**Albert Einstein**was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879 into a family of secular Ashkenazi Jews. His parents were Hermann**Einstein**, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch.- Life
- Theory of Relativity
- Mass-Energy Equivalence
- Bec
- Zero-Point Energy
- Momentum, Mass, and Energy
- The General Theory of Relativity
- Beliefs
- Criticism
- References

Early life

Einstein was born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, on 14 March 1879. His family was Jewish, but was not very religious. However, later in life Einstein became very interested in his Judaism. Einstein did not begin speaking until he was 2 years old. According to his younger sister, Maja, "He had such difficulty with language that those around him feared he would never learn". When Einstein was around 4 years old, his father gave him a magnetic compass. He tried hard to understand how the needle c...

Children

**Einstein**'s first daughter was Lieserl**Einstein**. She was born in Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Austria-Hungary on January 27, 1902. She spent her first years in the care of Serbian grandparents because her father**Albert**did not want her to be brought to Switzerland, where he had a job offer at the patent office. Some historians believe she died from scarlet fever.**Einstein**'s two sons were Hans**Albert Einstein**and Eduard Tete**Einstein**. Hans**Albert**was born in Bern, Switzerland in May 1904. He became a p...Later life

In spring of 1914, he moved back to Germany, and became ordinary member of the Prussian Academy and director of a newly established institute for physics of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft. He lived in Berlin and finished the General Theory of Relativity in November 1915. In the Weimar Republic, he was politically active for socialism and Zionism. In 1922, he received the Nobel prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905. He then tried to formulate a general fiel...

The theory of special relativity was published by Einstein in 1905, in the paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. It says that both distance measurements and time measurements change near the speed of light. This means that as one get closer to the speed of light (nearly 300,000 kilometres per second), lengths appear to get shorter, and clocks tick more slowly. Einstein said that special relativity is based on two ideas. The first is that the laws of physics are the same for all observers that are not moving in relation toeach other. Things going in the same direction at the same speed are said to be in an "inertial frame". People in the same "frame" measure how long something takes to happen. Their clocks keep the same time. But in another "frame" their clocks move at a different rate. The reason this happens is as follows. No matter how an observer is moving, if he measures the speed of the light coming from that star it will always be the same number. Imagine an astronaut...

E=mc2, also called the mass-energy equivalence, is one of the things that

**Einstein**is most famous for. It is a famous equation in physicsand math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass. The "E" in the equation stands for energy. Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things. For instance, a brick hanging over an egg can put enough energy onto the egg to break it. A feather hanging over an egg does not have enough energy to hurt the egg. There are three basic forms of energy: potential energy, kinetic energy, and rest energy. Two of these forms of energy can be seen in the examples given above, and in the example of a pendulum. A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed. It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places...The idea of a Bose-

**Einstein**condensatecame out of a collaboration between S. N. Bose and Prof.**Einstein**.**Einstein**himself did not invent it but, instead, refined the idea and helped it become popular.The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by

**Albert Einstein**and Otto Stern in 1913.In classical physics, momentumis explained by the equation: 1. p = mv where 1. p represents momentum 2. m represents mass 3. v represents velocity (speed) When

**Einstein**generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components. One component involves "rest mass" and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way. The equation typically has values greater than zero for both components: 1. E2 = (m0c2)2 + (pc)2 where 1. E represents the energy of a particle 2. m0represents the mass of the particle when it is not moving 3. p represents the momentum of the particle when it is moving 4. c represents the speed of light. There are two special cases of this equation. A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum. (Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured.) In the case of a photon, because...The General Theory of Relativity was published in 1915, ten years after the special theory of relativity was created.

**Einstein**'s general theory of relativity uses the idea of spacetime. Spacetime is the fact that we have a four-dimensional universe, having three spatial (space) dimensions and one temporal (time) dimension. Any physical event happens at some place inside these three space dimensions, and at some moment in time. According to the general theory of relativity, any mass causes spacetime to curve, and any other mass follows these curves. Bigger mass causes more curving. This was a new way to explain gravitation (gravity). General relativity explains gravitational lensing, which is light bending when it comes near a massive object. This explanation was proven correct during a solar eclipse, when the sun's bending of starlight from distant stars could be measured because of the darkness of the eclipse. General relativity also set the stage for cosmology (theories of the str...Many scientists only care about their work, but

**Einstein**also spoke and wrote often about politics and world peace. He liked the ideas of socialism and of having only one government for the whole world. He also worked for Zionism, the effort to try to create the new country of Israel. Prompted by his colleague L. E. J. Brouwer,**Einstein**read the philosopher Eric Gutkind's book Choose Life, a discussion of the relationship between Jewish revelation and the modern world. On January 3, 1954,**Einstein**sent the following reply to Gutkind: "The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. .... For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions."In 2018 his letter to Gutkind was sold for $2.9 million. Even though**Einstein**thought of many ideas that helped scientists understand the world much b...Most scientists think that

**Einstein**'s theories of special and general relativity work very well, and they use those ideas and formulas in their own work.**Einstein**disagreed that phenomena in quantum mechanics can happen out of pure chance. He believed that all natural phenomena have explanations that do not include pure chance. He spent much of his later life trying to find a "unified field theory" that would include his general relativity theory, Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, and perhaps a better quantum theory. Most scientists do not think that he succeeded in that attempt.**Einstein**,**Albert**and Infeld, Leopold 1938. The evolution of physics: from early concept to relativity and quanta. Cambridge University Press. A non-mathematical account.- 14 March 1879, Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
- Federal polytechnic school (1896–1900; B.A., 1900), University of Zurich (Ph.D., 1905)

- 18 April 1955 (aged 76), Princeton, New Jersey, United States
- Mileva Marić, (m. 1903; div. 1919), Elsa Löwenthal, (m. 1919; died 1936)

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**Grade**4 Reading Lesson 23 Biographies**- Albert Einstein**(1)An Introduction to

**Albert Einstein**. Share this worksheet. Introduce children to physicist**Albert****Einstein**— and a bit of theoretical physics — with this mini**biography**.**Fourth**graders will read about**Einstein**'s life and work, from his childhood in Germany to his years as a professor in the United States. They will then answer three reading ...This video

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**Albert Einstein**is a German-born physicist who developed special and general theories of relativity and the concept of mass-energy equivalence expressed by his famous equation, E = mc2. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. See the fact file below for more information on the**Albert**...