A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices such as flashlights, mobile phones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode.
Battery, an 18th and 19th century term for a number of capacitors or Leyden jars connected in parallel Electric battery , electrochemical cells that transform chemical energy into electricity List of battery types
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A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy by a chemical reaction. Usually the chemicals are kept inside the battery. It is used in a circuit to power other components. A battery produces direct current electricity. Using the electricity from an outlet in a building is cheaper and more efficient, but a battery can provide electricity in areas that do not have electric power distribution. It is also useful for things that move, such as electric vehicles and mobile phones. Batteries
- Specific countries
- Jurisdictional differences
- Distinction between battery and assault
Battery is a criminal offense involving unlawful physical contact, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact. Battery is a specific common law misdemeanor, although the term is used more generally to refer to any unlawful offensive physical contact with another person, and may be a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the circumstances. Battery was defined at common law as "any unlawful and or unwanted touching of the person of another by the aggressor, or
Specific rules regarding battery vary among different jurisdictions, but some elements remain constant across jurisdictions. Battery generally requires that: an offensive touch or contact is made upon the victim, instigated by the actor; and the actor intends or knows that their action will cause the offensive touching. Under the US Model Penal Code and in some jurisdictions, there is battery when the actor acts recklessly without specific intent of causing an offensive contact. Battery is typic
Battery is not defined in the Canadian Criminal Code. Instead, the Code has an offense of assault, and assault causing bodily harm.
Battery is a common law offence within England and Wales. As with the majority of offences in the UK, it has two elements: 1. Actus reus: The defendant unlawfully touched or applied force to the victim 2. Mens rea: The defendant intended or was reckless as to the unlawful touch o
There is an offence which could be described as battery in Russia. Article 116 of the Russian Criminal Code provides that battery or similar violent actions which cause pain are an offence.
In some jurisdictions, battery has recently been constructed to include directing bodily secretions at another person without their permission. Some of those jurisdictions automatically elevate such a battery to the charge of aggravated battery. In some jurisdictions, the charge of criminal battery also requires evidence of a mental state. The terminology used to refer to a particular offense can also vary by jurisdiction. Some jurisdictions, such as New York, refer to what, under the common law
A typical overt behavior of an assault is Person A chasing Person B and swinging a fist toward their head. That for battery is A striking B. Battery requires: 1. a volitional act, that 2. results in a harmful or offensive contact with another person, and 3. is committed for the purpose of causing a harmful or offensive contact or under circumstances that render such contact substantially certain to occur or with a reckless disregard as to whether such contact will result. Assault, where rooted o
This article lists the sizes, shapes, and general characteristics of some common primary and secondary battery types in household and light industrial use.. Historically the term "battery" referred to a collection of electrochemical cells connected in series; however, in modern times the term has come to refer to any collection of cells (or single cell) packaged in a container with external ...Names(Most common)Names(Other common)Names(IEC)Names(ANSI)MX2500 Mini UM 6 (JIS) 単6 #9 (China)LR8D425 (alkaline)25A (alkaline)U16 or HP16 (In the UK) Micro Microlight MN2400 MX2400 MV2400 Type 286 (Soviet Union/Russia) UM 4 (JIS)(carbon-zinc) 単4 AM-4 (JIS)(alkaline) #7 (China) 6135-99-117-3143 (NSN)LR03 (alkaline) R03 (carbon–zinc) FR03 (LiFeS2) HR03 (NiMH) KR03 (NiCd) ZR03 (NiOOH)24A (alkaline) 24D (carbon–zinc) 24LF (LiFeS2)U12 or HP7 (In the UK) Pencil-sized Penlight Mignon MN1500 MX1500 MV1500 Type 316 (Soviet Union/Russia) UM 3 単3 (JIS)(carbon-zinc) AM-3 (JIS)(alkaline) #5 (China) 6135-99-052-0009 (NSN)(carbon-zinc) 6135-99-195-6708 (NSN)(alkaline)LR6 (alkaline) R6 (carbon–zinc) FR6 (LiFeS2) HR6 (NiMH) KR6 (NiCd) ZR6 (NiOOH)15A (alkaline) 15D (carbon–zinc) 15LF (LiFeS2) 1.2H2 (NiMH) 1.2K2 (NiCd)U11 or HP11 (In the UK) MN1400 MX1400 Baby Type 343 (Soviet Union/Russia) BA-42 (US Military Spec WWII–1980s) UM 2 (JIS) 単2 #2 (China) 6135-99-199-4779 (NSN)(carbon-zinc) 6135-99-117-3212 (NSN)(alkaline)LR14 (alkaline) R14 (carbon–zinc) HR14 (NiMH) KR14 (NiCd) ZR14 (NiOOH)14A (alkaline) 14D (carbon–zinc)
Another problem with Volta's batteries was short battery life (an hour's worth at best), which was caused by two phenomena. The first was that the current produced electrolyzed the electrolyte solution, resulting in a film of hydrogen bubbles forming on the copper, which steadily increased the internal resistance of the battery (this effect, called polarization, is counteracted in modern cells ...
A battery or battery pack is a collection of cells or cell assemblies, with housing, electrical connections, and possibly electronics for control and protection.   Anode and cathode electrodes [ edit ]
Diamond battery is the name of a nuclear battery concept proposed by the University of Bristol Cabot Institute during their annual lecture held on 25 November 2016 at the Wills Memorial Building. This battery is proposed to run on the radioactivity of waste graphite blocks (previously used as neutron moderator material in graphite-moderated ...
The Maisy Battery is a group of World War II artillery batteries constructed in secret by the German Wehrmacht near the French village of Grandcamp-Maisy in Normandy. It formed a part of Germany's Atlantic Wall coastal fortifications and was the principal position of defence for that area. It was responsible for the defence of the sector between the Longues-sur-Mer and the St Marcouf batteries. It could target the sectors around both Omaha Beach and Utah Beach, two of the five landing sites for
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