There are many branches of classical mechanics, such as: statics, dynamics, kinematics, continuum mechanics (which includes fluid mechanics ), statistical mechanics, etc. Mechanics: A branch of physics in which we study the object and properties of an object in form of a motion under the action of the force.
Quantum physics – branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Relativity – theory of physics which describes the relationship between space and time. General Relativity - a geometric, non-quantum theory of gravitation.
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The physics of elementary particles is on an even smaller scale since it is concerned with the most basic units of matter; this branch of physics is also known as high-energy physics because of the extremely high energies necessary to produce many types of particles in particle accelerators. On this scale, ordinary, commonsensical notions of ...
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Elements of what became physics were drawn primarily from the fields of astronomy, optics, and mechanics, which were methodologically united through the study of geometry. These mathematical disciplines began in antiquity with the Babylonians and with Hellenistic writers such as Archimedes and Ptolemy. Ancient philosophy, meanwhile – including what was called "physics"
During the 16th and 17th centuries, a large advancement of scientific progress known as the Scientific revolution took place in Europe. Dissatisfaction with older philosophical approaches had begun earlier and had produced other changes in society, such as the Protestant Reformation, but the revolution in science began when natural philosophers began to mount a sustained attack on the Scholasticphilosophical programme and supposed that mathematical descriptive schemes adopted from such fields as mechanics and astronomy could actually yield universally valid characterizations of motion and other concepts.
During the 18th century, the mechanics founded by Newton was developed by several scientists as more mathematicians learned calculus and elaborated upon its initial formulation. The application of mathematical analysis to problems of motion was known as rational mechanics, or mixed mathematics (and was later termed classical mechanics).
In 1821, William Hamilton began his analysis of Hamilton's characteristic function. In 1835, he stated Hamilton's canonical equations of motion. In 1813, Peter Ewart supported the idea of the conservation of energy in his paper On the measure of moving force. In 1829, Gaspard Coriolis introduced the terms of work (force times distance) and kinetic energy with the meanings they have today. In 1841, Julius Robert von Mayer, an amateur scientist, wrote a paper on the conservation of energy, alth...
In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery (known as the voltaic pile) and thus improved the way electric currents could also be studied. A year later, Thomas Young demonstrated the wave nature of light—which received strong experimental support from the work of Augustin-Jean Fresnel—and the principle of interference. In 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted found that a current-carrying conductor gives rise to a magnetic force surrounding it, and within a week after Ørsted's discovery rea...
Laws of thermodynamics
In the 19th century, the connection between heat and mechanical energy was established quantitatively by Julius Robert von Mayer and James Prescott Joule, who measured the mechanical equivalent of heat in the 1840s. In 1849, Joule published results from his series of experiments (including the paddlewheel experiment) which show that heat is a form of energy, a fact that was accepted in the 1850s. The relation between heat and energy was important for the development of steam engines, and in 1...
At the end of the 19th century, physics had evolved to the point at which classical mechanics could cope with highly complex problems involving macroscopic situations; thermodynamics and kinetic theory were well established; geometrical and physical optics could be understood in terms of electromagnetic waves; and the conservation laws for energy and momentum (and mass) were widely accepted. So profound were these and other developments that it was generally accepted that all the important laws of physics had been discovered and that, henceforth, research would be concerned with clearing up minor problems and particularly with improvements of method and measurement. However, around 1900 serious doubts arose about the completeness of the classical theories—the triumph of Maxwell's theories, for example, was undermined by inadequacies that had already begun to appear—and their inability to explain certain physical phenomena, such as the energy distribution in blackbody radiation and t...
Quantum field theory
As the philosophically inclined continued to debate the fundamental nature of the universe, quantum theories continued to be produced, beginning with Paul Dirac's formulation of a relativistic quantum theory in 1928. However, attempts to quantize electromagnetic theory entirely were stymied throughout the 1930s by theoretical formulations yielding infinite energies. This situation was not considered adequately resolved until after World War II ended, when Julian Schwinger, Richard Feynman and...
Unified field theories
Einstein deemed that all fundamental interactions in nature can be explained in a single theory. Unified field theories were numerous attempts to "merge" several interactions. One of formulations of such theories (as well as field theories in general) is a gauge theory, a generalization of the idea of symmetry. Eventually the Standard Model (see below) succeeded in unification of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. All attempts to unify gravitationwith something else failed.
When parity was broken in weak interactions by Chien-Shiung Wu in her experiment, a series of discoveries were created thereafter. The interaction of these particles by scattering and decay provided a key to new fundamental quantum theories. Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman brought some order to these new particles by classifying them according to certain qualities, beginning with what Gell-Mann referred to as the "Eightfold Way". While its further development, the quark model, at first see...
