Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879 into a family of secular Ashkenazi Jews.   His parents were Hermann Einstein , a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch .
- Theory of Special Relativity
- Mass-Energy Equivalence
- Zero-Point Energy
- Momentum, Mass, and Energy
- The General Theory of Relativity
Einstein was born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, on 14 March 1879. His family was Jewish, but was not very religious. However, later in life Einstein became very interested in his Judaism. Einstein did not begin speaking until he was 2 years old. According to his younger sister, Maja, "He had such difficulty with language that those around him feared he would never learn". When Einstein was around 4 years old, his father gave him a magnetic compass. He tried hard to understand how the needle c...
Einstein's first daughter was "Lieserl" ( her real name may have been Marta). She was born in Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Austria-Hungary on January 27, 1902. She spent her first years in the care of Serbian grandparents because her father Albert did not want her to be brought to Switzerland, where he had a job offer at the patent office. Some historians believe she died from scarlet fever. Einstein's two sons were Hans Albert Einstein and Eduard Tete Einstein. Hans Albert was born in Bern, Switzerl...
In spring of 1914, he moved back to Germany, and became ordinary member of the Prussian Academy and director of a newly established institute for physics of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft. He lived in Berlin and finished the General Theory of Relativity in November 1915. In the Weimar Republic, he was politically active for socialism and Zionism. In 1922, he received the Nobel prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905. He then tried to formulate a general fiel...
The theory of special relativity was published by Einstein in 1905, in the paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. It says that both distance measurements and time measurements change near the speed of light. This means that as one get closer to the speed of light (nearly 300,000 kilometres per second), lengths appear to get shorter, and clocks tick more slowly. Einstein said that special relativity is based on two ideas. The first is that the laws of physics are the same for all observers that are not moving in relation toeach other. Things going in the same direction at the same speed are said to be in an "inertial frame". People in the same "frame" measure how long something takes to happen. Their clocks keep the same time. But in another "frame" their clocks move at a different rate. The reason this happens is as follows. No matter how an observer is moving, if he measures the speed of the light coming from that star it will always be the same number. Imagine an astronaut...
E=mc2, also called the mass-energy equivalence, is one of the things that Einstein is most famous for. It is a famous equation in physicsand math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass. The "E" in the equation stands for energy. Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things. For instance, a brick hanging over an egg can put enough energy onto the egg to break it. A feather hanging over an egg does not have enough energy to hurt the egg. There are three basic forms of energy: potential energy, kinetic energy, and rest energy. Two of these forms of energy can be seen in the examples given above, and in the example of a pendulum. A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed. It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places...
The idea of a Bose-Einstein condensatecame out of a collaboration between S. N. Bose and Prof. Einstein. Einstein himself did not invent it but, instead, refined the idea and helped it become popular.
The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913.
In classical physics, momentumis explained by the equation: 1. p = mv where 1. p represents momentum 2. m represents mass 3. v represents velocity (speed) When Einstein generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components. One component involves "rest mass" and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way. The equation typically has values greater than zero for both components: 1. E2 = (m0c2)2 + (pc)2 where 1. E represents the energy of a particle 2. m0represents the mass of the particle when it is not moving 3. p represents the momentum of the particle when it is moving 4. c represents the speed of light. There are two special cases of this equation. A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum. (Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured.) In the case of a photon, because...
The General Theory of Relativity was published in 1915, ten years after the special theory of relativity was created. Einstein's general theory of relativity uses the idea of spacetime. Spacetime is the fact that we have a four-dimensional universe, having three spatial (space) dimensions and one temporal (time) dimension. Any physical event happens at some place inside these three space dimensions, and at some moment in time. According to the general theory of relativity, any mass causes spacetime to curve, and any other mass follows these curves. Bigger mass causes more curving. This was a new way to explain gravitation (gravity). General relativity explains gravitational lensing, which is light bending when it comes near a massive object. This explanation was proven correct during a solar eclipse, when the sun's bending of starlight from distant stars could be measured because of the darkness of the eclipse. General relativity also set the stage for cosmology (theories of the str...
