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  1. History of Pomerania - Wikipedia

    The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers. Before that the area was recorded nearly 2000 years ago as Germania, and in modern-day times Pomerania is split between Germany and Poland.

  2. Pomerania, House of Griffins - history of pomerania .. In

    of the House of Pomerania Griffins The duchy originated from the realm of Wartislaw I, a Slavic Pomeranian duke, and was extended by the Lands of Schlawe The Ho

    • Origins of The War
    • Beginnings
    • Danish Intervention
    • Swedish Intervention
    • French Intervention and Continued Swedish Participation
    • Peace of Westphalia
    • Casualties and Disease
    • Witch-Hunts
    • Political Consequences
    • Outside Europe

    The Peace of Augs­burg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Em­peror, con­firmed the re­sult of the Diet of Speyer (1526), end­ing the war be­tween Ger­man Luther­ansand Catholics, and es­tab­lish­ing that: 1. Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms. Subjects had to follow that decision or emigrate (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). 2. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories (the principle called reservatum ecclesiasticum). 3. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passauin 1552. Al­though the Peace of Augs­burg cre­ated a tem­po­rary end to hos­til­i­ties, it did not re­solve the un­der­ly­ing re­li­gious con­flict, which was made yet more com­plex by the spread of Calvin­ism through­out Ger­many in the ye...

    Bohemian Revolt

    With­out heirs, Em­peror Matthias sought to as­sure an or­derly tran­si­tion dur­ing his life­time by hav­ing his dy­nas­tic heir (the fiercely Catholic Fer­di­nand of Styria, later Fer­di­nand II, Holy Roman Em­peror) elected to the sep­a­rate royal thrones of Bo­hemia and Hungary. Some of the Protes­tant lead­ers of Bo­hemia feared they would be los­ing the re­li­gious rights granted to them by Em­peror Rudolf II in his Let­ter of Majesty (1609). They pre­ferred the Protes­tant Fred­er­ick...

    Ottoman support for Transylvania

    In the east, the Protes­tant Hun­gar­ian Prince of Tran­syl­va­nia, Gabriel Bethlen, led a spir­ited cam­paign into Hun­gary with the sup­port of the Ot­toman Sul­tan, Osman II. Fear­ful of the Catholic poli­cies of Fer­di­nand II, Gabriel Bethlen re­quested a pro­tec­torate by Osman II, so "the Ot­toman Em­pire be­came the one and only ally of great-power sta­tus which the re­bel­lious Bo­hemian states could muster after they had shaken off Hab­s­burg rule and had elected Fred­er­ick V as a...

    Catholic intervention

    The Span­ish sent an army from Brus­sels under Am­bro­gio Spin­ola to sup­port the Em­peror. In ad­di­tion, the Span­ish am­bas­sador to Vi­enna, Don Íñigo Vélez de Oñate, per­suaded Protes­tant Sax­ony to in­ter­vene against Bo­hemia in ex­change for con­trol over Lusa­tia. The Sax­ons in­vaded, and the Span­ish army in the west pre­vented the Protes­tant Union's forces from as­sist­ing. Oñate con­spired to trans­fer the elec­toral title from the Palati­nate to the Duke of Bavaria in ex­chan...

    Peace fol­low­ing the Im­pe­r­ial vic­tory at Stadt­lohn (1623) proved short-lived, with con­flict re­sum­ing at the ini­ti­a­tion of Den­mark-Nor­way. Dan­ish in­volve­ment, re­ferred to as the Low Saxon War or Ke­jserkri­gen ("the Em­peror's War"), began when Chris­t­ian IV of Den­mark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Hol­stein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Em­pire, helped the Lutheran rulers of the neigh­bour­ing prin­ci­pal­i­ties in what is now Lower Sax­ony by lead­ing an army against the Im­pe­r­ial forces in 1625. Den­mark-Nor­way had feared that the re­cent Catholic suc­cesses threat­ened its sov­er­eignty as a Protes­tant na­tion. Chris­t­ian IV had also prof­ited greatly from his poli­cies in north­ern Ger­many. For in­stance, in 1621, Ham­burghad been forced to ac­cept Dan­ish sov­er­eignty. Den­mark-Nor­way's King Chris­t­ian IV had ob­tained for his king­dom a level of sta­bil­ity and wealth that was vir­tu­ally un­matched else­where in Europe. Den­mark-Nor­way w...

