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  1. › wiki › BayBay - Wikipedia

    A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or even another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a small, circular bay with a narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity.

    • Definition

      The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea defines...

    • Formation

      There are various ways in which bays can form. The largest...

  2. The Bay is an ITV crime drama series produced by Tall Story Pictures and distributed worldwide by ITV Studios Global Entertainment that first aired in March 2019. Morven Christie plays a detective sergeant family liaison officer called in on an investigation into missing twins from a family living in Morecambe.

    • Catherine Oldfield
    • 20 March 2019 –, present
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    • Underwater Archaeology
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    The word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village 'at a big river'. It is the seventh-oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, first applied as Chesepiook by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may also refer to the Chesapeake people or the Chesepian, a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U.S. state of Virginia. They occupied an area that is now the Norfolk, Portsmouth, Chesapeake, and Virginia Beach areas. In 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes"helped to dispel one of the area's most widely held beliefs: that 'Chesapeake' means something like 'great shellfish bay'. It does not, Rudes said. The name might have actually meant something like 'great water', or it might have just referred to a village location at the Bay's mouth."

    Geology and formation

    The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west. It is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River, meaning that it was the alluvial plain where the river flowed when the sea level was lower. It is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the Bay. North of Baltimore, the western shore borders the hilly Piedmont region of Mar...


    Much of the Bay is shallow. At the point where the Susquehanna River flows into the Bay, the average depth is 30 feet (9 m), although this soon diminishes to an average of 10 feet (3 m) southeast of the city of Havre de Grace, Maryland, to about 35 feet (11 m) just north of Annapolis. On average, the depth of the Bay is 21 feet (6.4 m), including tributaries;over 24 percent of the Bay is less than 6 ft (2 m) deep. Because the Bay is an estuary, it has fresh water, salt water and brackish wate...

    The Chesapeake Bay is home to numerous fauna that either migrate to the Bay at some point during the year or live there year-round. There are over 300 species of fish and numerous shellfish and crab species. Some of these include the Atlantic menhaden, striped bass, American eel, eastern oyster, Atlantic horseshoe crab, and the blue crab. Birds include ospreys, great blue herons, bald eagles, and peregrine falcons, the last two of which were threatened by DDT; their numbers plummeted but have risen in recent years. The piping plover is a near threatenedspecies that inhabits the wetlands. Larger fish such as Atlantic sturgeon, varieties of sharks, and stingrays visit the Chesapeake Bay. The waters of the Chesapeake Bay have been regarded one of the most important nursery areas for sharks along the east coast. Megafaunas such as bull sharks, tiger sharks, scalloped hammerhead sharks, and basking sharks and manta raysare also known to visit. Bottlenose dolphins are known to live season...

    Pre Columbian

    The Chesapeake Bay has had a human presence for over 11,500 years. “Paleoindians,” or the first humans in the Chesapeake Bay region, lived off the land by hunting game and living off the earth in small nomadic groups. Archeologists have also noted the presence of “foreign” stones in projectile points that came via trade from other parts of North America. For thousands of years, Native American societies lived in villages of wooden longhouses close to water bodies where they fished and farmed...

    European exploration and settlement

    In 1524, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, (1485–1528), in service of the French crown, (famous for sailing through and thereafter naming the entrance to New York Bay as the "Verrazzano Narrows", including now in the 20th century, a suspension bridge also named for him) sailed past the Chesapeake, but did not enter the Bay. Spanish explorer Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón sent an expedition out from Hispaniola in 1525 that reached the mouths of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. It may have bee...

    American Revolution to the present

    The Chesapeake Bay was the site of the Battle of the Chesapeake (also known as the "Battle of the Capes", Cape Charles and Cape Henry) in 1781, during which the French fleet defeated the Royal Navy in the decisive naval battle of the American Revolutionary War. The British defeat enabled General George Washington and his French allied armies under Comte de Rochambeau to march down from New York and bottle up the rampaging southern British Army of Lord Cornwallis from the North and South Carol...

