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    Myanmar, [a] officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, [b] formerly known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is the largest country in Mainland Southeast Asia, and has a population of about 54 million as of 2017. [10]

  2. State of Burma. The State of Burma ( Burmese: ဗမာနိုင်ငံတော်; MLCTS: nuingngamtau; Japanese: ビルマ国, Biruma-koku) was a Japanese puppet state created by Japan in 1943 during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II .

    • Early History
    • Bagan Dynasty
    • Small Kingdoms
    • Konbaung Dynasty
    • British Rule
    • World War II
    • Following World War II
    • Independent Burma
    • See Also
    • References and Further Reading


    The earliest archaeological evidence suggests that cultures existed in Burma as early as 11,000 BCE. Most indications of early settlement have been found in the central dry zone, where scattered sites appear in close proximity to the Irrawaddy River. The Anyathian, Burma's Stone Age, existed at a time thought to parallel the lower and middle Paleolithic in Europe. The Neolithic or New Stone Age, when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared, is evidenced in...

    Pyu city-states

    The Pyu entered the Irrawaddy valley from present-day Yunnan, c. 2nd century BCE, and went on to found city-states throughout the Irrawaddy valley. The original home of the Pyu is reconstructed to be Qinghai Lake in present-day Qinghai and Gansu. The Pyu were the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India. Trade with India brought Buddhism from South India. By the 4th century, many in the Irrawadd...

    Mon kingdoms

    According to the colonial era scholarship, as early as the 6th century, another people called the Mon began to enter the present-day Lower Burma from the Mon kingdoms of Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati in modern-day Thailand. By the mid 9th century, the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or large city-states) centred around Bago and Thaton. The earliest external reference to a Mon kingdom in Lower Burma was in 844–848 by Arab geographers.But recent research shows that there is no evidenc...

    Early Bagan

    The Burmans who had come down with the early 9th Nanzhao raids of the Pyu states remained in Upper Burma. (Trickles of Burman migrations into the upper Irrawaddy valley might have begun as early as the 7th century.) In the mid-to-late 9th century, Pagan was founded as a fortified settlement along a strategic location on the Irrawaddy near the confluence of the Irrawaddy and its main tributary the Chindwin River. It may have been designed to help the Nanzhao pacify the surrounding countryside....

    Pagan Empire

    Over the next 30 years, Anawrahta founded the Pagan Kingdom, unifying for the first time the regions that would later constitute the modern-day Burma. Anawrahta's successors by the late 12th century had extended their influence farther south into the upper Malay Peninsula, at least to the Salween River in the east, below the current China border in the farther north, and to the west, northern Arakan and the Chin Hills. The Burmese Chronicles claim Pagan's suzerainty over the entire Chao Phray...

    After the fall of Pagan, the Mongols left the searing Irrawaddy valley but the Pagan Kingdom was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms. By the mid-14th century, the country had become organised along four major power centres: Upper Burma, Lower Burma, Shan States and Arakan. Many of the power centres were themselves made up of (often lo...


    Soon after the fall of Ava, a new dynasty rose in Shwebo to challenge the authority of Hanthawaddy. Over the next 70 years, the highly militaristic Konbaung dynasty went on to create the largest Burmese empire, second only to the empire of Bayinnaung. By 1759, King Alaungpaya's Konbaung forces had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), extinguished the Mon-led Hanthawaddy dynasty once and for all, and driven out the European powers who provided arms to Hanthawaddy—the French from Thanlyin and t...

    Wars with Siam and China

    The kingdom then went to war with the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which had occupied up the Tanintharyi coast to Mottama during the Burmese civil war (1740–1757), and had provided shelter to the Mon refugees. By 1767, the Konbaung armies had subdued much of Laos and defeated Siam. But they could not finish off the remaining Siamese resistance as they were forced to defend against four invasions by Qing China (1765–1769).While the Burmese defences held in "the most disastrous frontier war the Qing dyna...

    Westward expansion and wars with British Empire

    Faced with a powerful China in the northeast and a resurgent Siam in the southeast, King Bodawpaya turned westward for expansion. He conquered Arakan in 1785, annexed Manipur in 1814, and captured Assam in 1817–1819, leading to a long ill-defined border with British India. Bodawpaya's successor King Bagyidaw was left to put down British instigated rebellions in Manipur in 1819 and Assam in 1821–1822. Cross-border raids by rebels from the British protected territories and counter-cross-border...

    Britain made Burma a province of India in 1886 with the capital at Rangoon. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state.[citation needed] Though war officially ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued in northern Burma until 1890, with the British finally...

    Some Burmese nationalists saw the outbreak of World War II as an opportunity to extort concessions from the British in exchange for support in the war effort. Other Burmese, such as the Thakin movement, opposed Burma's participation in the war under any circumstances. Aung San co-founded the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) with other Thakins in Augu...

