C Programming at Wikibooks. C ( / ˈsiː /, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, with a static type system. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions.
- Dennis Ritchie
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – c. October...
- Lexical Variable Scope
C is a lexically scoped language with global scope (known as...
- Dennis Ritchie
- Later use
- Pronunciation and use
- Related characters
C, or c, is the third letter in the English and ISO basic Latin alphabets. Its name in English is cee, plural cees.
When the Roman alphabet was introduced into Britain, ⟨c⟩ represented only /k/, and this value of the letter has been retained in loanwords to all the insular Celtic languages: in Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, ⟨c⟩ represents only /k/. The Old English Latin-based writing system was learned from the Celts, apparently of Ireland; hence ⟨c⟩ in Old English also originally represented /k/; the Modern English words kin, break, broken, thick, and seek all come from Old English words written with ...
In English orthography, ⟨c⟩ generally represents the "soft" value of /s/ before the letters ⟨e⟩, ⟨i⟩, and ⟨y⟩, and a "hard" value of /k/ before any other letters or at the end of a word. However, there are a number of exceptions in English: "soccer" and "Celt ...
In the Romance languages French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian and Portuguese, ⟨c⟩ generally has a "hard" value of /k/ and a "soft" value whose pronunciation varies by language. In French, Portuguese, Catalan and Spanish from Latin America and some places in Spain, the soft ...
As a phonetic symbol, lowercase ⟨c⟩ is the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital ⟨C⟩ is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative.
Add to C with diacritics 1. C with diacritics: Ć ć Ĉ ĉ Č č Ċ ċ Ḉ ḉ Ƈ ƈ C̈ c̈ Ȼ ȼ Ç ç Ꞔ ꞔ Ꞓ ꞓ 2. Ↄ ↄ: Claudian letters
The C programming language is a computer programming language that was developed to do system programming for the operating system UNIX and is an imperative programming language. C was developed in the early 1970s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. It is a procedural language, which means that people can write their programs as a series of step-by-step instructions. C is a compiled language. Because the ideas behind C are kept close to the design of the computer, the compiler can g
- Design Goals
- Common Type System
- Standardization and Licensing
- Further Reading
- External Links
The Ecma standard lists these design goals for C#: 1. The language is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programminglanguage. 2. The language, and implementations thereof, should provide support for software engineering principles such as strong type checking, array bounds checking, detection of attempts to use uninitialized variables, and automatic garbage collection. Software robustness, durability, and programmer productivity are important. 3. The language is intended for use in developing software components suitable for deploymentin distributed environments. 4. Portability is very important for source code and programmers, especially those already familiar with C and C++. 5. Support for internationalizationis very important. 6. C# is intended to be suitable for writing applications for both hosted and embedded systems, ranging from the very large that use sophisticated operating systems, down to the very small having dedicated functions. 7. Althou...
During the development of the .NET Framework, the class libraries were originally written using a managed code compiler system called "Simple Managed C" (SMC). In January 1999, Anders Hejlsberg formed a team to build a new language at the time called Cool, which stood for "C-like Object Oriented Language". Microsoft had considered keeping the name "Cool" as the final name of the language, but chose not to do so for trademark reasons. By the time the .NET project was publicly announced at the July 2000 Professional Developers Conference, the language had been renamed C#, and the class libraries and ASP.NETruntime had been ported to C#. Hejlsberg is C#'s principal designer and lead architect at Microsoft, and was previously involved with the design of Turbo Pascal, Embarcadero Delphi (formerly CodeGear Delphi, Inprise Delphi and Borland Delphi), and Visual J++. In interviews and technical papers he has stated that flaws in most major programming languages (e.g. C++, Java, Delphi, and...
The core syntax of the C# language is similar to that of other C-style languages such as C, C++ and Java, particularly: 1. Semicolons are used to denote the end of a statement. 2. Curly brackets are used to group statements. Statements are commonly grouped into methods (functions), methods into classes, and classes into namespaces. 3. Variables are assigned using an equals sign, but compared using two consecutive equals signs. 4. Square brackets are used with arrays, both to declare them and to get a value at a given index in one of them.
C# has a unified type system. This unified type system is called Common Type System(CTS). A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses of the System.Object class. For example, every type inherits a ToString()method.