    Some in the court of Fer­di­nand II did not trust Wal­len­stein, be­liev­ing he sought to join forces with the Ger­man princes and thus gain in­flu­ence over the Em­peror. Fer­di­nand II dis­missed Wal­len­stein in 1630. He later re­called him, after the Swedes, led by King Gus­tavus Adol­phus, had suc­cess­fully in­vaded the Holy Roman Em­pire and turned the ta­bles on the Catholics. Like Chris­t­ian IV be­fore him, Gus­tavus Adol­phus came to aid the Ger­man Luther­ans, to fore­stall Catholic suzerainty in his back yard, and to ob­tain eco­nomic in­flu­ence in the Ger­man states around the Baltic Sea. He was also con­cerned about the grow­ing power of the Hab­s­burg monar­chy, and like Chris­t­ian IV be­fore him, was heav­ily sub­si­dized by Car­di­nal Riche­lieu, the chief min­is­ter of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, re­gain­ing much of the lost Protes­tant ter­ri­tory. Dur­ing his cam­paign, he man­ag...

    France, al­though mostly Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Em­pire and Spain. Car­di­nal Riche­lieu, the chief min­is­ter of King Louis XIII of France, con­sid­ered the Hab­s­burgs too pow­er­ful, since they held a num­ber of ter­ri­to­ries on France's east­ern bor­der, in­clud­ing por­tions of the Low Coun­tries. Riche­lieu had al­ready begun in­ter­ven­ing in­di­rectly in the war in Jan­u­ary 1631, when the French diplo­mat Her­cule de Charnacé signed the Treaty of Bärwalde with Gus­tavus Adol­phus, by which France agreed to sup­port the Swedes with 1,000,000 livreseach year in re­turn for a Swedish promise to main­tain an army in Ger­many against the Hab­s­burgs. The treaty also stip­u­lated that Swe­den would not con­clude a peace with the Holy Roman Em­peror with­out first re­ceiv­ing France's ap­proval. After the Swedish rout at Nördlin­gen in Sep­tem­ber 1634 and the Peace of Prague in 1635, in which the Protes­tant Ger­man princes sued for peace with the Em­peror...

    Over a four-year pe­riod, the war­ring par­ties (the Holy Roman Em­pire, France, and Swe­den) were ac­tively ne­go­ti­at­ing at Os­nabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but in­stead by a group of treaties such as the Treaty of Ham­burg. On 15 May 1648, the Peace of Münsterwas signed, end­ing the Thirty Years' War. Over five months later, on 24 Oc­to­ber, the Treaties of Münster and Os­nabrück were signed.

    The war ranks with the worst famines and plagues as the great­est med­ical cat­a­stro­phe in mod­ern Eu­ro­pean history. Lack­ing good cen­sus in­for­ma­tion, his­to­ri­ans have ex­trap­o­lated the ex­pe­ri­ence of well-stud­ied regions. John Theibault agrees with the con­clu­sions in Günther Franz's Der Dreis­sigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk (1940), that pop­u­la­tion losses were great but var­ied re­gion­ally (rang­ing as high as 50%) and says his es­ti­mates are the best available. The war killed sol­diers and civil­ians di­rectly, caused famines, de­stroyed liveli­hoods, dis­rupted com­merce, post­poned mar­riages and child­birth, and forced large num­bers of peo­ple to re­lo­cate. The over­all re­duc­tion of pop­u­la­tion in the Ger­man states was typ­i­cally 25% to 40%. Some re­gions were af­fected much more than others. For ex­am­ple, Würt­tem­berg lostthree-quar­ters of its pop­u­la­tion dur­ing the war. In the re­gion of Bran­den­burg, the losses had amounted to half,...

    Among the other great so­cial trau­mas abet­ted by the war was a major out­break of witch hunts. This vi­o­lent wave of witch-hunt­ing first erupted in the ter­ri­to­ries of Fran­co­nia dur­ing the time of the Dan­ish in­ter­ven­tion. The hard­ship and tur­moil the con­flict had pro­duced among the gen­eral pop­u­la­tion en­abled the hys­te­ria to spread quickly to other parts of Ger­many. Res­i­dents of areas that had been dev­as­tated not only by the con­flict it­self, but also by the nu­mer­ous crop fail­ures, famines, and epi­demics that ac­com­pa­nied it, were quick to at­tribute these calami­ties to su­per­nat­ural causes. In this tu­mul­tuous and highly volatile en­vi­ron­ment, al­le­ga­tions of witch­craft against neigh­bors and fel­low cit­i­zens flourished. The sheer vol­ume of tri­als and ex­e­cu­tions dur­ing this time would mark the pe­riod as the peak of the Eu­ro­pean witch-hunt­ing phe­nom­e­non. The per­se­cu­tions began in the Bish­opric of Würzburg, then under the...