    The surrender of the Japanese brought a military administration to Burma and demands to try Aung San for his involvement in a murder during military operations in 1942. Lord Mountbatten realised that this was an impossibility considering Aung San's popular appeal. After the war ended, the British Governor, Sir Reginald Dorman-Smithreturned. The res...


    The first years of Burmese independence were marked by successive insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yebaw Hpyu or (White Band) People's Volunteer Organisation led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by Communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut – all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese Muslims or the M...


    On 2 March 1962, Ne Win, with sixteen other senior military officers, staged a coup d'état, arrested U Nu, Sao Shwe Thaik and several others, and declared a socialist state to be run by their Union Revolutionary Council. Sao Shwe Thaik's son, Sao Mye Thaik, was shot dead in what was generally described as a "bloodless" coup. Thibaw Sawbwa Sao Kya Seng[circular reference] also disappeared mysteriously after being stopped at a checkpoint near Taunggyi. A number of protests followed the coup, an...

    Crisis and the 1988 Uprising

    Ne Win retired as president in 1981, but remained in power as Chairman of the BSPP until his sudden unexpected announcement to step down on 23 July 1988.In the 1980s, the economy began to grow as the government relaxed restrictions on foreign aid, but by the late 1980s falling commodity prices and rising debt led to an economic crisis. This led to economic reforms in 1987–1988 that relaxed socialist controls and encouraged foreign investment. This was not enough, however, to stop growing turm...

    Aung-Thwin, Michael A. (2005). The Mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0824828860.
    Brown, Ian. Burma’s Economy in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2013) 229 pp. online review at
    Callahan, Mary (2003). Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Cameron, Ewan. "The State of Myanmar," History Today(May 2020), 70#4 pp 90–93.
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  4. › wiki › BurmaBurma - Wikipedia

    Burma (/ˈbɜrmə/ bur-mə) inyika iri muAsia. Guta guru racho iNaypyidaw. Nyika iyi ine miganhu neChina, Thailand, Laos, India neBangladesh

    • Japanese Conquest of Burma
    • Allied Setbacks, 1942–1943
    • The Balance Shifts 1943–1944
    • Japanese Invasion of India 1944
    • Allied Liberation of Burma 1944–1945
    • Final Operations
    • Results
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading

    Japanese objectives in Burma were initially limited to the capture of Rangoon (now known as Yangon), the capital and principal seaport. This would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese Fifteenth Army under Lieutenant General Shōjirō ...

    The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities.[ci...

    From December 1943 to November 1944 the strategic balance of the Burma campaign shifted decisively. Improvements in Allied leadership, training and logistics, together with greater firepower and growing Allied air superiority, gave Allied forces a confidence they had previously lacked. In the Arakan, XV Indian Corps withstood, and then broke, a Jap...

    IV Corps, under Lieutenant-General Geoffry Scoones, had pushed forward two divisions to the Chindwin River. One division was in reserve at Imphal. There were indications that a major Japanese offensive was building. Slim and Scoones planned to withdraw and force the Japanese to fight with their logistics stretched beyond the limit. However, they mi...

    The Allies launched a series of offensive operations into Burma during late 1944 and the first half of 1945. The command on the front was rearranged in November 1944. Eleventh Army Group HQ was replaced by Allied Land Forces South East Asia and NCAC and XV Corps were placed directly under this new headquarters. Although the Allies were still attemp...

    Following the capture of Rangoon, a new Twelfth Armyheadquarters was created from XXXIII Corps HQ to take control of the formations which were to remain in Burma. The Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army, after withdrawing from Arakan and resisting XXXIII Corps in the Irrawaddy valley, had retreated into the Pegu Yomas, a range of low jungle-covered hills b...

    The military and political results of the Burma campaign have been contentious to historians. It was suggested by some American historians[who?] that the campaign did not greatly contribute to the defeat of Japan except for distracting significant Japanese land forces away from China or the Pacific, although this opinion is partisan and hotly dispu...

    Allen, Louis Burma: The Longest War
    Bayly, Christopher & Harper, Tim. Forgotten Armies
    Carew, Tim. The Longest Retreat
    Newell, Clayton R. Burma, 1942. World War II Campaign Brochures. Washington D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 72-21.
    Hogan, David W. India-Burma. World War II Campaign Brochures. Washington D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 72-5.
    Leasor, James (2012) [1955]. NTR: Nothing to Report. London: James Leasor Ltd. ISBN 978-1-908291-44-8.
    Leasor, James (2011) [1988]. The Marine from Mandalay. London: Leo Cooper. ISBN 978-1-908291-33-2.
    • 14 December 1941 – 13 September 1945, (3 years, 11 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
    • Burma and India
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