With increased accessibility to and elaboration upon advanced analytical techniques in the 19th century, physics was defined as much, if not more, by those techniques than by the search for universal principles of motion and energy, and the fundamental nature of matter. Fields such as acoustics, geophysics, astrophysics, aerodynamics, plasma physics, low-temperature physics, and solid-state physics joined optics, fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, and mechanics as areas of physical research. In the 20th century, physics also became closely allied with such fields as electrical, aerospace and materialsengineering, and physicists began to work in government and industrial laboratories as much as in academic settings. Following World War II, the population of physicists increased dramatically, and came to be centered on the United States, while, in more recent decades, physics has become a more international pursuit than at any time in its previous history.Buchwald, Jed Z. and Robert Fox, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics (2014) 976pp; excerptByers, Nina; Williams, Gary (2006). Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82197-5.Cropper, William H. (2004). Great Physicists: The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517324-4.Dear, Peter (2001). Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500–1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08859-4. OCLC 46622656..
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Astronomy is the oldest natural science. The Sumerians, and Ancient Egyptians studied the stars, mostly with a view to prediction and religion. The first Babylonian star maps date from about 1200 BC. That astronomical events are periodic also dates back to the Babylonians. Their understanding was not scientific, but their observations influenced later astronomy. Much astronomy came from Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece. Astronomers from Egypt built monuments that show...
Natural philosophy started in Greece around 650 BC when a movement of philosophers replaced superstition with naturalism, which refuted the spiritual. Leucippus and his student Democritus suggested the idea of the atomaround this period.
Physics in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic scholars continued to study Aristotelian physics during the Islamic Golden Age. One main contribution was to observational astronomy. Some, like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna, worked on optics and vision. In The Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham rejected previous Greek ideas concerning vision and proposed a new theory. He studied how light enters the eye, and developed the camera obscura. European scientists later built eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telesco...
Physics is the study of energy and matter in space and time and how they are related to each other. Physicists assume the existence of mass, length, time and electric current and then define (give the meaning of) all other physical quantities in terms of these basic units. Mass, length, time, and electric current are never defined but the standard units used to measure them are always defined. In the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French Système International), the kilogram is the basic unit of mass, the metre is the basic unit of length, the second is the basic unit of time, and the ampere is the basic unit of electric current.In addition to these four units, there are three other ones: the mole, which is the unit of the quantity of matter, the candela which measures the luminous intensity (the power of lighting) and the kelvin, the unit of temperature. Physics studies how things move, and the forces that make them move. For example, velocity and acceleratio...
Physics is a quantitative science because it is based on measuring with numbers. Mathematics is used in physics to make models that try to predict what will happen in nature. These predictions are compared to the way the real worldworks. Physicists are always working to make their models of the world better.
Classical mechanics contains major topics such as Newton's laws of motion, Lagrangian mechanics, Hamiltonian mechanics, kinematics, statics, dynamics, chaos theory, acoustics, fluid dynamics, continuum mechanics. Classical mechanics is all about forces acting on a body in nature, balancing forces, maintaining equlibrium state, etc . Electromagnetism is study of charges on a particular body. It contains subtopics such as Electrostatics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, optics . Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are related with temperature. It includes main topics such as Heat engine, kinetic theory. It uses terms such as heat(Q), work(W), and internal energy (U). First law of thermodynamics gives us the relation them by the following equation (ΔU = Q − W) Quantum mechanics is the study of particle at the atomic level taking into consideration the atomic model. It includes subtopics Path integral formulation, scattering theory, Schr...
Physics is the science of matter and how matter interacts. Matter is any physical material in the universe. Everything is made of matter. Physics is used to describe the physical universe around us, and to predict how it will behave. Physics is the science concerned with the discovery and characterization of the universal laws which govern matter, movement and forces, and space and time, and other features of the natural world.
Breadth and goals of physics
The sweep of physics is broad, from the smallest components of matter and the forces that hold it together, to galaxies and even larger things. There are only four forces that appear to operate over this whole range. However, even these four forces (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak force associated with radioactivity, and the strong force which holds protons and neutrons in an atomtogether) are believed to be different parts of a single force. Physics is mainly focused on the goal of makin...
Physics uses the scientific method
Physics uses the scientific method. That is, data from experiments and observations are collected. Theories which attempt to explain these data are produced. Physics uses these theories to not only describe physical phenomena, but to model physical systems and predict how these physical systems will behave. Physicists then compare these predictions to observations or experimental evidence to show whether the theory is right or wrong. The theories that are well supported by data and are especi...
Classical Physics. Among the popular branches of physics is classical physics. It primarily deals with different laws of motion and gravitation. These theories are conceptualized by Sir Isaac Newton and James Clark. They are Maxwell’s kinetic theory and theory of thermodynamics. This branch of physics is concerned with matter and energy.