    The Chesapeake Bay forms a link in the Intracoastal Waterway, of the bays, sounds and inlets between the off-shore barrier islands and the coastal mainland along the Atlantic coast connecting the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (linking the Bay to the north and the Delaware River) with the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal (linking the Bay, to the south, via the Elizabeth River, by the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth to the Albemarle Sound and Pamlico Sound in North Carolina and further to the Sea Islands of Georgia). A busy shipping channel (dredged by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since the 1850s) runs the length of the Bay, is an important transit route for large vessels entering or leaving the Port of Baltimore, and further north through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal to the ports of Wilmington and Philadelphia on the Delaware River. During the later half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the Bay was plied by passenger steamships and packet boat lines...

    Fishing industry

    The Bay is mostly known for its seafood production, especially blue crabs, clams, and oysters. In the middle of the 20th century, the Bay supported 9,000 full-time watermen, according to one account. Today, the body of water is less productive than it used to be because of runoff from urban areas (mostly on the Western Shore) and farms (especially on the Eastern Shore and in the Susquehanna River watershed), over-harvesting, and invasion of foreign species. The plentiful oyster harvests led t...

    Tourism and recreation

    The Chesapeake Bay is a main feature for tourists who visit Maryland and Virginia each year. Fishing, crabbing, swimming, boating, kayaking, and sailing are extremely popular activities enjoyed on the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. As a result, tourism has a notable impact on Maryland's economy. One report suggested that Annapolis was an appealing spot for families, water sports and boating.Commentator Terry Smith spoke about the Bay's beauty: One account suggested how the Chesapeake attracts...

    In colonial times, simple cooking techniques were used to create one pot meals like ham and potato casserole, clam chowder, or stews with common ingredients like oysters, chicken or venison. When John Smith landed in Chesapeake in 1608 he wrote: "The fish were so thick, we attempted to catch them with frying pans". Common regional ingredients in the local cuisine of Chesapeake included terrapins, smoked hams, blue crab, shellfish, local fish, game meats and various species of waterfowl. Blue crab continues to be an especially popular regional specialty.


    In the 1970s, the Chesapeake Bay was found to contain one of the planet's first identified marine dead zones, where waters were so depleted of oxygen that they were unable to support life, resulting in massive fish kills. Today the Bay's dead zones are estimated to kill 75,000 tons of bottom-dwelling clams and worms each year, weakening the base of the estuary's food chain and robbing the blue crab in particular of a primary food source. Crabs are sometimes observed to amass on shore to escap...

    Depletion of oysters

    While the Bay's salinity is ideal for oysters and the oyster fishery was at one time the Bay's most commercially viable, the population has in the last fifty years been devastated. Maryland once had roughly 200,000 acres (810 km2) of oyster reefs. Today it has about 36,000. It has been estimated that in pre-colonial times, oysters could filter the entirety of the Bay in about 3.3 days; by 1988 this time had increased to 325 days. The harvest's gross value decreased 88% from 1982 to 2007.One r...

    Restoration efforts

    Efforts of federal, state and local governments, working in partnership through the Chesapeake Bay Program, an intergovernmental coalition, along with the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and other nonprofit environmental groups, to restore or at least maintain the current water quality, have had mixed results. One particular obstacle to cleaning up the Bay is that much of the polluting substances are discharged far upstream in tributarieslying within states far removed from the Bay: New York and Pe...

    Underwater archaeology is a subfield of archaeology that focuses on the exploration of submerged archaeological sites in seas, rivers, and other bodies of water. In 1988, the Maryland Maritime Archeology Program (MMAP) was established with the goal to manage and explore the various underwater archaeological sites that line the Chesapeake Bay. This was in response to the National Abandoned Shipwreck Actpassed in 1987, which gave ownership of historically significant shipwrecks to those states with proper management programs. Water makes up 25% of the State of Maryland and there are over 550 submerged archaeological sites that have been located across the Chesapeake Bay and its surrounding watersheds. Ranging from 12,000-year-old, precolonial native settlements to shipwrecks from as recent as World War II, the MMAP researches thousands of years worth of history in these archaeological sites. Susan Langley has been Maryland's State Underwater Archaeologist, one of only nine state-appoi...