    The Thirty Years' War re­arranged the Eu­ro­pean power struc­ture. Dur­ing the last decade of the con­flict Spain showed clear signs of weak­en­ing. While Spain was fight­ing in France, Por­tu­gal – which had been under per­sonal union with Spain for 60 years – ac­claimed John IV of Bra­ganza as king in 1640, and the House of Bra­ganza be­came the new dy­nasty of Por­tu­gal. Spain was forced to ac­cept the in­de­pen­dence of the Dutch Re­pub­lic in 1648, end­ing the Eighty Years' War. Bour­bon France chal­lenged Hab­s­burg Spain's su­premacy in the Franco-Span­ish War (1635–59), gain­ing de­fin­i­tive as­cen­dancy in the War of De­vo­lu­tion (1667–68) and the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), under the lead­er­ship of Louis XIV. The war re­sulted in in­creased au­ton­omy for the con­stituent states of the Holy Roman Em­pire, lim­it­ing the power of the em­peror and de­cen­tral­iz­ing au­thor­ity in Ger­man-speak­ing cen­tral Eu­rope. For Aus­tria and Bavaria, the re­sult of the war was am...

    The war also had con­se­quences abroad, as the Eu­ro­pean pow­ers ex­tended their ri­valry via naval power to over­seas colonies. In 1630, a Dutch fleet of 70 ships took the rich sugar-ex­port­ing areas of Per­nam­buco (Brazil)from the Por­tuguese, though the Dutch would lose them by 1654. Fight­ing also took place in Africa and Asia. Phillip II and III of Por­tu­gal used forts built from the de­stroyed tem­ples, in­clud­ing Fort Fredrick in Trin­co­ma­lee, and oth­ers in south­ern Cey­lon such as Colombo and Galle Fort, to fight sea bat­tles with the Dutch, Dan­ish, French, and Eng­lish. This was the be­gin­ning of the is­land's loss of sov­er­eignty. Later the Dutch and Eng­lish suc­ceeded the Por­tuguese as colo­nial rulers of the island.

  3. 1540s - Wikipedia

    August 9 – Bogislaw XIII, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1606) September 1 – John Gordon, Scottish bishop (d. 1619) September 29 – Giovanni de' Medici, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1562) November 1 – Hasan Kafi Pruščak, Bosnian scholar and judge (d. 1615) November 15 – Dorothea Susanne of Simmern, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (d. 1592)

  4. Thirty Years' War Structural origins, Background; 1556 to ...

    Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. The Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War.

  5. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor - Unionpedia, the concept map,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania Bogislaw V (Bogusław, Bogislaus) (c. 1318 – 23 April 1374) was a Duke of Pomerania.

  6. Pomerania - Unionpedia, the concept map

    Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania. Bogislaw IV (Bogusław IV; died 19 February 1309 or 24 February 1309), of the Griffins dynasty, was Duke of Pomerania for thirty years. New!!: Pomerania and Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania · See more » Bohuslän Regiment

  7. University of Greifswald - Wikipedia

    The University of Greifswald was founded on 17 October 1456 with the approval of the Holy Roman Empire and the Pope.This was possible due to the great commitment of Greifswald's lord mayor, Heinrich Rubenow, who was also to become the university's first rector, with the support of Duke Wartislaw IX of Pomerania and Bishop Henning Iven of the local St Nicolas' Cathedral.

  8. August 9 - august .. Info | About | What's This?

    The August 8 9 1993, tornado outbreak was a small tornado outbreak that occurred over the Upper Midwest of the United States for a period of two days in August

  9. List of state leaders in 1504. zipa - Nemequene 1490–1514 ...

    ⓘ List of state leaders in 1504. zipa - Nemequene 1490–1514 Inca Empire – Huayna Capac 1493–1527 Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II 1502–1520 zaque - Quemuenchatocha 149 ..

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