The C# specification details a minimum set of types and class libraries that the compiler expects to have available. In practice, C# is most often used with some implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which is standardized as ECMA-335 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). In addition to the standard CLI specifications, there are many commercial and community class libraries that build on top of the .NET framework libraries to provide additional functionality. C# can make calls to any library included in the List of .NET libraries and frameworks.
The following is a very simple C# program, a version of the classic "Hello world" example: Using C# 9 Top-level statementsfeature the entry point logic of a program can be written without declaring an explicit type or Main method.Until C# 8 remains the classic way: This code will display this text in the console window: Each line has a purpose: The above line imports all types in the System namespace. For example, the Console class used later in the source code is defined in the Systemnamespa...
A GUIexample: This example is similar to the previous example, except that it generates a dialog boxthat contains the message "Hello, World!" instead of writing it to the console.
Another useful library is the System.Drawinglibrary, which is used to programmatically draw images. For example: This will create an image that is identical to that stored in "Image.png".
In August 2001, Microsoft Corporation, Hewlett-Packard and Intel Corporation co-sponsored the submission of specifications for C# as well as the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) to the standards organization Ecma International.In December 2001, ECMA released ECMA-334 C# Language Specification. C# became an ISO standard in 2003 (ISO/IEC 23270:2003 - Information technology — Programming languages — C#). ECMA had previously adopted equivalent specifications as the 2nd edition of C#, in December 2002. In June 2005, ECMA approved edition 3 of the C# specification, and updated ECMA-334. Additions included partial classes, anonymous methods, nullable types, and generics (somewhat similar to C++ templates). In July 2005, ECMA submitted to ISO/IEC JTC 1, via the latter's Fast-Track process, the standards and related TRs. This process usually takes 6–9 months. The C# language definition and the CLI are standardized under ISO and Ecma standards that provide reasonable and non-discriminator...
Microsoft is leading the development of the open-source reference C# compilers and set of tools. The first compiler, Roslyn, compiles into intermediate language (IL), and the second one, RyuJIT, is a JIT (just-in-time) compiler, which is dynamic and does on-the-fly optimization and compiles the IL into native code for the front-end of the CPU. RyuJIT is open source and written in C++. Roslyn is entirely written in managed code (C#), has been opened up and functionality surfaced as APIs. It is thus enabling developers to create refactoring and diagnostics tools. Two branches of official implementation are .NET Framework (closed source, Windows 10 only since .NET 4.6.2) and .NET Core (open source, multiplatform); .NET Framework and .NET Core converged into one open source implementation .NET 5.0.At .NET Framework 4.6 a new JIT compiler replaced the former. Other C# compilers (some of which include an implementation of the Common Language Infrastructureand .NET class libraries): 1. The...Drayton, Peter; Albahari, Ben; Neward, Ted (2002). C# Language Pocket Reference. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00429-X.Petzold, Charles (2002). Programming Microsoft Windows with C#. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1370-2.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2015) Due to the success of the C programming language and some of its derivatives, C-family programming languages span a large variety of programming paradigms, conceptual models, and run-time environments.
- Operator precedence
This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages. All the operators listed exist in C++; the column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading. When not overloaded, for the operators &&, ||, and,, there is a sequence point after the evaluation of the first operand. C++ also contains the type conversion operators const_cast, static_cast, dynamic_cast, and reinterpret_cast. The formatting of these operators
For the purposes of these tables, a, b, and c represent valid values, object names, or lvalues, as appropriate. R, S and T stand for any type, and K for a class type or enumerated type.
The precedence table determines the order of binding in chained expressions, when it is not expressly specified by parentheses.
The precedence of the bitwise logical operators has been criticized. Conceptually, & and | are arithmetic operators like * and +. The expression a & b == 7 is syntactically parsed as a & (b == 7) whereas the expression a + b == 7 is parsed as (a + b) == 7. This requires parenthes
Language Guesser, a statistical language identifier, 74 languages recognized NTextCat - free Language Identification API for .NET (C#) : 280+ languages available out of the box. Recognizes language and encoding ( UTF-8 , Windows-1252 , Big5 , etc.) of text.
Wikipedia is a free multilingual open-source wiki-based online encyclopedia edited and maintained by a community of volunteer editors, started on 15 January 2001 as an English-language encyclopedia. Soon, non-English editions were created: the German and Catalan editions were created on circa 16 March,  the French edition was created on 23 ...
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.