    There are several magazines and publications that cover topics directly related to the Chesapeake Bay and life and tourism within the Bay region. The Capital, a newspaper based in Annapolis, reports about news pertaining to the Western Shore of Maryland and the Annapolis area. Chesapeake Bay Magazine and PropTalk focus on powerboating, while SpinSheetfocuses on sailing. What's Up Magazine is a free monthly publication with special issues focused on Annapolis and the Eastern Shore. Bay Weekly is the Chesapeake Bay region's independent newspaper.

    • 21 ft (6.4 m)
    • 4,479 sq mi (11,600 km²)
  3. › wiki › Michael_BayMichael Bay - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Early life
    • Career
    • Production and effects companies
    • Personal life

    Michael Benjamin Bay is an American film director and producer. He is best known for making big-budget, high-concept action films characterized by fast cutting, stylistic cinematography and visuals, and extensive use of special effects, including frequent depictions of explosions. The films he has produced and directed, which include Armageddon, Pearl Harbor and the Transformers film series, have grossed over US$7.8 billion worldwide, making him one of the most commercially successful directors

    Michael Bay was born in Los Angeles. He was raised by his adoptive parents Harriet, a bookstore owner/child psychiatrist, and Jim, a Certified Public Accountant. Bay was raised Jewish. His grandfather was from Russia. His cousin, Susan Bay, is the widow of Star Trek actor Leonard Nimoy. He attended the exclusive Crossroads School, in Santa Monica, California. Bay often traces his interest in action films back to an incident during his childhood. As a boy, he attached some firecrackers to a toy t

    Bay got his start in the film industry interning with George Lucas when he was 15, filing the storyboards for Raiders of the Lost Ark, which he thought was going to be terrible. His opinion changed after seeing it in the theater and he was so impressed by the experience that he decided to become a film director. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1986, majoring in both English and Film. He was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and a favorite student of film historian Jeanine Basinger.

    Bay founded production house Platinum Dunes with fellow producers Brad Fuller and Andrew Form in 2001.

    Bay and Wyndcrest Holdings, a Florida-based investment firm, acquired the digital effects company Digital Domain from James Cameron and Stan Winston in 2006, infusing the struggling business with a $50 million investment. Digital Domain considered an initial public offering in 20

    After leaving Propaganda Films, Bay and producer Scott Gardenhour, also formerly at Propaganda, formed The Institute for the Development of Enhanced Perceptual Awareness, to produce commercials and other projects. Through The Institute, Bay has directed and produced spots for Vic

    Bay lives in Miami with his three English mastiffs, named for characters in his films. As a boy, he donated his Bar Mitzvah money to an animal shelter and often includes his dogs in his films. Bonecrusher appeared as Mikaela's dog "Bones" in Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. Mason, his first English mastiff, was named for John Patrick Mason, played by Sean Connery in The Rock. Mason appeared as Marcus' dog in Bad Boys II and as Miles' dog in Transformers. He died during production of the latt

    • 1986–present
    • Susan Bay (cousin)
  4. › wiki › Bay_(horse)Bay (horse) - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Color variations and terminology
    • Bay-family colors
    • Genetics

    Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a reddish-brown or brown body color with a black point coloration of the mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds. The black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", and without them, a horse is not a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings; however such markings do not alter a horse's classification as "bay". Bay horses have dark...

    Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a very dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown. The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, and in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, which is a

    Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat colors in horses, although genetically the simple base coat colors, based on the presence or absence of the extension gene, are chestnut and black. Bay is the result of the agouti gene acting upon a black base coat. The effects of additional equine coat color genes on a bay template alter the basic color into other shades or patterns: 1. Buckskin horses have a black mane and tail, but instead of a red or brown coat, they hav

    The various shades of bay may be genetically produced by multiple factors, but a simple explanation of bay genetics is that "red" color, seen in the chestnut horse, represented by the recessive "e" allele; and black color, represented by the dominant "E" allele, are the two most basic coat color genes. All other colors are produced by the action of additional alleles acting on these two base colors. A bay horse carries both the Extension allele and a suppression gene known as the agouti gene.The

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  6. › wiki › Monterey_BayMonterey Bay - Wikipedia

    Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U.S. state of California.The bay is south of the major cities of San Francisco and San Jose. Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay, and Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end.

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