persons, and also Johannes Knipstro, Paul vom Rode, Peter Suawe, Jacob Hogensee and Johann Amandusspread the Protestant idea all over Pomerania. At several occasions, this went along with public outrage, plunder and arson directed against the church. The dukes' role in the reformation process was ambitious. Bogislaw X, despite his sympathies, forbade Protestant preaching and tumults...
After Bogislaw X's death, his sons initially ruled in common. Yet, after Georg's death, the duchy was partitioned again between Barnim IX, who resided in Stettin, and Phillip I, who resided in Wolgast. The border ran roughly along the Oder and Swine rivers, with Pomerania-Wolgast now consisting of Hither or Western Pomerania (Vorpommern, yet without Stettin and Gartz (Oder) on the Oder river's left bank, and with Greifenberg on its right bank), and Pomerania-Stettin consisting of Farther Pomerania. The secular possessions of the Diocese of Cammin around Kolberg (Kolobrzeg) subsequently came controlled by the dukes, when members of the ducal family were made titular bishops of Cammin since 1556. Despite the division, the duchy maintained one central government.
The Pomeranian Evangelical Church (German: Pommersche Evangelische Kirche; PEK) was a Protestant regional church in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, serving the citizens living in Hither Pomerania. The Pomeranian Evangelical Church was based on the teachings brought forward by Martin Luther and other Reformators during the Reformation.
Otto VI "the Short" (c. 1255-1303) Kunigunde (died c. 1292), married: in 1264 to Duke Bela of Slavonia (1245-1269) in 1273 to Duke Waleran IV of Limburg Matilda (d. 1316), married in 1266 to Duke Barnim I of Pomerania (c. 1218-1278) Double statue of the brothers at the Siegesallee File:Johann Otto Siegesallee1.JPG
John I, Margrave of Brandenburg ( c. 1213 – 4 April 1266) was from 1220 until his death Margrave of Brandenburg, jointly with his brother Otto III "the Pious".. The reign of these two Ascanian Margraves was characterized by an expansion of the Margraviate, which annexed the remaining parts of Teltow and Barnim, the Uckermark, the Lordship of Stargard, the Lubusz Land and parts of the Neumark ...