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  1. 10 hours ago · The Ice Age in the territory of present-day Latvia ended 14,000–12,000 years ago. The first human settlers arrived here during the Paleolithic Age 11,000–12,000 years ago. They were hunters, who following the reindeer herds camped along the rivers and shore of the Baltic Ice Lake.

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  3. › wiki › VladivostokVladivostok - Wikipedia

    1 day ago · Immediately after the October Revolution in 1917, during which the Bolsheviks came to power, the Decree on Peace was announced, and as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk concluded between the Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers, led to the end of Soviet Russia 's participation in World War I.

    • 331.16 km² (127.86 sq mi)
    • July 2, 1860
    • 8 m (26 ft)
    • Russia
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    The riots were a direct result of shortages of food and provisions, as well as the poor working conditions in the factory. The protest began on June 1 in the Budyonny Electric Locomotive Factory, when workers from the foundry and forgeshops stopped work after factory management refused to hear their complaints. The strike and attendant discussions ...

    On August 19, 1962, the trials began. About 110 people were charged with breaking Article 77 and 79 of the RSFSR Penal Code.: 363 The defendants, identified using photos taken by KGB agents, were charged with banditry, mass disorder, and attempt to overthrow the Soviet State. Soviet Militia officers were used as "eyewitnesses" to fabricate cases de...

    Siuda report

    In the mid-1960s, an early investigation was started by Piotr Petrovich Siuda[ru] (Russian: Пётр Сиуда, 1937 - May 5, 1990), an activist and participant in the rallies, by whose account most of the events became first known to the Russian public. Himself the son of a Bolshevik killed in 1937 during the Great Purge, Siuda was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment in September 1962, but was freed in the spring of 1965. In prison, with help from his mother, he gathered information on the victims an...

    Official investigation

    With the first signs of Soviet Union's disintegration in 1989, the freshly elected Soviet Supreme Council initiated an investigation into the massacre.A group of activists, journalists, and a few local volunteers established a Novocherkassk Massacre Foundation to find, help, and compensate the victims, and conduct further investigation into the crime. On May 18, 1992, the newly created Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR officially condemned the massacre and instructed the General Pr...


    1. 1–7 May: According to V. A. Kozlov, the first signs of discontent among workers were expressed long before the massacre happened. The first isolated cases of individual strikes at the Electro Locomotive Novocherkassk plant (NEVZ) were recorded. It was claimed that among the strikers were many experienced political prisoners who were previously repressedby the Soviet regime, but this is not supported by any evidence. 2. 17 May: The Council of Ministers issued decree No. 456, which declared...


    1. June 1: The size of protest kept growing. At this time the strikers were harassed by Soviet army personnel, soviet militsiya with various clashes between them and the protesters, who attempted to spark strikes in other factories around NEBF; on the evening a commander of the North Caucasus Military District at the time, Issa Pliyev, had refused to attack demonstrants. 2. June 2: The strike over the NEBF continued overnight. In the early morning thousands marched from NEBF toward Novocherka...


    1. 19 July: Some of the protesters were sentenced to ten years in prison.: 345

    In the early 1990s a museum was opened in the building next to a square where demonstrants were killed. It showed at least 36 photos of people taken by KGB that were used during fake trials as "evidence" of protesters identities. In 2009 the museum, that was maintained by efforts of a few victims and volunteers, was handed over to the Museum of the...

    The Novocherkassk Tragedy, June 1–3 1962 (Archived, Feb 22, 2017, EN) – An eyewitness account of the strike leading up to the shootings.
    Novocherkassk tragedy: half-century later (Archived, Dec 31, 2017, RU, Russian: Новочеркасская трагедия: полвека спустя) – A local newspaper publication commemorating events, May 2012
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