Many scientists only care about their work, but Einstein also spoke and wrote often about politics and world peace. He liked the ideas of socialism and of having only one government for the whole world. He also worked for Zionism, the effort to try to create the new country of Israel. Prompted by his colleague L. E. J. Brouwer, Einstein read the philosopher Eric Gutkind's book Choose Life, a discussion of the relationship between Jewish revelation and the modern world. On January 3, 1954, Einstein sent the following reply to Gutkind: "The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. .... For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions."In 2018 his letter to Gutkind was sold for $2.9 million. Even though Einstein thought of many ideas that helped scientists understand the world much b...
Most scientists think that Einstein's theories of special and general relativity work very well, and they use those ideas and formulas in their own work. Einstein disagreed that phenomena in quantum mechanics can happen out of pure chance. He believed that all natural phenomena have explanations that do not include pure chance. He spent much of his later life trying to find a "unified field theory" that would include his general relativity theory, Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, and perhaps a better quantum theory. Most scientists do not think that he succeeded in that attempt.
Einstein, Albert and Infeld, Leopold 1938. The evolution of physics: from early concept to relativity and quanta. Cambridge University Press. A non-mathematical account.
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Explore how Albert Einstein went from being a young Jewish boy growing up in Germany to the most celebrated physicist ever. The Story of Albert Einstein includes: Visual timeline―Watch Albert progress from curious kid to famous scientist. Helpful glossary―Find definitions for some of the more advanced words and ideas in the book.
- Rockridge Press
- Susan B. Katz
Albert Einstein: A Biography will cover the entire history of this brilliant physicist's life and career, including: his early education, during which he was an excellent student, contrary to what is commonly believed; Einstein's struggles to find an academic position, which led him to work as a clerk at the Swiss patent office during the same period he was formulating his most famous and revolutionary theories; his troubled marriages and family life; Einstein's rise to international fame ...
- Early Life & Family
- Patent Clerk
- Wife and Children
- Nobel Prize For Physics
- Inventions and Discoveries
- Travel Diaries
- Becoming A U.S. Citizen
- Einstein and The Atomic Bomb
- Member of The NAACP
Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. Einstein grew up in a secular Jewish family. His father, Hermann Einstein, was a salesman and engineer who, with his brother, founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a Munich-based company that mass-produced electrical equipment. Einstein’s mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. Einstein had one sister, Maja, born two years after him. Einstein attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. However, he felt alienated there and struggled with the institution's rigid pedagogical style. He also had what were considered speech challenges, though he developed a passion for classical music and playing the violin, which would stay with him into his later years. Most significantly, Einstein's youth was marked by deep inquisitiveness and inquiry. Towards the end of the 1880s, Max Talmud, a Polish medical student who sometimes dined with the Einstein family, became an informal tu...
Einstein was eventually able to gain admission into the Swiss Federal Institute of Technologyin Zurich, specifically due to his superb mathematics and physics scores on the entrance exam. He was still required to complete his pre-university education first, and thus attended a high school in Aarau, Switzerland helmed by Jost Winteler. Einstein lived with the schoolmaster's family and fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. Einstein later renounced his German citizenship and became a Swiss citizen at the dawn of the new century. READ MORE: What Was Albert Einstein's IQ?
After graduating, Einstein faced major challenges in terms of finding academic positions, having alienated some professors over not attending class more regularly in lieu of studying independently. Einstein eventually found steady work in 1902 after receiving a referral for a clerk position in a Swiss patent office. While working at the patent office, Einstein had the time to further explore ideas that had taken hold during his studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and thus cemented his theorems on what would be known as the principle of relativity. In 1905—seen by many as a "miracle year" for the theorist—Einstein had four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, one of the best-known physics journals of the era. Two focused on the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion. The two others, which outlined E=MC2 and the special theory of relativity, were defining for Einstein’s career and the course of the study of physics.
Einstein married Mileva Maricon Jan. 6, 1903. While attending school in Zurich, Einstein met Maric, a Serbian physics student. Einstein continued to grow closer to Maric, but his parents were strongly against the relationship due to her ethnic background. Nonetheless, Einstein continued to see her, with the two developing a correspondence via letters in which he expressed many of his scientific ideas. Einstein’s father passed away in 1902, and the couple married shortly thereafter. That same year the couple had a daughter, Lieserl, who might have been later raised by Maric's relatives or given up for adoption. Her ultimate fate and whereabouts remain a mystery. The couple had two sons, Hans Albert Einstein (who became a well-known hydraulic engineer) and Eduard "Tete" Einstein (who was diagnosed with schizophrenia as a young man). The Einsteins' marriage would not be a happy one, with the two divorcing in 1919 and Maric having an emotional breakdown in connection to the split. Einst...
In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, since his ideas on relativity were still considered questionable. He wasn't actually given the award until the following year due to a bureaucratic ruling, and during his acceptance speech, he still opted to speak about relativity. In the development of his general theory, Einstein had held onto the belief that the universe was a fixed, static entity, aka a "cosmological constant," though his later theories directly contradicted this idea and asserted that the universe could be in a state of flux. Astronomer Edwin Hubble deduced that we indeed inhabit an expanding universe, with the two scientists meeting at the Mount Wilson Observatorynear Los Angeles in 1931.
As a physicist, Einstein had many discoveries, but he is perhaps best known for his theory of relativity and the equation E=MC2, which foreshadowed the development of atomic power and the atomic bomb.
In 2018, readers were allowed a glimpse into some of the unfiltered private thoughts of Einstein as a young man with the publication of The Travel Diaries of Albert Einstein: The Far East, Palestine, and Spain, 1922-1923. The young scientist started a sea journey to Japan in Marseilles, France, in autumn of 1922, accompanied by his second wife Elsa. They journeyed through the Suez Canal, then to Ceylon, Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Japan. The couple returned to Germany via Palestineand Spain in March 1923. The Travel Diariescontained unflattering analyses of the people he came across, including the Chinese and Sri Lankans, a surprise coming from a man known for vehemently denouncing racism in his later years. In an entry for November 1922, Einstein refers to residents of Hong Kong as "industrious, filthy, lethargic people ... Even the children are spiritless and look lethargic. It would be a pity if these Chinese supplant all other races."
In 1933, Einstein took on a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey. At the time the Nazis, led by Adolf Hitler, were gaining prominence with violent propaganda and vitriol in an impoverished post-World War IGermany. The Nazi Party influenced other scientists to label Einstein's work "Jewish physics." Jewish citizens were barred from university work and other official jobs, and Einstein himself was targeted to be killed. Meanwhile, other European scientists also left regions threatened by Germany and immigrated to the U.S., with concern over Nazi strategies to create an atomic weapon. After moving, Einstein never went back to his native land. It was at Princeton that Einstein would spend the rest of his life working on a unified field theory—an all-embracing paradigm meant to unify the varied laws of physics. Not long after he began his career at Princeton, Einstein expressed an appreciation for American "meritocracy" and the opportunities people had fo...
In 1939, Einstein and fellow physicist Leo Szilard wrote to President Franklin D. Rooseveltto alert him of the possibility of a Nazi bomb and to galvanize the United States to create its own nuclear weapons. The U.S. would eventually initiate the Manhattan Project, though Einstein would not take a direct part in its implementation due to his pacifist and socialist affiliations. Einstein was also the recipient of much scrutiny and major distrust from FBI director J. Edgar Hoover. After learning of the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, Einstein became a major player in efforts to curtail usage of the a-bomb. The following year he and Szilard founded the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, and in 1947, via an essay for The Atlantic Monthly, Einstein espoused working with the United Nations to maintain nuclear weapons as a deterrent to conflict.
In the late 1940s, Einstein became a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), seeing the parallels between the treatment of Jews in Germany and African Americans in the United States. He corresponded with scholar/activist W.E.B. Du Bois as well as performing artist Paul Robesonand campaigned for civil rights, calling racism a "disease" in a 1946 Lincoln University speech.
May 28, 2021 · Albert Einstein, (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Germany—died April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.), German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century.
Time 's 'Man of the Century', Albert Einstein is the unquestioned founder of modern physics. His theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory which has shaped the world we live in today....
Albert Einstein Albert was born in Ulm, Germany. The family moved to Munich when Albert was one year old. 1884: The compass When Albert was five he was given a compass by his father. He was fascinated by it and how it worked. 1889: He met Max Talmud Max introduced Albert to math and science. Albert was ten years old. 1894: Albert finishes school
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